European Settlement in the New World. Unit 4

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1 European Settlement in the New World Unit 4

2 God, Gold, and Glory Although Spaniards were exploring and conquering for God, Gold, and Glory, GOLD was the main motivation. NOT RELIGION! Most of them were looking for economic opportunity, not religious freedom.

3 Religion The Spanish missionaries that did come to America spread Roman Catholicism to the Native Americans by force. They used the natives as laborers in order to hold the land for Spain.

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5 France Enters The Race The French began exploring and settling the New World in the 1520 s. They also came for economic reasons but did bring religion as well.

6 Huguenots French Huguenots (protestants) left France during the late 1600 s to escape persecution. They were not allowed to migrate into the French territories. Many went to South Carolina (British territory).

7 France The French Roman Catholic Missionaries also converted native peoples. Unlike the Spanish, the conversion was not forced but was often the result of strong economic and social ties. The French were best known as fur traders and worked with the natives rather than against them.

8 Society in New France was also impacted by patterns of migration but they were not dependent on slave labor because of the geography of their territory. France wanted to make money off of the fur trade and therefore did not need settlers to clear land and farm. ( fur was very popular in Europe.) Remember that the French worked with the Native Americans.

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10 The English Colonize America The English began exploring North America in the late 1400 s but did not attempt to settle America until the late 1500 s because of an alliance England had with Spain. Spain had claimed America.

11 Roanoke Roanoke was the first English settlement in Roanoke s governor, John White, returned to England for supplies and when he returned a couple years later he found no traces of the people he had left. Only empty houses. (Present Day North Carolina).

12 Jamestown Jamestown was founded in It was the first permanent English settlement in America (Virginia). Captain John Smith emerged as an important leader in Jamestown because he encouraged the settlers to farm.

13 Joint Stock Companies Jamestown was founded by the Virginia Company. Joint Stock Company - A company owned by a group of investors. The company hoped to make money from the colony.

14 Mercantilism The Spanish, French, and English all practiced a policy known as Mercantilism. A policy that a country should export more than it imports in order to accumulate wealth.

15 The Magna Carta The British brought with them influences of the Magna Carta and Parliament. The Magna Carta was signed by King John I in It granted English Nobles legal rights and prevented the king from imposing taxes without the consent of a council.

16 The House of Burgesses In 1618, the Virginia Company allowed the colonist the right to elect their own assembly to propose laws. 1619: The House of Burgesses met for the first time. This was one of the first examples of representative government in America.

17 The Headright System To entice settlers to come to the Virginia colony, the Virginia company offered 50 acres of land to those who would settle in the colony. Led to Indentured Servants first slaves.

18 Indentured Servants Poor youth in Britain and the German states would get a ride to the American colonies and would work for a fixed number of years, then be free to work on their own.

19 COLONIAL SLAVERY INDENTURED SERVANTS NUMBER WAS INADEQUATE SUSCEPTIBLE TO DISEASES LIMITED TENURE OFFSPRINGS NOT INDENTURED LEGAL AND PERSONAL RIGHTS START UP OBLIGATION

20 COLONIAL SLAVERY INTRODUCTION OF TOBACCO AVAILABILITY OF LAND NEED FOR LABORS

21 COLONIAL SLAVERY TOBACCO REQUIREMENTS PLENTY OF ARABLE LAND CHEAP AND PLENTIFUL LABOR SUPPLY

22 COLONIAL SLAVERY TOBACCO IS LABOR INTENSIVE CLEARING OF LAND PREPARATION OF SOIL PLANTING OF CROP THINNING AND NURTURING CROPPING LEAVES STRINGING LEAVES HANGING LEAVES CURING UNSTRINGING PACKAGING TRANSPORTING LOADING AND SHIPPING

23 COLONIAL SLAVERY NATIVE AMERICANS NO AFFINITY TO FORCED LABOR EASE OF ESCAPE WARFARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO DISEASES

24 COLONIAL SLAVERY AFRICANS FAMILIARITY WITH SLAVERY FAMILIARITY WITH AGRICULTURE NOT NATIVE TO LAND PLENTIFUL SUPPLY RELATIVELY INEXPENSIVE

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26 COLONIAL SLAVERY RATIONALE CAPTIVES OF WAR NON CHRISTIANS AFRICAN INFERIORITY HAMITIC MYTH

27 COLONIAL SLAVERY S. C RUNAWAY STATUTE OFFENSE PUNISHMENT 1 ST 40 LASHES 2 ND BRANDED R (FACE) 3 RD 40 LASHES & CROPPED EAR 4 TH MALE: GELTED FEMALE: WHIPPING, BRANDED R AND CROPPING 5 TH LOST OF LEG OR LIFE

28 Religion in the 13 Colonies The impact of religion in the English colonies depended upon which groups of Englishmen settled in the region. The first settlers to New England migrated for religious reasons but not for religious freedom. There was very little religious tolerance in the New England Colonies.

29 The Pilgrims On Sept. 20, 1620, A group of puritans known as pilgrims decided to come to America to escape persecution for breaking away from the Anglican Church. The Mayflower arrived 65 days later at Plymouth Rock (Massachusetts).

30 The Mayflower Compact The Pilgrims wrote the Mayflower Compact on November 21, Another early example of representative government.

31 The New England Colonies

32 New England: Economy Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire Soil poor and rocky, short growing season Subsistence farming common (Farmers grow enough to feed themselves and their families) Fishing and whaling a major industry Lumber and shipbuilding profitable industry, furniture, barrels, housing material Most British ships built in America, built cheaper and faster

33 New England: Triangular Trade Few factories to produce items colonists needed England traded mechanical instruments, hardware, fine cloth, ceramics, luxury items To get the goods they wanted, colonists used triangular trade-three-way trade between New England, the Caribbean colonies, and England

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35 The Middle/Mid-Atlantic Colonies

36 Religion in the Middle Colonies There was more religious diversity and tolerance in the Middle Colonies. William Penn established the colony of Pennsylvania for the Quakers.

37 Pennsylvania (1680) The Quakers were facing religious persecution in England and America. Penn knew the Quakers needed their own colony. Penn regarded Pennsylvania as a holy experiment where complete political and religious freedom would be practiced.

38 Quakers Quakers were some of the first abolitionists in America (wanted to abolish slavery.) The settlers of the Middle colonies were able to exploit their geographical resources and large families to develop an export trade in food stuffs.

39 The Southern Colonies

40 Maryland Maryland was established by a group of English Catholics. Safe haven for Catholics although they were outnumbered by Puritans. The Act of Toleration in Maryland is cited as evidence of religious tolerance and is also evidence of the intolerance practiced by Puritans. Lord Baltimore promoted the act to protect the rights of Catholics.

41 Economics The Southern colonies were established for economic reasons. The Carolinas were a proprietary colony (investors). The South had fertile soil used to grow cash crops like tobacco, rice, and indigo. The slave system was transplanted to the Carolinas from Barbados.

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43 Economics Slaves were transported to the Americas from Africa through the Triangular Trade routes.

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