Standard Grade Chemistry

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1 Photosynthesis Standard Grade Chemistry Plants use sunlight, carbon dioxide and water to make a family of foods called carbohydrates in a process called photosynthesis. Topic 15 - Carbohydrates The process is endothermic as the energy of the sun is needed. Glucose is a carbohydrate made by photosynthesis The Importance of Chlorophyll The Importance of Carbohydrates Chlorophyll, a green substance in leaves, absorbs the energy from sunlight to allow photosynthesis to take place. sunlight + carbon dioxide + water carbohydrate + oxygen 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 + 6O 2 Carbohydrates are an important food for animals. Respiration is the process which releases energy in plants and animals Burning a Carbohydrate Respiration is important for all living things because it provides energy when glucose is burned or broken down in the body. Glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy Carbohydrates release energy when burned, and make carbon dioxide and water. The release of energy can be seen in the custard-powder tin experiment. C 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O 1

2 Using this Energy Elements in a Carbohydrate Animals use this energy for many things such as movement, and warmth to keep our body temperature at 37 C. Burning a carbohydrate makes carbon dioxide and water. This proves that a carbohydrate contains carbon and hydrogen. Plants and the Regulation of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Levels in the Atmosphere Respiration by living things and combustion of fossils fuels use oxygen and release carbon dioxide but the level of oxygen remains at 21% and carbon dioxide at 0.03%. Photosynthesis balances this by using up carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen. There is a lot of concern that giant rain-forests are being chopped down because these forests are seen as the oxygen factories of the Earth. Examples of Carbohydrates Glucose/Fructose and Maltose/Sucrose are Isomers Carbohydrate Formula Glucose C 6 Fructose C 6 Maltose Sucrose Starch C 12 C 12 (C 6 H 10 O 5 ) n The atoms in glucose (C 6 ) and fructose (C 6 ) are joined together differently and the two forms are called isomers. The atoms in maltose (C 12 ) and sucrose (C 12 ) are joined together differently and the two forms are called isomers. 2

3 Properties of Carbohydrates Carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. In every carbohydrate, the ratio of hydrogen:oxygen is always 2:1 - the same as in water ('hydrate' refers to water). The iodine test is performed by adding brown iodine solution to the substance being tested. A positive test is the appearance of a blue-black colour. The Benedict's test is performed by warming the carbohydrate solution with blue Benedict's solution. A positive test is the change in colour from blue to redbrown. Distinguishing Glucose and Sucrose Carbohydrate Glucose Fructose Maltose Sucrose Starch Appearance Solubility in water Does not dissolve well Iodine test Turns blueblack Benedict's test Blue to brown Blue to brown Blue to brown Glucose can be distinguished from sucrose by the Benedict's test. Distinguishing glucose, maltose and fructose from sucrose Only sucrose does not give a positive result with Benedict's solution. To Show that Starch is Made in Leaves by Photosynthesis 1. Put plant in dark for 2 days to remove all food from the leaf. 2. Put plant in the light for one day to let it make food. 3. Remove one leaf and boil in water to kill it. 4. Put in hot alcohol to remove chlorophyll - the leaf will be white. 5. Wash in water to remove alcohol and add iodine solution to it. 6. The leaf will be blue-black proving that starch had been made. 3

4 Starch is a Polymer of Glucose Molecules Glucose molecules can join together in living things to make a big molecule called starch, a polymer. The process is called polymerisation. Water is lost when glucose molecules join together One water molecule is lost from each glucose molecule when they join together. This is why the formula of glucose is represented as C 6, while the formula of starch is (C 6 H 10 O 5 )n. The joining of glucose molecules to make starch is called condensation polymerization. Digestion of Starch Digestion is the chemical breakdown of food in the body into smaller molecules (glucose) which pass through the gut wall and are absorbed by the blood. Digestion is helped by acid or an enzyme Digestion of starch in food begins in the mouth where the starch meets saliva which contains the enzyme amylase. Digestion continues in the stomach where there is acid. When starch is changed into glucose, water molecules are involved in splitting the starch polymer and the reaction is called hydrolysis. (C 6 H 10 O 5 )n + nh 2 O nc 6 Polysaccharide molecule + water molecules monosaccharide molecules 4

5 Monosaccharides and Disaccharides Sucrose can also be split up (hydrolysed) into simpler sugars such as glucose using an enzyme or acid. C 12 + H 2 O C 6 + C 6 Monosaccharides all have six carbon atoms in each molecule and the formula C 6. Glucose and fructose are monosaccharides. Disaccharides have twelve carbon atoms and the formula C 12 disaccharide molecule + water two monosaccharide molecules Disaccharides are formed when two monosaccharides join together. Fermentation e.g. Sucrose is made when a glucose and fructose molecule join. C 6 + C 6 C 12 + H 2 O Glucose + fructose sucrose + water e.g. Maltose is made when two glucose molecules join. The making of a disaccharide from two monosaccharides is an example of condensation. Enzymes present in yeast help the reaction but can only produce an alcohol content of about 15%. The yeast dies when the alcohol content reaches about 15%, Glucose alcohol + carbon dioxide + energy Sources of Sugars for Fermentation Alcoholic drink Beer Cider Alcohol content 4% (varies) 4% (varies) Source of Carbohydrate Hops, barley Apples Distillation is used to increase alcohol concentration and drinks made by this method are called spirits. Wine Whisky Vodka Brandy about 10% 40% 37.5% 40% Grapes, other fruit and vegetables Barley Potatoes Grapes Alcohol boils at 79 C and water boils at 100 C. In a distillery, the water/alcohol mixture is heated to 80 C and the alcohol collected by distillation. 5

6 Alcohol is a Member of the Alkanol Family The alcohol present in alcoholic drinks is called ethanol, C 2 H 5 OH. Alkanols are similar in structure to the alkanes but have an OH group instead of one of the hydrogen atom. 6

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