# Wave Optics. Interference of Light waves

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Wave Optics. Interference of Light waves"

## Transcription

1 Interference of Light waves A. Karle Physics 202 Dec. 4, 2007 Chapter 37 and Chapter PART I 37.1 Introduction Double slit (maxima, minima, high level only) Phase change, Interference on thin films Applications, Michelson interferometer Wave Optics Wave optics is a study concerned with phenomena that cannot be adequately explained by geometric (ray) optics These phenomena include: Interference Diffraction Polarization 1

2 Interference In constructive interference the amplitude of the resultant wave is greater than that of either individual wave In destructive interference the amplitude of the resultant wave is less than that of either individual wave All interference associated with light waves arises when the electromagnetic fields that constitute the individual waves combine Conditions for Interference To observe interference in light waves, the following two conditions must be met: 1) The sources must be coherent They must maintain a constant phase with respect to each other 2) The sources should be monochromatic Monochromatic means they have a single wavelength 2

3 Producing Coherent Sources Light from a monochromatic source is used to illuminate a barrier The barrier contains two narrow slits The slits are small openings The light emerging from the two slits is coherent since a single source produces the original light beam This is a commonly used method From Huygens s principle we know the waves spread out from the slits This divergence of light from its initial line of travel is called diffraction Diffraction 3

4 Young s Double-Slit Experiment: Schematic Resulting Interference Pattern Thomas Young first demonstrated interference in light waves from two sources in 1801 The narrow slits S 1 and S 2 act as sources of waves The waves emerging from the slits originate from the same wave front and therefore are always in phase The light from the two slits forms a visible pattern on a screen The pattern consists of a series of bright and dark parallel bands called fringes Constructive interference occurs where a bright fringe occurs Destructive interference results in a dark fringe 4

5 Interference Patterns Interference Equations For bright fringes For dark fringes 5

6 Uses for Young s Double-Slit Experiment Young s double-slit experiment provides a method for measuring wavelength of the light This experiment gave the wave model of light a great deal of credibility It was inconceivable that particles of light could cancel each other in a way that would explain the dark fringes Phasor Diagrams for Two Coherent Sources, Diagrams 6

7 Constructive Interference 3 Rays L Destructive Interference 3 Rays L d d All 3 rays are interfering constructively at the point shown. If the intensity from ray 1 is I 0, what is the combined intensity of all 3 rays? 1) I 0 2) 3 I 0 3) 9 I 0 Each slit contributes amplitude E o at screen. E tot = 3 E o. But I! E 2. I tot = (3E 0 ) 2 = 9 E 0 2 = 9 I 0 d d! 1 2! 3 dsin! = " 2 these add to zero this one is still there! When rays 1 and 2 are interfering destructively, is the intensity from the three rays a minimum? 1) Yes 2) No Rays 1 and 2 completely cancel, but ray 3 is still there. Expect intensity I = 1/9 I max 7

8 Multiple Slit Interference (Diffraction Grating) L 9I 0 Three slit interference 1 d d! 2! 3 4 Path length difference 1-2 = d sin" =# d Path length difference 1-3 = 2d sin" =2# Path length difference 1-4 = 3d sin" =3# I 0 Constructive interference for all paths when dsin! = m"! 3! 2 2! 3 dsin! =! 3! 2 2! 3! 8

9 Three Slits, Phasor Diagrams Multiple-Slits, Intensity Graphs The primary maxima are nine times more intense than the secondary maxima The intensity varies as E R 2 For N slits, the primary maxima is N 2 times greater than that due to a single slit 9

10 Phase Changes Due To Reflection Case 1: n 2 > n 1 phase change of 180 Case 2: n 2 < n 1 No phase change Interference in Thin Films Ray 1: phase change of 180 Ray 2: no phase change Ray 2 also travels an additional distance of 2t before the waves recombine For constructive interference 2nt = (m + 1/2)! (m = 0, 1, 2 ) For destructive interference 2nt = m! (m = 0, 1, 2 ) 10

11 Interference in Thin Films Newton s Rings, Set-Up and Pattern If the thin film is between two different media, one of lower index than the film and one of higher index, the conditions for constructive and destructive interference are reversed With different materials on either side of the film, you may have a situation in which there is a 180 o phase change at both surfaces or at neither surface Be sure to check both the path length and the phase change 11

