The International Institute for Strategic Studies

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1 The International Institute for Strategic Studies The International Institute for Strategic Studies This content may be used for research and private study purposes. All rights reserved. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. Full terms and conditions of use: SCROLL DOWN FOR DOWNLOADED CONTENT The International Institute for Strategic Studies, Arundel House, Arundel Street, Temple Place, London WC2R 3DX, United Kingdom. Incorporated in England with limited liability under number UK registered charity

2 14th Asia Security Summit SINGAPORE, MAY 2015 The IISS Shangri-La Dialogue chapter 3 second plenary session New forms of security collaboration in Asia Saturday 30 May 2015, 10:00 SPEAKERS Gen Nakatani Minister of Defense, Japan General (Retd) Ryamizard Ryacudu Minister of Defense, Indonesia Rao Inderjit Singh Minister of State for Defence, India

3 Second plenary session New forms of security collaboration in Asia Gen Nakatani, Minister of Defense, Japan In the second plenary session, on New forms of security collaboration in Asia, ministers from Japan, Indonesia and India offered their thoughts on threats to regional security and proposed new mechanisms for collaboration on dealing with them. Gen Nakatani, Japan s Minister of Defense, said that although multilateral security cooperation in Asia was often seen as lagging behind Europe s, the region had enjoyed peace since the end of the Cold War in spite of serious security challenges. This success story was the result of a combination of factors, including the solidarity of ASEAN and the various multilateral forums constructed around it, as well as the bilateral alliances and military presence of the United States. ASEAN should remain at the centre of regional security. However, Nakatani described as deeply regrettable that at this very moment, vast land reclamation and construction of sea ports and airstrips are being conducted at a rapid pace in the South China Sea. In addition, there were attempts to change the status quo in the East China Sea. He called for agreement on a Code of Conduct for the South China Sea. Minister Nakatani set out Japan s ideas for future security collaboration based around three pillars. The first of these was the Japan US Alliance, which had recently been updated with revised Guidelines for Japan US Defense Cooperation. These would enable seamless cooperation with the US to ensure regional stability, and in domains such as cyber security and space, and would foster cooperation with other partners. The second pillar was Japan s own efforts to pursue regional peace and prosperity, deriving from its deep remorse over the Second World War. Legislation before parliament would allow Japan to contribute more actively. The third pillar was closer cooperation with regional countries. In this context, Nakatani proposed a Shangri-La Dialogue Initiative (SLDI), under which nations would promote common rules both at sea and in the air. This would firstly ensure safety 24 The IISS Shangri-La Dialogue

4 General (Retd) Ryamizard Ryacudu, Minister of Defense, Indonesia and freedom of navigation and overflight. Nakatani gave the example of joint exercises using the Code for Unplanned Encounters at Sea, such as those recently completed by Japan and the Philippines. Measures to prevent accidents involving submarines must also be considered. Secondly, the SLDI would enhance safety in sea lanes and air-traffic routes. Nakatani noted that the Malaysian airliner that disappeared in 2014 had still not been found, demonstrating the need for a system to monitor and control regional aerospace around the clock. Thirdly, the SLDI would improve disaster response capability, specifically by streamlining procedures for rapid deployment of aircraft carrying emergency relief and establishing rules for their admission to stricken areas. Japan, Nakatani said, was determined to put the SLDI into practice. General (retired) Ryamizard Ryacudu, Indonesia s Minister of Defense, said ASEAN had evolved into a family organisation that exerts the spirit of brotherhood among member states. Members were able to solve their differences with each other, but faced common challenges such as terrorism, radicalisation, natural disasters, pandemic disease, piracy, insurgency, cyber attacks and drug smuggling. Structures and mechanisms of cooperation were needed to tackle these threats. A regional strategy was needed to address terrorist threats and radicalism. For its part, Indonesia was using moderate Islamic organisations to spread peaceful religious teaching, while keeping alert to threats and interrupting logistical support to terrorist groups. There was also a need for ASEAN leaders to address the humanitarian issue of the Rohingya boat people. Meanwhile, the Nepal earthquake had once again shown the need for quick regional responses to disasters. It was necessary to think one step ahead in order to ward off each threat to regional security. ASEAN has developed various mechanisms to deal with security issues, including its ADMM and ADMM-Plus meetings, which had been acknowledged as models. But according to the minister, a vast new form of security collaboration in Asia is inevitable because a security incident that hits a nation will at the same time affect other neighbouring countries as well as the international community. For example, an incident in the Malacca Strait would affect not only Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, but also East Asia, Europe, the Middle East and North America. Another example was the Islamic State of Iraq and al-sham (ISIS), which had affected both regional and international communities. New forms of collaboration would improve on existing structures, without adding more organisations. What was needed was a new concept, new culture and understanding. Talks were needed to find a solution to South China Sea disputes, and Ryacudu suggested joint patrols among stakeholders. Second plenary session 25

