TOYOTA s Environmental Technology

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "TOYOTA s Environmental Technology"

Transcription

1 TOYOTA s Environmental Technology 1 Vehicles that are compatible with the Environment 2 * High Energy Efficiency (Reducing CO2 Emission) * Low Exhaust Emissions (PM, NOx => ozone) Diesel TOYOTA D-CAT Petrol TOYOTA Hybrid System

2 TOYOTA 3 Diesel Throttle EGR Valve Inter-Cooler System configuration 4 New Common Rail System 2nd Generation 180MPa Fuel Injector Intake Air Air Flow Meter VNT Turbo Charger DPNR Catalytic Converter(2.0L) Exhaust Gas EGR Cooler Pressure Difference Sensor Gas Temperature Sensor Air Fuel Ratio Sensor Oxidation Catalytic Converter

3 DPNR catalyst cross-section 5 NOx Storage - Reduction Coating Exhaust Gas Flow Exhaust Gas Flow Diesel Particulate Filter Enlarged View NOx Storage - Reduction Coating Diesel Particulate Filter DPNR system purification mechanism 6 NOx Lean Condition NO O2 NO2+O* Pt Filter Substrate Storage of NOx NOx Storage Catalyst Rich Condition HC N2 H2O CO2 CO Pt NO+O* Filter Substrate Reduction of NOx PM PM NO+O2 CO2 O* NO2 Pt Filter Substrate Continuous Oxidation NOx Storage Catalyst CO2 PM O* Pt O* Filter Substrate Continuous Oxidation

4 Additional Fuel Injector 7 Fuel Injector Gas Flow Spray TOYOTA Hybrid System 8

5 Toyota Hybrid System (THS) 9 Vehicle is propelled by engine and/or motor Strong hybrid with high power NiMH battery (EV driving ) Engine, motor, generator are connected by planetary gear No clutch, no torque converter Planetary gear Engine Generator P/G Motor Battery Tire Engine direct Torque Differential Gear Motor Torque Mechanical Path Electric Path Hybrid Component Location 10

6 THS Hardware 11 Gasoline Engine Generator Power split device Motor Power Split Device 12 Ring gear (Motor/output axle) Pinion gear Sun gear (Generator) Planetary carrier (engine)

7 Take off from 0km/h 13 Deceleration 14

8 Vehicles that are compatible with the Environment 15 * High Energy Efficiency (Reducing CO2 Emission) Highly efficient engine Optimised vehicle / system efficiency Regenerative Braking Highly efficient Engine 16 Specifications ('03 model) Displacement Bore x Stroke Power Mechanical Compression ratio Compression actual 1497 φ kW/5000rpm ~9.3 (1) Atkinson cycle (2) VVT- i (3) Low friction design (4) All range λ=1 Intake valve close Exhaust valve open 70~ ABDC 32 BBDC Minimum SFC 225g/kWh

9 High Vehicle Efficiency => low CO2 17 Brake Thermal Efficiency THS Vehicle B A Average Average Conventional Vehicle A; ; Optimizing Engine Operation Range by power-split split-device (CVT function) B; ; Improving Engine Efficiency Engine Output Regenerative Braking System 18 THS ECU Engine Generator Inverter Power Split Device Motor Battery Regenerative Brake Hydraulic Brake Brake Master Cylinder Hydraulic Power Adjuster Rear Brake ECU Front

10 CO2 Potential 19 CO 2 Emission (g/km) Gasoline Diesel 00 Prius 03 Prius 140g/km 120g/km Inertia Weight (kg) CO2 versus Power CO2 Emission (g/km) '00 Prius '03 Prius Gasoline Diesel Hybrid Power (kw)

11 Fuel Consumption Improvement 21 Engine technologies play a key role for reduction of fuel consumption Index of Fuel Consumption [%] 100 City Mode Engine improvement Engine operating area Idle stop Regeneration Highway Mode 50 Base Vehicle (AT) THS (Toyota Hybrid System) CO2 Potential in Highway cruising 22 Cruising mode => reduced HV function Gasoline HV: equal CO2 as diesel even in highway driving. 1L Diesel = 15% more CO2 than 1L gasoline CO2 (g/km) Engine Efficiency (%) gasoline AT diesel AT gasoline HV Good Good Vehicle Speed (km/h) Simulation data Vehicle spec =common Transmission Efficiency (%)

12 Vehicles that are compatible with the Environment 23 * High Energy Efficiency * Low Exhaust Emissions (PM, NOx => ozone) Driving by motor (Zero-emission) emission) Power assisted by motor at acceleration (all λ=1) Engine start/stop by high power MG Rapid Catalyst Warm up Using Motor Drive Retard Control λ=1 Just After Cold Start Engine Operation is Constant Air mass flow Rapid Catalyst Warm-up 24 Vehicle is driven by motor Vehicle Power Motor Power Vehicle Speed LA4 Time [sec]

13 Effect of Rapid Catalyst Warm up Control 25 Catalyst Temperature [ ] Rapid Warm-up LA#4 Time [sec] Light-off Temperature With Power Management Without Power Management Speed Engine Stop Control for lowest NOx 26 Engine Speed [rpm] Ignition Late Fuel-cut Off Engine Run-on Time Shorten Run-on by Using Motor Power Schematic Model of NOx Reduction O2 Saturated Catalyst HC,CO NOx O2 Modest O2O Catalyst HC,CO NOx O2 CO2 H2O NOx CO2 H2O Time [sec]

14 NOx emission effect at Stop&Go 27 Engine A/F Run Stop Without Control Run 2 Enrichment after Restart 1 Prevention of Lean Condition at Engine Stop NOx 0 NOx Reduction Time [sec] (LA#4 Mode) Emission Potential of TOYOTA s environmental technologies 28 Prius: NOx and PM: Lowest in city and highway driving NOx(g/km) Conventional 0.3 Diesel 0.2 TOYOTA D-CAT 0.1 Prius Diesel EU4 regulation Gasoline EU4 regulation CO(g/km) HC(g/km) PM(g/km) Diesel EU4 regulation Diesel TOYOTA D-CAT In house data Prius