12 Michelson Interferometer The interferometer was invented by an American physicist, A. A. Michelson The interferometer splits light into two parts and then recombines the parts to form an interference pattern The device can be used to measure wavelengths or other lengths with great precision Michelson Interferometer, Schematic A ray of light is split into two rays by the mirror M o The mirror is at 45 o to the incident beam The mirror is called a beam splitter It transmits half the light and reflects the rest 12

13 Michelson Interferometer, Schematic Explanation, cont. Michelson Interferometer Operation The reflected ray goes toward mirror M 1 The transmitted ray goes toward mirror M 2 The two rays travel separate paths L 1 and L 2 After reflecting from M 1 and M 2, the rays eventually recombine at M o and form an interference pattern The interference condition for the two rays is determined by their path length difference M 1 is moveable As it moves, the fringe pattern collapses or expands, depending on the direction M 1 is moved The fringe pattern shifts by one-half fringe each time M 1 is moved a distance!/4 The wavelength of the light is then measured by counting the number of fringe shifts for a given displacement of M 1 13

14 Michelson Interferometer Applications Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory The Michelson interferometer was used to disprove the idea that the Earth moves through an ether One modern application is: Laser Interferometer Gravitational- Wave Observatory (LIGO) General relativity predicts the existence of gravitational waves In Einstein s theory, gravity is equivalent to a distortion of space These distortions can then propagate through space The LIGO apparatus is designed to detect the distortion produced by a disturbance that passes near the Earth 14

15 LIGO LIGO in Richland, Washington The interferometer uses laser beams with an effective path length of several kilometers At the end of an arm of the interferometer, a mirror is mounted on a massive pendulum When a gravitational wave passes, the pendulum moves, and the interference pattern due to the laser beams from the two arms changes Relative resolution for a change in length: m, that is about the size of an electron (10-8 of the size of an atom) per km. 15

16 Diffraction, topics from Ch. 38 PART II Chapter 38: 38.1 Introduction 38.2 (without phasor diagrams) 38.3 (use Lecture and homework problems as reference to define material for exam) Diffraction/ Huygens Every point on a wave front acts as a source of tiny wavelets that move forward. JAVA Light waves originating at different points within opening travel different distances to wall, and can interfere! We see maxima and minima on the wall. 16

17 Central maximum Fraunhofer Diffraction Pattern 1 st minima A Fraunhofer diffraction pattern occurs when the rays leave the diffracting object in parallel directions Screen very far from the slit Could be accomplished by a converging lens 17

18 Diffraction Pattern, Single Slit The diffraction pattern consists of the central maximum and a series of secondary maxima and minima The pattern is similar to an interference pattern Diffraction vs. Diffraction Pattern Diffraction refers to the general behavior of waves spreading out as they pass through a slit A diffraction pattern is actually a misnomer that is deeply entrenched The pattern seen on the screen is actually another interference pattern The interference is between parts of the incident light illuminating different regions of the slit 18

19 Single-Slit Diffraction According to Huygens s principle, each portion of the slit acts as a source of light waves Therefore, light from one portion of the slit can interfere with light from another portion Wave 1 travels farther than wave 3 by an amount equal to the path difference (a/2) sin " If this path difference is exactly half of a wavelength, the two waves cancel each other and destructive interference results In general, destructive interference occurs for a single slit of width a when sin " dark = m! / a m = ±1, ±2, ±3, Quiz 1 A single slit of width W has light of a certain wavelength incident. If the width W is decreased, which of the following is true? The diffraction pattern of the slit on a screen will get narrower. The diffraction pattern of the slit on a screen will get broader. 19

20 Diffraction Summary Condition for halves of slit to destructively interfere Condition for quarters of slit to destructively interfere Condition for sixths of slit to destructively interfere Dsin" = m# sin(") = # D sin(") = 2 # D sin(") = 3 # D (m=1, 2, 3, ) Quiz 2 A laser is shone through a very small hole onto a screen. If the diameter of the hole were decreased, the laser spot on the screen would... get bigger. get smaller. THIS FORMULA LOCATES MINIMA!! Narrower slit => broader pattern 20

21 Quiz A laser is shone through a very small hole onto a screen. Which drawing correctly depicts the pattern of light on the screen? Diffraction from Circular Aperture 1 st diffraction minimum Central maximum Maxima and minima will be a series of bright and dark rings on screen " Diameter D light First diffraction minimum is at sin! = 1.22 " D 21

