Artificial Sweeteners vs. Sugar

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1 Artificial Sweeteners vs. Sugar MONO AND DISACCHARIDES (NATURAL SUGARS) ADDED SUGARS NON-NUTRITIVE (ARTIFICIAL) SWEETENERS

2 Overview What is sugar? Nutritional value Recommended vs. actual consumption What are artificial sweeteners? Chemical composition FDA regulation (ADI) Impact on health What should you do?!

3 Simple Carbohydrates Simple carbohydrates Monosaccharides: One molecule (unit) Glucose Fructose Galactose Disaccharides: Two molecules linked together Lactose Maltose Sucrose

4 Simple Sugars: Monosaccharides Monosaccharides are single sugars Glucose (most prevalent of all) Fructose (fruit sugar) Galactose (part of milk sugar)

5 Simple Sugars: Disaccharides Disaccharides are double sugars SUCROSE = glucose + fructose Table sugar MALTOSE = glucose + glucose Malt, beer LACTOSE = glucose + galactose Milk sugar

6 Where Do I Get Sugar?

7 Where Does Sugar Come From? Natural sugar Sugar cane Sugar beet Honey Processed sugar High fructose corn syrup Sugar alcohols Artificial Sugar Sugar substitutes

8 How sweet is that? Average can of soda has tsp added sugar That s grams of sugar calories That s 1/4 cup of sugar!

9 Sugar Content in Grams and Tsp. Food Item Sugar, g. Tsp. Quaker Oats Oatmeal, 1 c. Kellogg's Sugar Frosted Flakes. ¾ c. Kellogg's Pop Tarts, 1 piece Cherry Garcia Ice Cream, 1 c. Starbuck s Cinn. Dulce Latte (2 c) Starbuck s SF Cinn. Dulce Latte (2 c) Mountain Dew, 24 ounces 1 1/

10 10 tsp 16.5 tsp 27.5 tsp

11 1.5 tsp

12 1 tsp

13 1.75 tsp

14 14 tsp

15 1/4 tsp

16 11.5 tsp

17 6.75 tsp 27 tsp

18 Finding Added Sugars on the Label: The Many Aliases of Added Sugar Figure 4.9a

19 What s the Trouble with Too Much Sugar? Reminder: Goal 6-9 tsp. or less NHANES data indicate Aver. American consumes 22 tsp. added sugar calories per teaspoon, that s 352 extra calories! Teen males yrs consumed 34 tsp That s ¾ cup of sugar and 544 calories!!! What do you get from added sugar besides calories? No nutrients Only energy (calories). Ask yourself, How many discretionary calories does MyPlate allow??

20 Artificial Sugars and Sugar Alcohols

21 What Are Sugar Substitutes? Sugar substitutes are as sweet or sweeter than sugar, but contain fewer calories. Must be approved by FDA and deemed safe before allowed in food products in U.S.

22 Alternative Sweeteners Sugar Alcohols Contain about 2 kcal/gram Artificially created by adding an OH group to sucrose If consumed in excess, diarrhea, cramps, nausea and vomiting can result (YUCK!) Non-nutritive (alternative) sweeteners Provide little or no energy Are so sweet you need very little The calories are actually from the inert substances in which the chemical is packed or mixed

23 Sugar Alcohols Polyols (sugar alcohols) Sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol Absorbed more slowly than sugar No spike in blood glucose, but aren t calorie free Not completely absorbed, can cause diarrhea

24 Alternative Sweeteners Acceptable Daily Intakes (ADI) have been established for: Aspartame (Nutrasweet) Sucralose (Splenda) Steviol glycosides (Truvia) No ADI has been set for saccharin but it has been removed from the list of cancer-causing agents.

25 Aspartame -- NutraSweet Made from two amino acids Aspartic acid Phenylalanine Not suitable for baking; breaks down when heated and loses its sweetness ~200 times sweeter than sugar Discovered in in dry foods, 1983 in soda pop, 1993 for confectionaries, 1996 all restrictions removed Has 4 kcals/gram. but you hardly need ANY

26 Sucralose -- Splenda Discovered 1976; approved in US 1998 ~600 times as sweet as sucrose Twice as sweet as saccharin Four times as sweet as aspartame (NutraSweet) Produced by selective chlorination of sucrose Stable under heat Stable over broad range of ph conditions Used in baking or products requiring a long shelf life Contains 96 calories per cup 1/8 of the 770 calories in the same volume of sugar Acceptable daily intake for sucralose is 9 mg/kg body weight/day There are 11.9 mg of sucralose in a 1g retail packet of Splenda

27 Sucralose (Splenda) C 12 H 19 Cl 3 O 8 Sucralose Sucrose Chloride 1,6-dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-β-D-fructo-furanosyl 4-chloro-4-deoxy-α-D-galactopyranoside or

28 Truvia Natural Sweetener Truvia natural sweetener is a zero-calorie sweetener Made from the leaves of the stevia plant. People have sweetened foods and beverages with stevia leaves for hundreds of years. The taste comes from a natural ingredient from the leaves called rebiana. Contains Erythritol, an allnatural, non-caloric sweetener for bulk

29 Truvia You can bake with Truvia Available in bulk (bags) 1 packet = the sweetening of 2 tsp of sugar Erythritol (the bulking agent) is found in fruits such as pears, melons, grapes, mushrooms and fermentationderived foods such as wine, soy sauce and cheese. Truvia is safe for people with diabetes. It has no effect on the glycemic index. The FDA has issued a no-objection letter affirming and supporting the safety of rebiana.

30 But should I really eat artificial sweeteners?

31 Pros and Cons of Artificial Sweeteners Pro Con Saves calories --- could it help jump start a weight loss diet?? People with diabetes are able to consume sweet foods without a glucose surge Truvia is all natural.. Research indicates most people do not lose weight - -- the sweet taste seems to cause people to actually eat MORE calories!!! People with PKU MUST avoid aspartame Some people are sensitive to these products headaches, rashes, etc. can occur

32 QUESTIONS?

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