15 Environmental summary 29 Prius: Most environmental friendly car CO2 NOx + PM emissions City Prius Prius Highway (120~140km/h) Highspeed (160km/h) Prius = Diesel Diesel Prius Prius Toyota D-Cat: D Clean Diesel with low NOx + PM FIA / ADAC Ecotest 30

16 FIA / ADAC Ecotest 31 Toyota Prius : most eco-friendly car out of 113 tested vehicles Toyota Avensis D-4D D-CAT best in D-segment, first diesel to reach green emission Vehicles that are compatible with the Environment 32 * High Energy Efficiency (Reducing CO2 Emission) * Low Exhaust Emissions and * attractive for the customer Acceleration performance TOYOTA reliability & durability High comfort

17 Competitive Performance km/h: '03 Prius in comparison to 00 Prius and Diesel market Prius 2000 Comp 9 Comp 8 Comp 7 Comp 6 Comp 5 Comp 4 Comp 3 Comp 2 Comp 1 Prius Hybrid Synergy Drive 34 Power (W) = Current (I) x Voltage (V) New Prius: Higher level Prius 2000 = Higher voltage => Lower losses 274V 500V High power by high voltage

18 Hybrid Synergy Drive 35 Generator Motor Inverter 202V ~ 500V Boost Converter 202V Battery Motor power Motor torque + cost optimisation Power(kW) 50kW MY kW MY2000 rpm Torque(N/m) 400N m 350N m MY2003 MY2000 rpm Hybrid Synergy Drive 36 Full acceleration Voltage[V DC] System voltage command System voltage Motor rpm Motor rpm 0 time (sec)

19 NiMH Battery 37 (W/Kg) Power density trend of battery 1997 Prius 2000 Prius - Air-cooled (3 sensors) - integrated Battery-CU - 28modules x 7.2V => 201.6V New Prius Other HV'S Battery Volume ( L / unit ) Weight ( kg / unit ) % 97 Prius 01 Prius New Prius 25% 0 97 Prius 01 Prius New Prius State of Charge Control 38 Key for highest durability SOC Overcharging area Upper limit Actual SOC Target SOC Lower limit Undercharging area Time Internal Resistance [mω/module] ] Prius 6 03 Prius Distance Driven [km]

20 Engine start/stop by generator 39 (m / sec 2 ) Engine speed Acceleration (rpm) 1000 Intake close 90 o ABDC Intake close 120 o ABDC A A' Time [sec] B B' (m / sec 2 ) Acceleration Low noise by engine stop Low vibrations by low compr. ratio at engine start Diesel Hybrid 40 Toyota Dyna Hybrid (2003) Hino Ranger Hybrid (4 2004) Hino Dutro Hybrid (2003)

21 Vehicles that are compatible with the Environment 41 * High Energy Efficiency * Low Exhaust Emissions and * attractive for the customer What s the benchmark for the future? Comparison with Fuel Cell in Well to Wheel Efficiency 42 '03 THS exceed 02FCHV efficiency in well to wheel Current Gasoline AT '97 THS '00 THS '03 THS '02 FCHV FCHV (Target) Well to Tank (%) Tank to Wheel (%) Total Efficiency(%) % 58 * % 22% (Ref. THS with conventional engine) 25% 28% 29% 42% Toyota Data: Japanese mode *1 Natural gas to hydrogen

22 Low Temperature Startability 43 e- Electricity Hydrogen e- Air (O2) H2 H+ H+ H2O O2 Water The generated water freezes Low temperature starting is a major issue Hydrogen Storage Technology 44 High pressure hydrogen tank Hydrogen-absorbing alloy tank Liquid hydrogen tank Issue: Volume Weight Boil-off gas and: Hydrogen Infrastructure?

23 Fuel-Cell Research 45 Exciting prototype cars for an exciting technology TOYOTA FINE-S Evolution of Hybrid Technology 46 HV and FC are based on common technologies Easy to transfer the technologies ICE Hybrid Vehicle Fuel Cell Vehicle Engine >Motor >Inverter >Battery Common Tech. >Vehicle power management Fuel Cell >Regenerative braking

24 Conclusion 47 The Ultimate ECO-Car HSD HV THS Hybrid Technology FCHV CNG Toyota D-CAT Common-rail D4 Lean-burn VVT-i EV Alternative fuel Diesel Gasoline Electricity 48 Thank you for your attention

Toyota commercialises its first diesel hybrid

Toyota commercialises its first diesel hybrid Toyota commercialises its first diesel hybrid Toyota Dyna is now the cleanest diesel commercial vehicle of its type In September 2003, Toyota introduced the Toyota Dyna Hybrid in Japan. This makes Dyna

More information

Japan Simulation Model Overview

Japan Simulation Model Overview Japan Simulation Model Overview Simulation methods for Fuel Consumption measurement of HD and HD hybrid vehicles Hisakazu Suzuki JAPAN 1 CONTENTS 1. Overview of Fuel Consumption Measurement by Simulation

More information

Regulations and Emissions Control Technologies

Regulations and Emissions Control Technologies Japan s Automotive Emissions Regulations and Emissions Control Technologies for 2005 and Later Akio Tamano Emission & Fuel Efficiency Subcommittee Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc. 1 Current

More information

Dodge Ram Diagnostic Trouble Codes

Dodge Ram Diagnostic Trouble Codes Dodge Ram Diagnostic Trouble Codes Updated to include 2010 6.7 Cummins DTCs P0008 ENGINE POSITION SYSTEM PERFORMANCE BANK 1 P000F FUEL SYSTEM OVER PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE ACTIVATED P0016 CRANKSHAFT/CAMSHAFT

More information

US Heavy Duty Fleets - Fuel Economy

US Heavy Duty Fleets - Fuel Economy US Heavy Duty Fleets - Fuel Economy Feb. 22, 2006 Anthony Greszler Vice President Advanced Engineering VOLVO POWERTRAIN CORPORATION Drivers for FE in HD Diesel Pending oil shortage Rapid oil price increases

More information

New Jeep Cherokee Technical specifications

New Jeep Cherokee Technical specifications New Jeep Cherokee Technical specifications Specifications are based on the latest product information available at the time of publication. All dimensions are in millimeters at curb weight and with standard