22 Intensity from Circular Aperture I! 1.22 D First diffraction minima sin! These objects are just resolved Two objects are just resolved when the maximum from one is at the minimum of the other. 22

23 Quiz Astronaut Joe is standing on a distant planet with binary suns. He wants to see them but knows it s dangerous to look straight at them. So he decides to build a pinhole camera by poking a hole in a card. Light from both suns shines through the hole onto a second card. But when the camera is built, Astronaut Joe can only see one spot on the second card! To see the two suns clearly, should he make the pinhole larger or smaller? Larger Smaller Resolving Power Question sin! min "! min = 1.22 # D How does the maximum resolving power of your eye change when the brightness of the room is decreased. 1) Increases 2) Constant 3) Decreases When the light is low, your pupil dilates (D can increase by factor of 10!) 23

24 Recap Huygens Principle: Each point on wave front acts as coherent source and can interfere. Interference: Coherent waves Full wavelength difference = Constructive! wavelength difference = Destructive Multiple Slits (2 or more slits with separation d) Constructive d sin(") = m # (m=1,2,3 ) More slits = brighter max, darker mins Single Slit: Destructive: D sin(") = m # (m=1,2,3 ) Resolution: Max from 1 at Min from 2 24

### Interference. Physics 102 Workshop #3. General Instructions

Interference Physics 102 Workshop #3 Name: Lab Partner(s): Instructor: Time of Workshop: General Instructions Workshop exercises are to be carried out in groups of three. One report per group is due by

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A single slit forms a diffraction pattern, with the first minimum at an angle of 40 from

### AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light

AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light Name: Period: Date: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Reflection,

### 6) How wide must a narrow slit be if the first diffraction minimum occurs at ±12 with laser light of 633 nm?

Test IV Name 1) In a single slit diffraction experiment, the width of the slit is 3.1 10-5 m and the distance from the slit to the screen is 2.2 m. If the beam of light of wavelength 600 nm passes through

### Physics 10. Lecture 29A. "There are two ways of spreading light: to be the candle or the mirror that reflects it." --Edith Wharton

Physics 10 Lecture 29A "There are two ways of spreading light: to be the candle or the mirror that reflects it." --Edith Wharton Converging Lenses What if we wanted to use refraction to converge parallel

### Diffraction of a Circular Aperture

Diffraction of a Circular Aperture Diffraction can be understood by considering the wave nature of light. Huygen's principle, illustrated in the image below, states that each point on a propagating wavefront

### 3.5.4.2 One example: Michelson interferometer

3.5.4.2 One example: Michelson interferometer mirror 1 mirror 2 light source 1 2 3 beam splitter 4 object (n object ) interference pattern we either observe fringes of same thickness (parallel light) or

### Diffraction of Laser Light

Diffraction of Laser Light No Prelab Introduction The laser is a unique light source because its light is coherent and monochromatic. Coherent light is made up of waves, which are all in phase. Monochromatic

### RESOLVING POWER OF A READING TELESCOPE

96 Lab Experiments Experiment-255 RESOLVING POWER OF A READING TELESCOPE S Dr Jeethendra Kumar P K KamalJeeth Instrumentation & Service Unit, No-60, TATA Nagar, Bangalore-560 092, INDIA. Email:jeeth_kjisu@rediffmail.com

### Diffraction and Young s Single Slit Experiment

Diffraction and Young s Single Slit Experiment Developers AB Overby Objectives Preparation Background The objectives of this experiment are to observe Fraunhofer, or far-field, diffraction through a single

### Interference of Light Waves

Chapter 37 Interference of Light Waves CHAPTER OUTLINE 37.1 Conditions for Interference 37.2 Young s Double-Slit Experiment 37.3 Intensity Distribution of the Double-Slit Interference Pattern 37.4 Phasor

### Study Guide for Exam on Light

Name: Class: Date: Study Guide for Exam on Light Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is used

### Physics 41 Chapter 38 HW Key

Physics 41 Chapter 38 HW Key 1. Helium neon laser light (63..8 nm) is sent through a 0.300-mm-wide single slit. What is the width of the central imum on a screen 1.00 m from the slit? 7 6.38 10 sin θ.11

### FTIR Instrumentation

FTIR Instrumentation Adopted from the FTIR lab instruction by H.-N. Hsieh, New Jersey Institute of Technology: http://www-ec.njit.edu/~hsieh/ene669/ftir.html 1. IR Instrumentation Two types of instrumentation

