Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons How Atoms Differ

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1 7 th Grade Science Isotopes and ions UNIT 1 LESSON 11 Name Date: Do Now Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons How Atoms Differ Directions: Complete the chart with the correct terms from the word bank in the space provided. Some terms may be used more than once. e - electron cloud around the nucleus n nucleus p 0 1/1, Properties of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons Electron Proton Neutron Symbol e - Charge Location nucleus Relative Mass /1,840 1 Directions: Label the period table entry and fill in the missing blanks. 26 Fe Iron Atomic # = Atomic Mass = Mass # = # of Protons = # of Neutrons = # of Electrons =

2 7 th Grade Science Isotopes UNIT 1 LESSON 11 Name Date: Notes Aim: SWBAT understand how a neutral atom changes when it s numbers of protons, electrons, or neutrons change. Different Elements Different Numbers of Protons Atomic Number determines equals, and also equals in neutral atoms Differentiate numbers of protons and neutrons in different What are the atomic numbers of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen? Explain the difference between an oxygen atom and a carbon atom.

3 Neutrons and Isotopes Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons. Most elements have several isotopes. Numbers of protons: Isotopes of the Same Element Numbers of neutrons: How do the carbon isotopes differ?

4 Atomic Number vs. Mass Number Atomic Number Mass Number Average Atomic Mass Define average atomic mass. How is the average atomic mass calculated? The abundance of each isotope is changed to decimal form. The mass of each isotope is multiplied by it s corresponding decimal percentage. All the values are added together to determine the average atomic mass x 12 = x 13=

5 Independent Practice Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons How Atoms Differ A. The Parts of the Atom 1. Protons and have about the same. 2. have much less mass than the other two particles in an atom. 3. Most of the mass of an atom is in the. B. Different Elements Different Numbers of Protons 1. The number of protons in an atom of an element is the element s. 2. Different elements contain different numbers of. 3. In a neutral atom, the number of equals the number of protons because the number of charges must equal the number of positive charges. C. Neutrons and Isotopes 1. are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of. 2. The total number of and neutrons in an atom is the of the atom. 3. The of an element is the average mass of the element s. a. The average atomic mass is according to the abundance of each isotope. b. Weighted means that the average atomic mass is based on the of each atom in a sample and the number of atoms of that that are present. D. Radioactivity

6 ATOMIC STRUCTURE WORKSHEET Fill in the blanks. Use your periodic table. Round up atomic mass if necessary. 1. Atomic Number for Copper 2. Number of electrons for Sulfur 3. Number of protons for Hydrogen 4. Atomic mass for Oxygen 5. Number of electrons for Phosphorous 6. Atomic number for Helium 7. Number of protons for Lithium 8. Atomic mass for K 9. Number of protons for Be 10.Number of neutrons for Ni 11.Atomic number for C 12.Number of protons for Fe 13.Atomic mass for Cl 14.Atomic number for Na 15.Number of electrons for N 16.This element has 9 protons 17.This element has 80 electrons 18.This element has an atomic number of This element has an atomic number of This element has 5 electrons 21. This element has 12 protons

7 Ions Gaining or Losing Electrons What happens to a neutral atom if it gains or loses electrons? Recall that a neutral atom has no overall charge. This is because it contains equal numbers of positively charged protons and negatively charged electrons. When electrons are added to or removed from an atom, that atom becomes an ion. An ion is an atom that is no longer neutral because it has gained or lost electrons. An ion can be positively or negatively charged, depending on whether it has lost or gained electrons. Positive Ions When a neutral atom loses one or more electrons, it has more protons than electrons. As a result, it has a positive charge. An atom with a positive charge is called a positive ion. A superscript plus sign ( + ) following the element s symbol represents a positive ion. For example, the top half of the figure on the next page shows how sodium (Na) becomes a positive sodium ion (Na + ) Formation of Positive and Negative Ions electrons 10 electrons Sodium atom (Na) 11 protons electrons Sodium ion (Na + ) 11 protons electrons Fluorine atom (F) 9 protons Fluorine ion (F ) 9 protons Negative Ions

8 9 protons Fluorine atom (F) Fluorine ion (F ) Negative Ions When a neutral atom gains one or more electrons, it has more electrons than protons. As a result, the atom has a negative charge. An atom with a negative charge is called a negative ion. A superscript negative sign ( - ) following the element s symbol represents a negative ion. The bottom half of the figure above shows how fluorine (F) becomes a fluorine ion (F - ). Directions: Answer the following questions in complete sentences 1. How is an ion different from a neutral atom? 2. Why does a fluorine ion have a negative charge? _ 3. How does a neutral atom change when its number of protons, electrons and neutrons changes? Reading Essentials Un

9 7 th Grade Science Atomic Mass and Atomic Number Name Date: UNIT 1 LESSON 11 Exit Ticket Directions: On each line write the term from the word bank that correctly completes each sentence. Not all terms are used! atomic number average atomic mass elements ions isotopes mass number neutrons nucleus protons 1. The is a weighted average that reflects the abundance of different isotopes. 2. The is determined by adding the number of protons and neutrons in an atom. 3. are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons. 4. An element s and the number of protons in the nucleus of its atoms are always the same.

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