More information

ELECTRIFICATION OF VEHICLE DRIVE TRAIN THE DIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING CHALLENGES

ELECTRIFICATION OF VEHICLE DRIVE TRAIN THE DIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING CHALLENGES ELECTRIFICATION OF VEHICLE DRIVE TRAIN THE DIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING CHALLENGES A3PS Conference, Vienna Dr. Frank Beste AVL List GmbH 1 Motivation for Powertrain Electrification Global Megatrends: Urbanization

More information

Fault codes DM1. Industrial engines DC09, DC13, DC16. Marine engines DI09, DI13, DI16 INSTALLATION MANUAL. 03:10 Issue 5.0 en-gb 1

Fault codes DM1. Industrial engines DC09, DC13, DC16. Marine engines DI09, DI13, DI16 INSTALLATION MANUAL. 03:10 Issue 5.0 en-gb 1 Fault codes DM1 Industrial engines DC09, DC13, DC16 Marine engines DI09, DI13, DI16 03:10 Issue 5.0 en-gb 1 DM1...3 Abbreviations...3 Fault type identifier...3...4 03:10 Issue 5.0 en-gb 2 DM1 DM1 Fault

More information

Energy efficiency and fuel consumption of fuel cells powered test railway vehicle

Energy efficiency and fuel consumption of fuel cells powered test railway vehicle Energy efficiency and fuel consumption of fuel cells powered test railway vehicle K.Ogawa, T.Yamamoto, T.Yoneyama Railway Technical Research Institute, TOKYO, JAPAN 1. Abstract For the purpose of an environmental

More information

Elektrofahrzeug mit Range Extender die Entwicklungsherausforderung Electric Vehicle with Range Extender. The developement challenge

Elektrofahrzeug mit Range Extender die Entwicklungsherausforderung Electric Vehicle with Range Extender. The developement challenge Elektrofahrzeug mit Range Extender die Entwicklungsherausforderung Electric Vehicle with Range Extender Dr. M. Korman AVL-List GmbH The developement challenge Stärkung regionaler Kooperationen in der Elektromobilität

More information

Planetary Module for Hybrid and Plug-In Hybrid vehicles

Planetary Module for Hybrid and Plug-In Hybrid vehicles Planetary Module for Hybrid and Plug-In Hybrid vehicles FEV e-pgs, the one fits all solution? Shanghai, September 17 th 2015 P. Janssen MSc, FEV GmbH 1 Introduction 1487 Leonardo da Vinci Helicopter 1900

More information

Hybrid Electric Powertrain Fuel Consumption Reduction Cost Effectiveness Trade-Offs

Hybrid Electric Powertrain Fuel Consumption Reduction Cost Effectiveness Trade-Offs Hybrid Electric Powertrain Fuel Consumption Reduction Cost Effectiveness Trade-Offs Presentation at the 24 th USAEE/IAEE North American Conference Energy, Environment and Economics in a New Era July 8-10,

More information

The Ogunmuyiwa Engine Cycle

The Ogunmuyiwa Engine Cycle The Ogunmuyiwa Engine Cycle Dapo Ogunmuyiwa M.Sc VDI Chairman / CEO Tel: (+49) 162 961 04 50 E-mail: Dapo.Ogunmuyiwa@omttec.eu Ogunmuyiwa Motorentechnik GmbH Technologie- und Gruenderzentrum (TGZ) Am Roemerturm

More information

17/09/2004. Engine. Weight Kerb weight: 1528 kg (AWD 1604 kg) Max total weight: 2150 kg (AWD 2200 kg)

17/09/2004. Engine. Weight Kerb weight: 1528 kg (AWD 1604 kg) Max total weight: 2150 kg (AWD 2200 kg) Volvo V70 Page 1 of 5 Engine Petrol s Five cylinders. Double overhead camshafts, 20 valves. Continuously variable valve timing (CVVT) on the inlet side (s without turbo), exhaust side (s with turbo) or

More information

Alternative Drivetrains Volkswagen Group s Solutions for Sustainable Mobility

Alternative Drivetrains Volkswagen Group s Solutions for Sustainable Mobility Alternative Drivetrains Volkswagen Group s Solutions for Sustainable Mobility Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Steiger Group External Relations Future Technologies 2013-10-02 E-mobil BW Technologietag Stuttgart, Germany

More information

KINETIC ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEM BY MEANS OF FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE

KINETIC ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEM BY MEANS OF FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE ADVANCED ENGINEERING 3(2009)1, ISSN 1846-5900 KINETIC ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEM BY MEANS OF FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE Cibulka, J. Abstract: This paper deals with the design of Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems

More information

System Diagnosis. Proper vehicle diagnosis requires a plan before you start

System Diagnosis. Proper vehicle diagnosis requires a plan before you start System Diagnosis Proper vehicle diagnosis requires a plan before you start Following a set procedure to base your troubleshooting on will help you find the root cause of a problem and prevent unnecessary

More information

The Mazda way to improve relations between people, the automobile and the planet

The Mazda way to improve relations between people, the automobile and the planet New Technology [Reference exhibit] The Mazda way to improve relations between people, the automobile and the planet Mazda is committed to creating better relations between the motorized society and the

More information

EURO VI. Technologies & Strategies. Relatore: M.Maritati Commercial training

EURO VI. Technologies & Strategies. Relatore: M.Maritati Commercial training EURO VI Technologies & Strategies Relatore: M.Maritati Commercial training Euro VI The entering into force of the new Euro VI normative provides a stimulus for Iveco to update the engine offer pursuing

More information

OPTIMISATION OF THE 2.2 LITER HIGH SPEED DIESEL ENGINE FOR PROPOSED BHARAT STAGE 5 EMISSION NORMS IN INDIA

OPTIMISATION OF THE 2.2 LITER HIGH SPEED DIESEL ENGINE FOR PROPOSED BHARAT STAGE 5 EMISSION NORMS IN INDIA Ghodke, P. R., Suryawanshi, J. G.: Optimisation of the 2.2 Liter High Speed Diesel... THERMAL SCIENCE: Year 2014, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 169-178 169 OPTIMISATION OF THE 2.2 LITER HIGH SPEED DIESEL ENGINE

More information

Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine

Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine SECOND EDITION Willard W. Pulkrabek University of Wisconsin Plattevilie PEARSON Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Preface Acknowledgments