### Introduction to Optics

Second Edition Introduction to Optics FRANK L. PEDROTTI, S.J. Marquette University Milwaukee, Wisconsin Vatican Radio, Rome LENO S. PEDROTTI Center for Occupational Research and Development Waco, Texas

Practice Test IV Name 1) In a single slit diffraction experiment, the width of the slit is 3.1 10-5 m and the distance from the slit to the screen is 2.2 m. If the beam of light of wavelength 600 nm passes

### Fraunhofer Diffraction

Physics 334 Spring 1 Purpose Fraunhofer Diffraction The experiment will test the theory of Fraunhofer diffraction at a single slit by comparing a careful measurement of the angular dependence of intensity

### EXPERIMENT O-6. Michelson Interferometer. Abstract. References. Pre-Lab

EXPERIMENT O-6 Michelson Interferometer Abstract A Michelson interferometer, constructed by the student, is used to measure the wavelength of He-Ne laser light and the index of refraction of a flat transparent

### Optical Interferometers

Optical Interferometers Experiment objectives: Assemble and align Michelson and Fabry-Perot interferometers, calibrate them using a laser of known wavelength, and then use them characterize the bright

### Interference and Diffraction

Chapter 14 nterference and Diffraction 14.1 Superposition of Waves... 14-14. Young s Double-Slit Experiment... 14-4 Example 14.1: Double-Slit Experiment... 14-7 14.3 ntensity Distribution... 14-8 Example

### Today. next two weeks

Today Temporal and spatial coherence Spatially incoherent imaging The incoherent PSF The Optical Transfer Function (OTF) and Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) MTF and contrast comparison of spatially

### v = fλ PROGRESSIVE WAVES 1 Candidates should be able to :

PROGRESSIVE WAVES 1 Candidates should be able to : Describe and distinguish between progressive longitudinal and transverse waves. With the exception of electromagnetic waves, which do not need a material

### INTERFERENCE OBJECTIVES PRE-LECTURE. Aims

53 L4 INTERFERENCE Aims OBJECTIVES When you have finished this chapter you should understand how the wave model of light can be used to explain the phenomenon of interference. You should be able to describe

### Physics 1230: Light and Color

Physics 1230: Light and Color Exam 1 is tomorrow, Wed. June 9, in class. Covers material from Chapter 1, pgs 1-25, Lectures and Homework 1-3. HW4 will be up soon. Due Thursday, 5PM Lecture 5: Shadows,

### Light, Light Bulbs and the Electromagnetic Spectrum

Light, Light Bulbs and the Electromagnetic Spectrum Spectrum The different wavelengths of electromagnetic waves present in visible light correspond to what we see as different colours. Electromagnetic

### WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT - DIFFRACTION GRATING

PURPOSE In this experiment we will use the diffraction grating and the spectrometer to measure wavelengths in the mercury spectrum. THEORY A diffraction grating is essentially a series of parallel equidistant

### Interferometers. OBJECTIVES To examine the operation of several kinds of interferometers. d sin = n (1)

Interferometers The true worth of an experimenter consists in his pursuing not only what he seeks in his experiment, but also what he did not seek. Claude Bernard (1813-1878) OBJECTIVES To examine the

### PRACTICE EXAM IV P202 SPRING 2004

PRACTICE EXAM IV P202 SPRING 2004 1. In two separate double slit experiments, an interference pattern is observed on a screen. In the first experiment, violet light (λ = 754 nm) is used and a second-order

### Chapter 23. The Refraction of Light: Lenses and Optical Instruments

Chapter 23 The Refraction of Light: Lenses and Optical Instruments Lenses Converging and diverging lenses. Lenses refract light in such a way that an image of the light source is formed. With a converging

### Measure the Distance Between Tracks of CD and DVD

University of Technology Laser & Optoelectronics Engineering Department Laser Eng Branch Laser application Lab. The aim of work: Experiment (9) Measure the Distance Between Tracks of CD and DVD 1-measure

### Basic Physical Optics

F UNDAMENTALS OF PHOTONICS Module 1.4 Basic Physical Optics Leno S. Pedrotti CORD Waco, Texas In Module 1-3, Basic Geometrical Optics, we made use of light rays to demonstrate reflection and refraction

### It s shape. Sound Beams foundation for a basic understanding. Anatomy of the beam. Focus. Near Zone. Focal Length. Chapter 10

It s shape Sound Beams foundation for a basic understanding It begins the size or diameter of the transducer gradually converges to a narrower point then begins to diverge Chapter 10 Anatomy of the beam

### Review for Test 3. Polarized light. Action of a Polarizer. Polarized light. Light Intensity after a Polarizer. Review for Test 3.