5 Rao Inderjit Singh, Minister of State for Defence, India Rao Inderjit Singh, Minister of State for Defence, India, said regional security threats were taking on new forms, and they demanded a stronger and more innovative security architecture. The growth of terrorism and religious extremism posed the greatest threat. The rise of ISIS had shown the need for intelligence-sharing and collaboration between different countries police and immigration authorities. However, new forms of collaboration had also arisen because security was being defined in a more comprehensive manner than before to include food, energy, water, information and navigation. Newer forms of cooperation were based on regular, structured dialogue between nations rather than on formal alliances: examples included ASEAN and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. ASEAN is without doubt the best example of a forum that promotes an environment of shared security in its region through a transparent, open and inclusive dialogue, Singh said. India had expanded its engagement with ASEAN to a full strategic partnership under which it would play a more active role in helping to address threats in Southeast Asia and the Asia-Pacific region. Amidst growing threats to freedom of navigation, India was creating a robust system of coastal surveillance and monitoring, and was collaborating with partner countries to share experiences, conduct exercises and exchange information. A joint coastguard exercise between India, Sri Lanka and the Maldives was one example, as was the SIMBEX naval exercises with Singapore. In 2008, India established the Indian Ocean Naval Symposium, which by 2015 brought together 35 navies to enhance understanding of maritime challenges and develop collective capacities to address them. Other areas for improved cooperation included disaster relief, evacuation of nationals trapped in conflict, and challenges in the cyber domain. Public transport, electricity distribution and banking systems could all be threatened if there are chinks in our cyber security. Extremists use of the internet and social media to radicalise recruits also required law-enforcement agencies to work together. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS In the question-and-answer session, delegates noted a proliferation of new cooperation initiatives. Not only was there the Shangri-La Dialogue Initiative proposed by Nakatani, there was also a South East Asia Maritime Security Initiative from US Defence Secretary Ashton Carter and, more recently, a South China Sea Peace Initiative proposed by Taiwan s president. Aiko Doden of NHK Japan Broadcasting Corporation noted that in spite of Ryacudu s description of ASEAN s cooperation, there had been differences between members, and it was now facing issues such the South China Sea disputes and Rohingya refugees. She asked how ASEAN 26 The IISS Shangri-La Dialogue

6 Aiko Doden, Senior Commentator, NHK Japan Broadcasting Corporation PS Suryanarayana, Editor, Current Affairs, Institute of South Asian Studies, National University of Singapore Dr Chikako Ueki, Professor, International Relations, Graduate School of Asia-Pacific Studies, Waseda University could evolve into an organisation of true strength. PS Suryanarayana, Institute of South Asian Studies, National University of Singapore, asked whether India US Japan security cooperation would extend to the South China Sea, and whether India and the US planned joint patrols in the South China Sea as part of their recent moves to enhance security cooperation. On the latter point, Singh responded that specifics of the new strategic partnership had not been worked out, but that the US and India would take all steps to ensure peace in the region. On ASEAN, Ryacudu reiterated that member countries were able to settle every difference among themselves, and he hoped it would be a role model for other regional-coopera- tion organisations. Dr Chikako Uedi from Waseda University asked Minister Nakatani to elaborate on the Shangri-La Dialogue Initiative that he had mentioned, and asked if Japan and the US would share maritime domain awareness information with other countries in the region. Nakatani replied that the Shangri-La Dialogue Initiative involved three main elements: more common rules in the air and at sea, including the regional implementation of the Code for Unplanned Encounters at Sea; the preservation of air and sea safety, including greater sharing of air - and maritimetraffic data; and common rules for facilitating disaster response. He said that air and maritime information should be shared as much as possible. Second plenary session 27

7 28 The IISS Shangri-La Dialogue

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