More information

Jing Sun Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI USA

Jing Sun Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI USA Automotive Powertrain Controls: Fundamentals and Frontiers Jing Sun Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI USA Julie Buckland Research & Advanced Engineering

More information

Vectra Caravan 1.8 90kW/122hp 5-speed station wagon 5 doors 1

Vectra Caravan 1.8 90kW/122hp 5-speed station wagon 5 doors 1 Vectra Caravan 1.8 90kW/122hp 5-speed station wagon 5 doors 1 1.8 ECOTEC front, transverse in front of axle, 7 50' forward inclined Bore (mm): 80.5 Stroke (mm): 88.2 Displacement (cc): 1796 Compression

More information

Spark Ignition Engine Combustion

Spark Ignition Engine Combustion Spark Ignition Engine Combustion MAK 652E Lean Combustion in Stratified Charge Engines Prof.Dr. Cem Soruşbay Istanbul Technical University - Automotive Laboratories Contents Introduction Lean combustion

More information

hybrid fuel cell bus

hybrid fuel cell bus hybrid fuel cell bus PURE EMOTION PURE capacity The full passenger capacity of a standard diesel bus seats 34 standees 70 (7 passengers per sqm) total 104 Thanks to the three axles of the Van Hool A330

More information

Electronic Diesel Control EDC 16

Electronic Diesel Control EDC 16 Service. Self-Study Programme 304 Electronic Diesel Control EDC 16 Design and Function The new EDC 16 engine management system from Bosch has its debut in the V10-TDI- and R5-TDI-engines. Increasing demands

More information

Development of a Motor Assist System for a Hybrid Car INSIGHT

Development of a Motor Assist System for a Hybrid Car INSIGHT Introduction of new technologies Development of a Assist System for a Hybrid Car INSIGHT Shinobu OCHIAI* Kenji UCHIBORI* Kazuhiro HARA* Takafumi TSURUMI* Minoru SUZUKI* ABSTRACT A motor-assist system has

More information

Performance Enhancement of a Conventional Motorcycle to a Racing Motorcycle without Afffecting the Mileage by Using HHO Generator

Performance Enhancement of a Conventional Motorcycle to a Racing Motorcycle without Afffecting the Mileage by Using HHO Generator International Journal of Advanced Mechanical Engineering. ISSN 2250-3234 Volume 4, Number 1 (2014), pp. 121-128 Research India Publications http://www.ripublication.com/ijame.htm Performance Enhancement

More information

COMMON RAIL SYSTEM (CRS) SERVICE MANUAL: Operation

COMMON RAIL SYSTEM (CRS) SERVICE MANUAL: Operation ISUZU ELF 4HK1/4JJ1 Engine COMMON RAIL SYSTEM (CRS) SERVICE MANUAL: Operation Issued : June 2007 Revised : July 2009 00400601EA 2009 DENSO CORPORATION All rights reserved. This material may not be reproduced

More information

EMISSIONS #1 - COMBUSTION CHEMISTRY

EMISSIONS #1 - COMBUSTION CHEMISTRY Introduction to Combustion Chemistry The gasoline-powered internal combustion engine takes air from the atmosphere and gasoline, a hydrocarbon fuel, and through the process of combustion releases the chemical

More information

Corsa 1.0 44kW/60hp 5-speed hatchback 3 doors 1

Corsa 1.0 44kW/60hp 5-speed hatchback 3 doors 1 Corsa 1.0 44kW/60hp 5-speed hatchback 3 doors 1 1.0 TWINPORT ECOTEC Cylinders, number: 3 Stroke (mm): 78.6 Displacement (cc): 998 in line; 4 main bearings multi point fuel injection, Motronic 3-way cat.

More information

M52TU Introduction Overview Technical Data Crankcase Crankshaft Pistons and Connecting Rods...

M52TU Introduction Overview Technical Data Crankcase Crankshaft Pistons and Connecting Rods... Table of Contents ENGINES Subject Page M52TU................................................. 3 Introduction............................................ 4 Overview..............................................

More information

The Road to Electrical Vehicle and Hybrid Evolution in Turkey

The Road to Electrical Vehicle and Hybrid Evolution in Turkey The Road to Electrical Vehicle and Hybrid Evolution in Turkey Prof. Dr. R. Nejat TUNCAY OKAN University & MEKATRO R&D Company Istanbul, Turkey November 18, 2015 Why What Happened between 1890 and 1920?

More information

FPT FIAT POWERTRAIN TECHNOLOGIES PRESENTS ITS ENGINE RANGE FOR CONSTRUCTION APPLICATIONS AT INTERMAT 2009

FPT FIAT POWERTRAIN TECHNOLOGIES PRESENTS ITS ENGINE RANGE FOR CONSTRUCTION APPLICATIONS AT INTERMAT 2009 FPT FIAT POWERTRAIN TECHNOLOGIES PRESENTS ITS ENGINE RANGE FOR CONSTRUCTION APPLICATIONS AT INTERMAT 2009 FPT Fiat Powertrain Technologies, is the Fiat Group Company dedicated to the research, development,

More information

Jeep Renegade Technical specifications

Jeep Renegade Technical specifications Jeep Renegade Technical specifications Specifications are based on the latest product information available at the time of publication. All dimensions are in millimeters at curb weight and with standard

More information

Hybrid shunter locomotive

Hybrid shunter locomotive Hybrid shunter locomotive 1 Hervé GIRARD, Presenting Author, 2 Jolt Oostra, Coauthor, 3 Joerg Neubauer, Coauthor Alstom Transport, Paris, France 1 ; Alstom Transport, Ridderkerk, Netherlands 2 ; Alstom

More information

Exhaust emissions from vehicles with Euro 6/VI technology

Exhaust emissions from vehicles with Euro 6/VI technology Summary: Exhaust emissions from vehicles with Euro 6/VI technology TØI Report 1259/2013 Authors: Rolf Hagman and Astrid H. Amundsen Oslo 2013, 46 pages Norwegian language In several major Norwegian cities

More information

Diesel in Europe. Peter Duncan General Manager Market Research Johnson Matthey PLC. Market Research

Diesel in Europe. Peter Duncan General Manager Market Research Johnson Matthey PLC. Market Research Diesel in Europe Peter Duncan General Manager Johnson Matthey PLC 1 Overview The emissions debate The facts Technology options for latest phases of emissions legislation Future power trains Implications