Review for Test 3 Polarized light No equation provided! Polarized light In linearly polarized light, the electric field vectors all lie in one single direction. Action of a Polarizer Transmission axis

### PHY208FALL2008. Week2HW. Introduction to Two-Source Interference. Due at 11:59pm on Friday, September 12, View Grading Details [ Print ]

Assignment Display Mode: View Printable Answers PHY208FALL2008 Week2HW Due at 11:59pm on Friday September 12 2008 View Grading Details [ Print ] The following three problems concern interference from two

### Rutgers Analytical Physics 750:228, Spring 2016 ( RUPHY228S16 )

1 of 13 2/17/2016 5:28 PM Signed in as Weida Wu, Instructor Help Sign Out Rutgers Analytical Physics 750:228, Spring 2016 ( RUPHY228S16 ) My Courses Course Settings University Physics with Modern Physics,

### Physics 111 Homework Solutions Week #9 - Tuesday

Physics 111 Homework Solutions Week #9 - Tuesday Friday, February 25, 2011 Chapter 22 Questions - None Multiple-Choice 223 A 224 C 225 B 226 B 227 B 229 D Problems 227 In this double slit experiment we

### Ray Optics Minicourse COMSOL Tokyo Conference 2014

Ray Optics Minicourse COMSOL Tokyo Conference 2014 What is the Ray Optics Module? Add-on to COMSOL Multiphysics Can be combined with any other COMSOL Multiphysics Module Includes one physics interface,

### Solution Derivations for Capa #14

Solution Derivations for Capa #4 ) An image of the moon is focused onto a screen using a converging lens of focal length (f = 34.8 cm). The diameter of the moon is 3.48 0 6 m, and its mean distance from

### Holography 1 HOLOGRAPHY

Holography 1 HOLOGRAPHY Introduction and Background The aesthetic appeal and commercial usefulness of holography are both related to the ability of a hologram to store a three-dimensional image. Unlike

### Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect

Objectives: PS-7.1 Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect Illustrate ways that the energy of waves is transferred by interaction with

### Science In Action 8 Unit C - Light and Optical Systems. 1.1 The Challenge of light

1.1 The Challenge of light 1. Pythagoras' thoughts about light were proven wrong because it was impossible to see A. the light beams B. dark objects C. in the dark D. shiny objects 2. Sir Isaac Newton

### Using light scattering method to find The surface tension of water

Experiment (8) Using light scattering method to find The surface tension of water The aim of work: The goals of this experiment are to confirm the relationship between angular frequency and wave vector

### Lecture 12: Fraunhofer diffraction by a single slit

Lecture 12: Fraunhofer diffraction y a single slit Lecture aims to explain: 1. Diffraction prolem asics (reminder) 2. Calculation of the diffraction integral for a long slit 3. Diffraction pattern produced

### What s so special about the laser?

What s so special about the laser? A guide for taking LaserFest into the classroom. Developed by 2010 SPS SOCK interns Patrick Haddox & Jasdeep Maggo. www.spsnational.org Activity 1: Exploring laser light

### Waves and Light Extra Study Questions

Waves and Light Extra Study Questions Short Answer 1. Determine the frequency for each of the following. (a) A bouncing spring completes 10 vibrations in 7.6 s. (b) An atom vibrates 2.5 10 10 times in

### GRID AND PRISM SPECTROMETERS

FYSA230/2 GRID AND PRISM SPECTROMETERS 1. Introduction Electromagnetic radiation (e.g. visible light) experiences reflection, refraction, interference and diffraction phenomena when entering and passing

### P R E A M B L E. Facilitated workshop problems for class discussion (1.5 hours)

INSURANCE SCAM OPTICS - LABORATORY INVESTIGATION P R E A M B L E The original form of the problem is an Experimental Group Research Project, undertaken by students organised into small groups working as

### waves rays Consider rays of light from an object being reflected by a plane mirror (the rays are diverging): mirror object

PHYS1000 Optics 1 Optics Light and its interaction with lenses and mirrors. We assume that we can ignore the wave properties of light. waves rays We represent the light as rays, and ignore diffraction.

