Elements and Isotopes

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1 Elements and Isotopes How are all of the isotopes of an element similar? Because they have the same number of electrons, all isotopes of an element have the same chemical properties.

2 Elements and Isotopes A chemical element is a pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom. More than 100 elements are known, but only about two dozen are commonly found in living organisms. Elements are represented by one- or two-letter symbols. For example, C stands for carbon, H for hydrogen, Na for sodium, and Hg for mercury (shown).

3 Elements and Isotopes The number of protons in the nucleus of an element is called its atomic number. Carbon s atomic number is 6, meaning that each atom of carbon has six protons and, consequently, six electrons.

4 Isotopes Atoms of an element may have different numbers of neutrons. For example, although all atoms of carbon have six protons, some have six neutrons, some seven, and a few have eight. Atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain are known as isotopes.

5 Isotopes All atoms of the same element have the same number of protons. Isotopes are atoms having the same number of protons but differ in the number of neutrons. Thus, isotopes of the same element have the same atomic number but differ in atomic mass.

6 Radioactive Isotopes Some isotopes are radioactive, meaning that their nuclei are unstable and break down at a constant rate over time. Although radiation can be dangerous, radioactive isotopes have a number of important scientific and practical uses. Geologists can determine the ages of rocks and fossils by analyzing the isotopes found in them. Radiation from certain isotopes can be used to detect and treat cancer and to kill bacteria that cause food to spoil. Radioactive isotopes can also be used as labels or tracers to follow the movements of substances within organisms.

7 Features of the Periodic table 1. Vertical columns are called groups or families. 2

8 Family Names IA- Alkali metals IIA Alkaline earth metals IIIA Boron Family IVA Carbon Family VA Nitrogen Family VIA Chalcogens VIIA Halogens VIIIA Noble gases

9 2. Horizontal rows are called periods or series. 3. Roman Numbers IA to VIIIA and IB to VIIIB or Arabic numbers 1 to 18 all correspond to the number of vertical columns in the periodic table. 4. Label A refers to Representative elements while label B refers to Transition elements. 5. Elements belonging to the same group have similar physical and chemical properties.

10 6. Majority of the elements in the periodic table are metallic-all the elements on the left side of the periodic table (except Hydrogen) are metallic elements or metals. 7. Elements on the right side of the periodic table are non-metals. 8. A diagonal step-like line that run from Boron to Astatine serves as the boundary between the metals and non-metals. Elements that lie along the step-like line are called metalloids.

11 VE

12 Atomic Structure Nucleus -p + and n 0 Electron cloud -Energy levels (7) -Sub-levels

13 Electron Cloud Energy Level or or 32 Maximum Number of Electrons

14 Sublevels Sublevels s 2 p 6 d 10 f 14 Maximum Number of electrons

15 Energy levels and sublevels Energy Level Sublevels Max # of electrons 1 s 2 2 s, p 8 3 s, p, d 8 or 18 4 s, p, d, f 18 or 32

16 Valence Electron Valence Shell = outer shield of any atom. It is the outermost energy level of an atom. It contains the valence electrons. Valence Electrons = are the number of electrons in the outermost energy level. Chemical properties and reactivity of an atom is determined by the valence electron. Max. number is 8

17 Lewis Dot Symbol To represent valence electrons, scientists use Lewis Dot structures. Ne

18 Another example Na (Sodium) VE = 1 Na

19 Octet Rule Rule of Eight All atoms should have 8 valence electrons to be stable.

20 Stability (Stable) Means having 8 valence electrons. All noble gases are stable, meaning they have 8 Valence electrons. Helium is stable even if it has 2 valence electrons.

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