More information

Kobelco Extended Warranty Program. www.kobelco-europe.com

Kobelco Extended Warranty Program. www.kobelco-europe.com Kobelco Extended Warranty Program www.kobelco-europe.com Kobelco Extended Warranty is a convenient, value added way to give your Kobelco customers added security and peace of mind. Benefits of the Kobelco

More information

Perfectly Adapted. ISB Euro 6 Diesel Engines 150-310PS. Cummins Ltd. Address Line One Address Line Two Address Line Three

Perfectly Adapted. ISB Euro 6 Diesel Engines 150-310PS. Cummins Ltd. Address Line One Address Line Two Address Line Three Perfectly Adapted ISB Euro 6 Diesel Engines 150-310PS Cummins Ltd. Address Line One Address Line Two Address Line Three Tel: +00 0000 000000 Fax: +00 0000 000000 Internet: cummins.com Bulletin 0000000

More information

Research Report. Impact of Vehicle Weight Reduction on Fuel Economy for Various Vehicle Architectures

Research Report. Impact of Vehicle Weight Reduction on Fuel Economy for Various Vehicle Architectures Impact of Vehicle Weight Reduction on Fuel Economy for Various Vehicle Architectures Research Report Conducted by Ricardo Inc. for The Aluminum Association 2008-04 Impact of Vehicle Weight Reduction on

More information

Powertrain Systems. From 12+12V to 48V: a new road map for hybridization. Dr. Ing O. COPPIN - Valeo Powertrain Systems - France.

Powertrain Systems. From 12+12V to 48V: a new road map for hybridization. Dr. Ing O. COPPIN - Valeo Powertrain Systems - France. Powertrain Systems From 12+12V to 48V: a new road map for hybridization Dr. Ing O. COPPIN - Valeo Powertrain Systems - France May - June 2016 I 1 May - June 2016 Agenda 1 2 3 Drivers for Hybridization

More information

DYNAMICS AND EFFICIENCY: THE ALL NEW BMW i8 PLUG-IN-HYBRID.

DYNAMICS AND EFFICIENCY: THE ALL NEW BMW i8 PLUG-IN-HYBRID. Wien, 20.November 2014 DYNAMICS AND EFFICIENCY: THE ALL NEW BMW i8 PLUG-IN-HYBRID. CHRISTIAN LANDERL. IN A CHANGING WORLD, E-MOBILITY IS AN INTERESTING APPROACH. Environment Emissions and climate change

More information

Cat C9 for Lightweight Heavy Duty Performance

Cat C9 for Lightweight Heavy Duty Performance Cat C9 for Lightweight Heavy Duty Performance ACERT Technology for 2007 285-425 Horsepower Reliability Dealer Repair Frequency statistics show Caterpillar heavy duty engines offer outstanding reliability

More information

1 Air-to-Air AfterCooling. 2 Engine Only. Capacity will vary with radiator size and use. of cab heater.

1 Air-to-Air AfterCooling. 2 Engine Only. Capacity will vary with radiator size and use. of cab heater. Diesel Truck Engine 3126B 175-330 hp 420-860 @ 1440 rpm Peak CATERPILLAR ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS 6-Cylinder, 4-Stroke-Cycle Diesel Bore in (mm)... 4.33 (110) Stroke in (mm)... 5.0 (127) Displacement cu in

More information

Volvo Cars, Plug-In Hybrid Concept Development

Volvo Cars, Plug-In Hybrid Concept Development Volvo Cars, Plug-In Hybrid Concept Development The background of V60 Plug-In Hybrid Concept as presented internally at Volvo Car Corporation in May 2008 Klas Niste Project leader for Advanced Project for

More information

The 2.0l FSI engine with 4-valve technology

The 2.0l FSI engine with 4-valve technology Service Training Self-study programme 322 The 2.0l FSI engine with 4-valve technology Design and function The 2.0l engine is based on the tried and tested 827/113 series. Thanks to FSI technology (Fuel

More information

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Architectures

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Architectures Hybrid Electric Vehicle Architectures Series, parallel, mild, strong, full, power-assist, one-mode, twomode.. Tom Bradley and Ken Stanton Objectives Recall the means by which HEVs improve fuel economy

More information

Testing of various fuel and additive options in a compression-ignited heavy-duty alcohol engine

Testing of various fuel and additive options in a compression-ignited heavy-duty alcohol engine Testing of various fuel and additive options in a compression-ignited heavy-duty alcohol engine 2015 Polttomoottori- ja turboteknologian seminaari Espoo, 7.5.2015 Timo Murtonen, Nils-Olof Nylund, Mårten

More information

E - THEORY/OPERATION

E - THEORY/OPERATION E - THEORY/OPERATION 1995 Volvo 850 1995 ENGINE PERFORMANCE Volvo - Theory & Operation 850 INTRODUCTION This article covers basic description and operation of engine performance-related systems and components.

More information

9. Subaru Select Monitor

9. Subaru Select Monitor Subaru Select Monitor ENGINE (DIAGNOSTICS) 9. Subaru Select Monitor A: OPERATION 1. HOW TO USE THE SUBARU SELECT MONITOR 1) Prepare the Subaru Select Monitor kit.

More information

Application and Design of the ebooster from BorgWarner

Application and Design of the ebooster from BorgWarner Application and Design of the ebooster from BorgWarner Knowledge Library Knowledge Library Application and Design of the ebooster from BorgWarner With an electrically assisted compressor, the ebooster,

More information

Gasoline engines. Diesel engines. Hybrid fuel cell vehicles. Model Predictive Control in automotive systems R. Scattolini, A.