### Friday 18 January 2013 Morning

Friday 18 January 2013 Morning AS GCE PHYSICS B (ADVANCING PHYSICS) G492/01 Understanding Processes / Experimentation and Data Handling *G411640113* Candidates answer on the Question Paper. OCR supplied

### Modern Classical Optics

Modern Classical Optics GEOFFREY BROOKER Department of Physics University of Oxford OXPORD UNIVERSITY PRESS Contents 1 Electromagnetism and basic optics 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 The Maxwell equations 1

### EXPERIMENT 6 OPTICS: FOCAL LENGTH OF A LENS

EXPERIMENT 6 OPTICS: FOCAL LENGTH OF A LENS The following website should be accessed before coming to class. Text reference: pp189-196 Optics Bench a) For convenience of discussion we assume that the light

### Does Quantum Mechanics Make Sense? Size

Does Quantum Mechanics Make Sense? Some relatively simple concepts show why the answer is yes. Size Classical Mechanics Quantum Mechanics Relative Absolute What does relative vs. absolute size mean? Why

### DIFFRACTION AND INTERFERENCE

DIFFRACTION AND INTERFERENCE In this experiment you will emonstrate the wave nature of light by investigating how it bens aroun eges an how it interferes constructively an estructively. You will observe

### Light and its effects

Light and its effects Light and the speed of light Shadows Shadow films Pinhole camera (1) Pinhole camera (2) Reflection of light Image in a plane mirror An image in a plane mirror is: (i) the same size

### Procedure: Geometrical Optics. Theory Refer to your Lab Manual, pages 291 294. Equipment Needed

Theory Refer to your Lab Manual, pages 291 294. Geometrical Optics Equipment Needed Light Source Ray Table and Base Three-surface Mirror Convex Lens Ruler Optics Bench Cylindrical Lens Concave Lens Rhombus

### Chapter S3 Spacetime and Gravity

Chapter S3 Spacetime and Gravity What are the major ideas of special relativity? Spacetime Special relativity showed that space and time are not absolute Instead they are inextricably linked in a four-dimensional

### LAUE DIFFRACTION INTRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS X RAYS BREMSSTRAHLUNG

LAUE DIFFRACTION INTRODUCTION X-rays are electromagnetic radiations that originate outside the nucleus. There are two major processes for X-ray production which are quite different and which lead to different

### Lecture 12: Cameras and Geometry. CAP 5415 Fall 2010

Lecture 12: Cameras and Geometry CAP 5415 Fall 2010 The midterm What does the response of a derivative filter tell me about whether there is an edge or not? Things aren't working Did you look at the filters?

### The coherence length of black-body radiation

Eur. J. Phys. 19 (1998) 245 249. Printed in the UK PII: S143-87(98)86653-1 The coherence length of black-body radiation Axel Donges Fachhochschule und Berufskollegs NTA Prof. Dr Grübler, Seidenstrasse

### AS COMPETITION PAPER 2008

AS COMPETITION PAPER 28 Name School Town & County Total Mark/5 Time Allowed: One hour Attempt as many questions as you can. Write your answers on this question paper. Marks allocated for each question

### 2/16/2016. Reflection and Refraction WHITEBOARD WHITEBOARD. Chapter 21 Lecture What path did the light follow to reach the wall?

Chapter 21 Lecture What path did the light follow to reach the wall? Reflection and Refraction Represent the path from the laser to the wall with an arrow. Why can t you see the beam of light itself but

### Periodic Wave Phenomena

Name: Periodic Wave Phenomena 1. The diagram shows radar waves being emitted from a stationary police car and reflected by a moving car back to the police car. The difference in apparent frequency between

### - the. or may. scales on. Butterfly wing. magnified about 75 times.

Lecture Notes (Applications of Diffraction) Intro: - the iridescent colors seen in many beetles is due to diffraction of light rays hitting the small groovess of its exoskeleton - these ridges are only

### 1 Basic Optics (1.2) Since. ε 0 = 8.854 10 12 C 2 N 1 m 2 and μ 0 = 4π 10 7 Ns 2 C 2 (1.3) Krishna Thyagarajan and Ajoy Ghatak. 1.

1 1 Basic Optics Krishna Thyagarajan and Ajoy Ghatak 1.1 Introduction This chapter on optics provides the reader with the basic understanding of light rays and light waves, image formation and aberrations,

### Note it they ancients had known Newton s first law, the retrograde motion of the planets would have told them that the Earth was moving.

