Study Guide for Immunobiology BIO401. Fall 2009 Eddies Final Study Guide

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1 Study Guide for Immunobiology BIO401. Fall 2009 Eddies Final Study Guide What are the two branches of the immune system? Which is the first to respond? Which is more specific? Give examples of components the innate immune system. Who discovered the vaccine to small pox? Who discovered attenuation and came up with the term vaccine? Which two cell types secrete IFN-γ? What does IFN-γ do? Draw, label and be able to explain the exogenous antigen and endogenous antigen pathways. What causes clonal expansion? What is the result? What is the benefit of memory following lymphocyte activation? Where are HSC (hematopoeitic stem cells) produced? Draw and identify the cells of the myeloid and lymphoid lineage. What causes the stem cells to differentiate? Give an example. What are the differences between apoptosis and necrosis? Options for the following are (inhibit, promote, or initiate apoptosis) bcl-2 - bcl-xl fas bax - caspase - bcl-xs Plasma cells have larger than normal ER and Golgi? (T/F) What are the functions of antibodies? What is the difference between immunogenicity and antigenicity? What are haptens and how are they recognized? 1

2 Molecules that have the property of immunogenicity also have the property of antigenicity? (T/F) Molecules that have the property of antigenicity also have the property of immunogenicity? (T/F) Mention three factors that contribute to the immunogenicity/antigenicity of a molecule. Rearrange and order from highest to lowest regarding antigenicity - carbohydrates, peptides, lipids, haptens What is an adjuvant give an example? How does it work? What are the two types of epitopes? PRR (pattern recognition receptors) also known as recognize Know the TLR s and the ligands they are receptors for. Macrophages in the are called Brain - Lungs - Connective tissue - Liver - Kidney - Bone - What are 3 properties of activated macrophages? Which cytokines are responsible for inflammation? Draw the leukocytes and characterize as granulocyte, phagocytic, innate, adaptive, and percentage in circulation. Which cells are the best APC s (3 reasons) and why? Primary lymphoid and secondary lymphoid organs know function and role. Which lymphoid organ has PALS? Macrophages engulf antigens through while B- cells engulf them by Can a T cell recognize a conformational epitope? 2

3 The portion of the antibody that binds to the epitope is the The variable region is only found on the light chain? (T/F) The CDR s are only found on the heavy chain? (T/F) What are CDR s, how many are there, which has the most diversity, why? Know what an antibody would look like if it was broken down by: Papain, mercaptoethanol, pepsin, SDS (don t forget charge on this one) Which by-products can still bind to antigens? Which by-products can still cause agglutination? Which by-products can trigger complement? Which antibodies lack the hinge? What additional feature do they have? Which antibodies have a J-chain? Which antibody is the best activator of complement? Why? Antibodies are mainly composed of which secondary protein structure? What is the difference between migm and sigm? What is an isotype, allotype, idiotype? What is the name of the BCR co-receptor, why is it needed? What is the role of MHC in antigen recognition? Can mice from one haplotype accept/reject skin from mice with a different haplotype? Monoclonal antibodies have higher while polyclonal antibodies have higher. What is an RSS? What is the rule when joining two sequences? What is the difference between the coding and signaling joinst? What do RAG-1/RAG-2 and Tdt do? Does the light chain undergo N-nucleotide addition? 3

4 What are P-nucleotides? Be familiar with difference between TCR γ/δ and α/β. What types of antigens do each TCR recognize? Arrange the following in order of decreasing diversity: TCR, Antibodies, MHC, TLR Where and why does somatic hypermutation occur? In which cell type? What is the outcome? Know how the heavy chain rearrangement works (majority of Ch5) Which two antibodies mark a mature B-cell? Do B-1 B cells have these? B-1 B cells vs B-2 B cells. Site of replication, maturation?, Do both undergo somatic hypermutation?, Percentage in blood?, Surface markers, antigen types? Know the advantages and uses of standard ELISA vs sandwich ELISA vs W.blot. -differences in substrate types -disadvantages -purpose of each How does FACS work? How would you separate Th, and Treg cells into separate compartments from a serum sample? Give 2 examples of dyes. What is congenic and syngenic when dealing with MHC? In MHC I the antigen bind between while in MHC II it binds between. The CD4 molecule binds to the of MHC The CD8 molecule binds to the of MHC MHC I holds peptides of a.a. in length while MHC II hold peptides of a.a. in length. What are anchor residues? What are calnexin, calmodulin, calcineurin, calreticulin?, What processes are they involved in?, HLA-DM (function), HLA DO (function) What is the outcome of TCR selection? Why do the CDR3 regions of the TCR have the most diversity? What is the name of the TCR co-receptor, what molecules make it up, what are ITAMs? 4

5 What does the presence of the Pre-TCR indicate? Go through the TCR formation pathway (ch10) Which two models determine whether a cell is CD4+ or CD8+ single positive? In the T-cell signaling pathway. Which are secondary messengers?, Which are kinases (what do they do?), Which are phosphatases? (what do they do?) Superantigens bind to the of the MHC and the of the TCR. Does this binding require and antigen?, Does the MHC have to be specific to the TCR? Which cytokines determine Th1 and Th2 differentiation? Know the BCR (B-cell maturation) steps. Know the surface markers of the cells at each step (pro, pre, immature, mature) Thymus dependent vs thymus independent antigens (Know the pathway for both) Which one form memory?, What type of antigens do each recognize?, Which go through clonal expansion? TI-1 antigens will activate both mature and immature B cells? (T/F) Know the surface markers and function of T reg (T suppressor). What prevents cytokines from inducing their effects on the entire body? Or how specificity is maintained (pg 281) Can the alpha region of a cytokine receptor bind other cytokines? Know the receptor families and 2 cytokines for each. Know the cytokine activating pathway. Even though cytokine receptors can share beta chains each receptor induces its own effect. What determines the specific gene transcription? Cytokine antagonist can be viral mimics of cytokines and/or derived from enzymatic cleavage of cytokine receptors? (T/F) JAK1 and JAK2 = STAT = IFN-gamma JAK1 and JAK =STAT 5 = IL-2 JAK and JAK =STAT 6 = What is the difference between Th1 and Th2? 5

6 What is the difference between tuberculoid leprosy and lepromatous leprosy? Bacterial Toxic shock is caused by? Bacterial septic shock is caused by? Know the 3 different complement pathways and what the importance is of having 3 different pathways. If there is a deficiency in C3 can lysis still occur? Why? What are the functions of complement? C1 is composed of 3 components (q,r,s), which component breaks down C3? C5b678 is enough to lyse red blood cells? (T/F) What is MAC? What is innocent-bystander lysis? Provide an example of a complement receptor and its ligand. are anaphylatoxins. induces inflammation. is an opsonin 6

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