Gasoline engines. Diesel engines. Hybrid fuel cell vehicles. Model Predictive Control in automotive systems R. Scattolini, A. Model Predictive Control in automotive systems R. Scattolini, A. Miotti Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione Outline Gasoline engines Diesel engines Hybrid fuel cell vehicles Gasoline engines 3 System

More information

DTC Database (OBD-II Trouble Codes)

DTC Database (OBD-II Trouble Codes) Auto Consulting S.a.s di Cofano A. & C. Attrezzature diagnostiche Elaborazioni elettroniche Formazione tecnica DTC Database (OBD-II Trouble Codes) Definitions for generic powertrain diagnostic trouble

More information

HRB Hydrostatic Regenerative Braking System: The Hydraulic Hybrid Drive from Bosch Rexroth

HRB Hydrostatic Regenerative Braking System: The Hydraulic Hybrid Drive from Bosch Rexroth HRB Hydrostatic Regenerative Braking System: The Hydraulic Hybrid Drive from Bosch Rexroth Contact Eric Lindzus, Bosch Rexroth AG Bosch Rexroth AG Product Management Sales Mobile Hydraulics Innovative

More information

Improvement of Power Saving in R134a Air-Conditioning System

Improvement of Power Saving in R134a Air-Conditioning System Improvement of Power Saving in R134a Air-Conditioning System Masahide Ishikawa, Takayoshi Matsuno, TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION Kazuhito Miyagawa, DENSO CORPORATION 1 Presentation Outline Impact of A/C on

More information

Petrol engines. turbocharged petrol engine, in-line, liquid cooling system, DOHC, transverse in front 4 Displacement [cm 3 ] 1395

Petrol engines. turbocharged petrol engine, in-line, liquid cooling system, DOHC, transverse in front 4 Displacement [cm 3 ] 1395 ŠKODA Superb Combi Petrol engines Technical specifications 1.4 TSI/92 kw 1.4 TSI/110 kw ACT 1.4 TSI/110 kw ACT (A) 1.8 TSI/132 kw 1.8 TSI/132 kw (A) 2.0 TSI/162 kw (A) Engine Engine type Cylinders turbocharged

More information

ŠKODA Rapid Petrol engines

ŠKODA Rapid Petrol engines ŠKODA Rapid Petrol engines Technical specifications 1.2 MPI/55 kw 1.2 TSI/63 kw 1.2 TSI/77 kw 1.6 MPI/77 kw 1.6 MPI/77 kw (A) 1.4 TSI/90 kw (A) Engine Engine type turbocharged petrol petrol engine, in-line,

More information

Development of a software tool to evaluate the energetic and environmental impact of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles in Brussels

Development of a software tool to evaluate the energetic and environmental impact of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles in Brussels Development of a software tool to evaluate the energetic and environmental impact of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles in Brussels Ir. J. Van Mierlo Ir. W. Deloof Prof. Dr. Ir. G. Maggetto Vrije Universiteit

More information

Energy Recovery System for Excavators Meng (Rachel) Wang, Chad Larish Eaton Corporation

Energy Recovery System for Excavators Meng (Rachel) Wang, Chad Larish Eaton Corporation Energy Recovery System for Excavators Meng (Rachel) Wang, Chad Larish Eaton Corporation Abstract Increasing fuel costs have become a significant portion of the operating expenses for owners and fleet managers

More information

The Volkswagen Hybrid Strategy

The Volkswagen Hybrid Strategy The Volkswagen Hybrid Strategy - Hybrid Tour with MainFirst Bank 28 th March 2006 Dr. Tobias Böhm Volkswagen AG Sustainability Based Aspects in Mobility Energy Greenhouse Gases CO 2 Exhaust Emissions CO,NOx,HC,PM

More information

Engine Design, Sizing and Operation in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Engine Design, Sizing and Operation in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Engine Design, Sizing and Operation in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Mike Duoba Argonne National Laboratory Presentation at University of Wisconsin-Madison ERC 2011 Symposium June 8, 2011 Question to Engine

More information

Asian Warner 55-50SN Seminar

Asian Warner 55-50SN Seminar General Description Asian Warner 55-50SN Seminar This transmission is manufactured by Asian Warner. It can be found in many different vehicles such as General Motors, Volvo, Saab, Renault and Fiat. Although

More information

Powertrain DTC Summaries OBD II

Powertrain DTC Summaries OBD II Powertrain DTC Summaries Quick Reference Diagnostic Guide Jaguar X-TYPE 2.5L and 3.0L 2002 Model Year Revised January, 2002: P0706, P0731, P0732, P0733, P0734, P0735, P0740, P1780 POSSIBLE CAUSES Revised

More information

Petrol engines. Technical specifications 1.4 MPI/59kW 1.6 MPI/75 kw 1.6 MPI/75 kw Engine

Petrol engines. Technical specifications 1.4 MPI/59kW 1.6 MPI/75 kw 1.6 MPI/75 kw Engine ŠKODA Octavia Tour Petrol engines Technical specifications 1.4 MPI/59kW 1.6 MPI/ kw 1.6 MPI/ kw Engine Engine type petrol engine, in-line, liquid cooling system, DOHC, transverse in front petrol engine,

More information

Engine Optimization Concepts for CVT-Hybrid Systems to Obtain the Best Performance and Fuel Efficiency. Professor Andrew A. Frank Univ.

Engine Optimization Concepts for CVT-Hybrid Systems to Obtain the Best Performance and Fuel Efficiency. Professor Andrew A. Frank Univ. Engine Optimization Concepts for CVT-Hybrid Systems to Obtain the Best Performance and Fuel Efficiency Professor Andrew A. Frank Univ. of CA-Davis Abstract: The objective of the advanced transmission system

More information

Spark Ignited Natural Gas Engine Technology

Spark Ignited Natural Gas Engine Technology Spark Ignited Natural Gas Engine Technology Clean Fleets Technology Conference Sugar Land, TX, June 2014 Jorge Gonzalez Regional Manager Agenda Corporate Overview Natural Gas Technology Evolution Products

More information

DTC P0125 Insufficient Coolant Temperature for Closed Loop Fuel Control

DTC P0125 Insufficient Coolant Temperature for Closed Loop Fuel Control EINE (5VZFE) DI195 DI8YY02 DTC P0125 Insufficient Coolant Temperature for Closed Loop Fuel Control CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION To obtain a high purification rate of the CO, HC and x components of the exhaust gas,

More information

The Flooded type UltraBattery for Micro-HEV Applications

The Flooded type UltraBattery for Micro-HEV Applications The Flooded type UltraBattery for Micro-HEV Applications LABAT 2014 Pre-Conference SEMINAR on Batteries for Hybrid and Start-Stop Applications 9 June 2014, Flamingo Grand Hotel, Albena, Bulgaria Jun Furukawa

More information

Flash codes beginning with 1 are faults from the MCM. Flash codes beginning with 2 are faults from the CPC.