6/24 Discussion of the first law. The first law appears to be contained within the second and it is. Why state it? Newton s laws are not always valid they are not valid in, say, an accelerating automobile.

### Electromagnetic Radiation Wave and Particle Models of Light

Electromagnetic Radiation 2007 26 minutes Teacher Notes: Victoria Millar BSc (Hons), Dip. Ed, MSc Program Synopsis For hundreds of years, scientists have hypothesised about the structure of light. Two

### M01/430/H(3) Name PHYSICS HIGHER LEVEL PAPER 3. Number. Wednesday 16 May 2001 (morning) 1 hour 15 minutes INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE BACCALAURÉAT INTERNATIONAL BACHILLERATO INTERNACIONAL M01/430/H(3) PHYSICS HIGHER LEVEL PAPER 3 Wednesday 16 May 2001 (morning) Name Number 1 hour 15 minutes INSTRUCTIONS TO

### 1 of 9 2/9/2010 3:38 PM

1 of 9 2/9/2010 3:38 PM Chapter 23 Homework Due: 8:00am on Monday, February 8, 2010 Note: To understand how points are awarded, read your instructor's Grading Policy. [Return to Standard Assignment View]

### Phys 2310 Wed. Sept. 21, 2016 Today s Topics

Phys 2310 Wed. Sept. 21, 2016 Today s Topics - Brief History of Light & Optics Electromagnetic Spectrum Electromagnetic Spectrum Visible, infrared & ultraviolet Wave/Particle Duality (waves vs. photons)

### Refraction of Light at a Plane Surface. Object: To study the refraction of light from water into air, at a plane surface.

Refraction of Light at a Plane Surface Object: To study the refraction of light from water into air, at a plane surface. Apparatus: Refraction tank, 6.3 V power supply. Theory: The travel of light waves

### Duke Physics 55 Spring 2005 Lecture #31: Experimental Tests of General Relativity

Duke Physics 55 Spring 2005 Lecture #31: Experimental Tests of General Relativity ADMINISTRATIVE STUFF - Friday: Quiz 6, 15 minutes at beginning of class Material: BDSV Ch. 22,S2,S3 (focus on lecture WUN2K)

### Investigating electromagnetic radiation

Investigating electromagnetic radiation Announcements: First midterm is 7:30pm on 2/17/09 Problem solving sessions M3-5 and T3-4,5-6. Homework due at 12:50pm on Wednesday. We are covering Chapter 4 this

### Revision problem. Chapter 18 problem 37 page 612. Suppose you point a pinhole camera at a 15m tall tree that is 75m away.

Revision problem Chapter 18 problem 37 page 612 Suppose you point a pinhole camera at a 15m tall tree that is 75m away. 1 Optical Instruments Thin lens equation Refractive power Cameras The human eye Combining

### UNIT I: INTRFERENCE & DIFFRACTION Div. B Div. D Div. F INTRFERENCE

107002: EngineeringPhysics Teaching Scheme: Lectures: 4 Hrs/week Practicals-2 Hrs./week T.W.-25 marks Examination Scheme: Paper-50 marks (2 hrs) Online -50marks Prerequisite: Basics till 12 th Standard

### DOING PHYSICS WITH MATLAB COMPUTATIONAL OPTICS RAYLEIGH-SOMMERFELD DIFFRACTION INTEGRAL OF THE FIRST KIND

DOING PHYSICS WITH MATLAB COMPUTATIONAL OPTICS RAYLEIGH-SOMMERFELD DIFFRACTION INTEGRAL OF THE FIRST KIND THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE RADIANT FLUX DENSITY AT THE FOCUS OF A CONVERGENCE BEAM

### 3.14 understand that light waves are transverse waves which can be reflected, refracted and diffracted

Light and Sound 3.14 understand that light waves are transverse waves which can be reflected, refracted and diffracted 3.15 use the law of reflection (the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection)

### Physics 42200. Waves & Oscillations. Spring 2013 Semester Matthew Jones

Physics 42200 Waves & Oscillations Spring 2013 Semester Matthew Jones Preliminary Information Course web page: http://www.physics.purdue.edu/~mjones/phys42200_spring2013 Contact information: E-mail: mjones@physics.purdue.edu