Flash codes beginning with 1 are faults from the MCM. Flash codes beginning with 2 are faults from the CPC. Flash codes beginning with 1 are faults from the MCM. Flash codes beginning with 2 are faults from the CPC. Flash Code 1111 EGR Valve Position Circuit Failed Low 1111 EGR Valve Position Circuit Failed

More information

CREATING POWER SOLUTIONS. 2L41C 3L41C 3L43C 4L41C 4L42C 4L43C. Hatz Diesel. www.hatz-diesel.com

CREATING POWER SOLUTIONS. 2L41C 3L41C 3L43C 4L41C 4L42C 4L43C. Hatz Diesel. www.hatz-diesel.com CREATING POWER SOLUTIONS. 2L41C 3L41C 3L43C 4L41C 4L42C 4L43C Hatz Diesel EN www.hatz-diesel.com Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) For years already the Hatz 4L42C has been successfully fitted with a robustly

More information

Effect of GTL Diesel Fuels on Emissions and Engine Performance

Effect of GTL Diesel Fuels on Emissions and Engine Performance Rudolf R. Maly Research and Technology, Stuttgart Effect of GTL Diesel Fuels on Emissions and Engine Performance 10th Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction Conference August 29 - September 2, 2004 Coronado,

More information

Signature and ISX CM870 Electronics

Signature and ISX CM870 Electronics Signature and ISX CM870 Electronics Cummins West Training Center System Description General Information The Signature and ISX CM870 engine control system is an electronically operated fuel control system

More information

Table of contents. B4184S8 (FlexiFuel)...2

Table of contents. B4184S8 (FlexiFuel)...2 Table of contents B4184S8 (FlexiFuel)...2 General... 2 FlexiFuel and the environment... 2 Changes... 3 Cylinder head... 4 Injectors... 4 Fuel lines... 4 Electric engine block heater... 4 DC/AC converter...

More information

The ADAC EcoTest Can we prevent another dieselgate? FIA Foundation, London 8 June 2016 Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Kolke, ADAC Technik Zentrum

The ADAC EcoTest Can we prevent another dieselgate? FIA Foundation, London 8 June 2016 Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Kolke, ADAC Technik Zentrum The ADAC EcoTest Can we prevent another dieselgate? FIA Foundation, London 8 June 2016 Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Kolke, ADAC Technik Zentrum www.adac.de The players in consumer protection: FIA partner clubs, EU,

More information

48V eco-hybrid Systems

48V eco-hybrid Systems 48V eco-hybrid Systems Jean-Luc MATE Vice President Continental Engineering Services France President Automotech cluster www.continental-corporation.com Division Naming European Conference on Nanoelectronics

More information

Cummins Westport The Natural Choice

Cummins Westport The Natural Choice Cummins Westport The Natural Choice Driver Tips For Cummins Westport ISL G And ISX12 G Natural Gas Truck And Bus Engines. What You Need To Know About Your Natural Gas Engine. Cummins Westport natural gas

More information

Fuel Economy Sensitivity to Vehicle Mass for Advanced Vehicle Powertrains

Fuel Economy Sensitivity to Vehicle Mass for Advanced Vehicle Powertrains 26-1-665 Sensitivity to Vehicle Mass for Advanced Vehicle Powertrains Copyright 26 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc S. Pagerit, P. Sharer, A. Rousseau Argonne National Laboratory ABSTRACT In 22, the

More information

6. VVT-i (Variable Valve Timing-intelligent) System

6. VVT-i (Variable Valve Timing-intelligent) System 38 ENGE 1ZZ-FE ENGE 6. VVT-i (Variable Valve Timing-intelligent) System General This system controls the intake camshaft valve timing so as to obtain balance between the engine output, fuel consumption

More information

16. Aachener Kolloquium Fahrzeug- und Motorentechnik 2007 1

16. Aachener Kolloquium Fahrzeug- und Motorentechnik 2007 1 16. Aachener Kolloquium Fahrzeug- und Motorentechnik 2007 1 Notwendige Fortschritte in der Antriebsstrangentwicklung zur nachhaltigen Mobilität mit Hybridtechnologie Powertrain Approach for Sustainable

More information

O S L O S e m i na r N o v e m b er 5 T h e B I O G A S S u p e rbus

O S L O S e m i na r N o v e m b er 5 T h e B I O G A S S u p e rbus O S L O S e m i na r N o v e m b er 5 T h e B I O G A S S u p e rbus O S L O S e m i na r N o v e m b er 5 T h e B I O G A S S u p e rbus Agenda : Introduction : Who is Van Hool? The challenges of today

More information

High-mounted stop light. The high-level stop light is integrated in the boot. If an LED fails, the complete unit must be replaced.

High-mounted stop light. The high-level stop light is integrated in the boot. If an LED fails, the complete unit must be replaced. High-mounted stop light The high-level stop light is integrated in the boot. If an LED fails, the complete unit must be replaced. When installing the stop light, take care to ensure that the rubber seal

More information

Continuously variable transmission (CVT)

Continuously variable transmission (CVT) Continuously variable transmission (CVT) CVT CVT allows for the operation at the lowest possible speed and highest possible load, partially avoiding the low efficiency region of the engine map. A continuously

More information

A Study about Particle Filter Application on a State-of-the-Art Homogeneous Turbocharged 2L DI Gasoline Engine

A Study about Particle Filter Application on a State-of-the-Art Homogeneous Turbocharged 2L DI Gasoline Engine A Study about Particle Filter Application on a State-of-the-Art Homogeneous Turbocharged 2L DI Gasoline Engine Dr. Ingo Mikulic, Hein Koelman, Steve Majkowski, Paul Vosejpka Dow Automotive Systems 19.

More information

NUMERICAL SIMULATION TO IMPROVE ENGINE CONTROL DURING TIP-IN MANOEUVRES

NUMERICAL SIMULATION TO IMPROVE ENGINE CONTROL DURING TIP-IN MANOEUVRES GT-Suite Users International Conference Frankfurt a.m., October 21 st 2002 NUMERICAL SIMULATION TO IMPROVE ENGINE CONTROL DURING TIP-IN MANOEUVRES F. MILLO, C.V. FERRARO, F. MALLAMO DIPARTIMENTO DI ENERGETICA

More information

Note: This information obtained from internet sources and not verified- use at your own risk!!!!

Note: This information obtained from internet sources and not verified- use at your own risk!!!! Cummins Engine Diagnostic Fault Codes for 2003 and later engines (generally for 2004 and later Alpines; see page 13 for earlier engine diagnostic codes): Note: This information obtained from internet sources

More information

DISPLACEMENT. DD13 Engine RV Model Liters. lb-ft Torque. Horsepower

DISPLACEMENT. DD13 Engine RV Model Liters. lb-ft Torque. Horsepower DD13 Engine RV Model 500 Horsepower 1650 lb-ft Torque DISPLACEMENT 12.8 Liters DETROIT ENGINES: DETROIT IS RECOGniZED AS AN INDUSTRY LEADER IN THE ENGINE BUSINESS. THROUGH THE YEARS, CUSTOMERS ACROSS THE

More information

The Aftertreatment System Technician's Guide has been revised.

The Aftertreatment System Technician's Guide has been revised. NUMBER: 2 ATS 07 S.M. REF.: Listed in Table 1 ENGINE: ATS DATE: April 2007 SUBJECT: UPDATES TO AFTERTREATMENT SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING PUBLICATION: 7SE63 The Aftertreatment System Technician's Guide has

More information

Cat C15 for Fleet and Line Haul Performance

Cat C15 for Fleet and Line Haul Performance Cat C15 for Fleet and Line Haul Performance ACERT Technology for 2007 435-625 Horsepower Reliability Dealer Repair Frequency statistics show Caterpillar heavy duty engines offer outstanding reliability

More information

Understanding Tier 4 Interim (Stage IIIB) Emissions Regulations. A guide to 2012 emissions regulations and their impact

Understanding Tier 4 Interim (Stage IIIB) Emissions Regulations. A guide to 2012 emissions regulations and their impact Understanding Tier 4 Interim (Stage IIIB) Emissions Regulations A guide to 2012 emissions regulations and their impact Compliance By the mid-1990s, much of the developed world had committed to laws that

More information

Exhaust gas recirculation and control. with Pierburg components

Exhaust gas recirculation and control. with Pierburg components Exhaust gas recirculation and control with Pierburg components Pierburg components for exhaust gas recirculation and exhaust gas control Lowering fuel consumption and reducing pollutant emissions in conjunction

More information

520 hp, 2,700 Nm at 1,000-1,300 r/min, EGR+SCR 580 hp, 2,950 Nm at 1,000-1,350 r/min, EGR+SCR 730 hp, to be released later

520 hp, 2,700 Nm at 1,000-1,300 r/min, EGR+SCR 580 hp, 2,950 Nm at 1,000-1,350 r/min, EGR+SCR 730 hp, to be released later PRESS info P13304EN / Per-Erik Nordström 21 March 2013 Second-generation Euro 6 with lower fuel consumption Scania introduces new Euro 6 engines with features that further boost efficiency. Second-generation

More information

Principles of Engine Operation

Principles of Engine Operation Internal Combustion Engines ME 422 Yeditepe Üniversitesi Principles of Engine Operation Prof.Dr. Cem Soruşbay Information Prof.Dr. Cem Soruşbay İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi Makina Fakültesi Otomotiv Laboratuvarı

More information

ICE²: an integrated software to accelerate your calibration process. Generating excellence

ICE²: an integrated software to accelerate your calibration process. Generating excellence ICE²: an integrated software to accelerate your calibration process Generating excellence D2T calibration expertise Calibration - Diesel Engines Calibration Engine tuning Model Based Simulation on test

More information

Hydraulic Hybrids from Rexroth: Hydrostatic Regenerative Braking System HRB

Hydraulic Hybrids from Rexroth: Hydrostatic Regenerative Braking System HRB Electric Drives and Controls Hydraulics Linear Motion and Assembly Technologies Pneumatics Service Hydraulic Hybrids from Rexroth: Hydrostatic Regenerative Braking System HRB Recover Energy Reduce Emissions

More information

A REVIEW ON HYBRID VEHICLES

A REVIEW ON HYBRID VEHICLES IMPACT: International Journal of Research in Engineering & Technology (IMPACT: IJRET) ISSN(E): 2321-8843; ISSN(P): 2347-4599 Vol. 2, Issue 5, May 2014, 59-64 Impact Journals A REVIEW ON HYBRID VEHICLES

More information

NEBRASKA OECD TRACTOR TEST 2146 SUMMARY 1009 JOHN DEERE 6145R AUTOQUAD-PLUS DIESEL 20 SPEED

NEBRASKA OECD TRACTOR TEST 2146 SUMMARY 1009 JOHN DEERE 6145R AUTOQUAD-PLUS DIESEL 20 SPEED NEBRASKA OECD TRACTOR TEST 2146 SUMMARY 1009 JOHN DEERE 6145R AUTOQUAD-PLUS DIESEL 20 SPEED POWER TAKE-OFF PERFORMANCE Power Crank Diesel D.E.F. HP shaft Consumption Consumption (kw) speed Gal/hr lb/hp.hr

More information

Cleaner vehicle fleets in. Central and Eastern Europe

Cleaner vehicle fleets in. Central and Eastern Europe Cleaner vehicle fleets in Central and Eastern Europe Training for REC Country Offices Friday 19 September 2008 Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe Szentendre, Hungary Agenda 19

More information

New Holland T7.270 Auto Command

New Holland T7.270 Auto Command Datasheet DLG PowerMix New Holland T7.27 Auto Command Applicant New Holland Agricultural Equipment SpA Via Plava 8 I-1135 Torino www.newholland.com Test performed by DLG e.v. Test Center Technology and

More information

CHAPTER 3 EXPERIMENTAL SET UP

CHAPTER 3 EXPERIMENTAL SET UP CHAPTER 3 EXPERIMENTAL SET UP 3.1 INTRODUCTION The emission tests were conducted on an Izusu, four stroke, 4 cylinder petrol engine test-rig with hydraulic dynamometer loading system. The specifications

More information