### ENGINEERING METROLOGY

ENGINEERING METROLOGY ACADEMIC YEAR 92-93, SEMESTER ONE COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINES OPTICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS; DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ISFAHAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Coordinate Measuring

### How is LASER light different from white light? Teacher Notes

How is LASER light different from white light? Teacher Notes Concepts: (1) Light is a type of energy that travels as waves. [6.2.3.1.1] (2) Laser light is different from traditional light sources and must

### Polarization of Light

Polarization of Light References Halliday/Resnick/Walker Fundamentals of Physics, Chapter 33, 7 th ed. Wiley 005 PASCO EX997A and EX999 guide sheets (written by Ann Hanks) weight Exercises and weights

### PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam. Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator.

PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator. NAME: (all questions with equal weight) 1. If the distance between two point charges is tripled, the

### A Guide to Acousto-Optic Modulators

A Guide to Acousto-Optic Modulators D. J. McCarron December 7, 2007 1 Introduction Acousto-optic modulators (AOMs) are useful devices which allow the frequency, intensity and direction of a laser beam

### Geometric Optics Converging Lenses and Mirrors Physics Lab IV

Objective Geometric Optics Converging Lenses and Mirrors Physics Lab IV In this set of lab exercises, the basic properties geometric optics concerning converging lenses and mirrors will be explored. The

### Code number given on the right hand side of the question paper should be written on the title page of the answerbook by the candidate.

Series ONS SET-1 Roll No. Candiates must write code on the title page of the answer book Please check that this question paper contains 16 printed pages. Code number given on the right hand side of the

### Crystal Optics of Visible Light

Crystal Optics of Visible Light This can be a very helpful aspect of minerals in understanding the petrographic history of a rock. The manner by which light is transferred through a mineral is a means

### 9/16 Optics 1 /11 GEOMETRIC OPTICS

9/6 Optics / GEOMETRIC OPTICS PURPOSE: To review the basics of geometric optics and to observe the function of some simple and compound optical devices. APPARATUS: Optical bench, lenses, mirror, target

### Special Theory of Relativity. A Brief introduction

Special Theory of Relativity A Brief introduction Classical Physics At the end of the 19th century it looked as if Physics was pretty well wrapped up. Newtonian mechanics and the law of Gravitation had

### PhysFest March Holography

PhysFest March 2013 Holography Holography (from the Greek, holos whole + graphe writing) is the science of producing holograms, an advanced form of photography that allows an image to be recorded in three

### C) D) As object AB is moved from its present position toward the left, the size of the image produced A) decreases B) increases C) remains the same

1. For a plane mirror, compared to the object distance, the image distance is always A) less B) greater C) the same 2. Which graph best represents the relationship between image distance (di) and object

### Proposed experiment to test the non-locality hypothesis in transient light-interference phenomena

Proposed experiment to test the non-locality hypothesis in transient light-interference phenomena Masanori Sato Honda Electronics Co., Ltd., 20 Oyamazuka, Oiwa-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-3193, Japan Abstract

### Three Lasers Converging at a Focal Point : A Demonstration

Three Lasers Converging at a Focal Point : A Demonstration Overview In this activity, students will see how we can use the property of refraction to focus parallel rays of light. Students will observe

### PHYSICS PAPER 1 (THEORY)

PHYSICS PAPER 1 (THEORY) (Three hours) (Candidates are allowed additional 15 minutes for only reading the paper. They must NOT start writing during this time.) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

### Chapter 6 Telescopes: Portals of Discovery. How does your eye form an image? Refraction. Example: Refraction at Sunset.

Chapter 6 Telescopes: Portals of Discovery 6.1 Eyes and Cameras: Everyday Light Sensors Our goals for learning:! How does your eye form an image?! How do we record images? How does your eye form an image?

### Lab 9. Optics. 9.1 Introduction

Lab 9 Name: Optics 9.1 Introduction Unlike other scientists, astronomers are far away from the objects they want to examine. Therefore astronomers learn everything about an object by studying the light

### Lecture 17. Image formation Ray tracing Calculation. Lenses Convex Concave. Mirrors Convex Concave. Optical instruments

Lecture 17. Image formation Ray tracing Calculation Lenses Convex Concave Mirrors Convex Concave Optical instruments Image formation Laws of refraction and reflection can be used to explain how lenses

### Electromagnetic Waves

. Electromagnetic Waves Concepts and Principles Putting it All Together Electric charges are surrounded by electric fields. When these charges move, the electric field changes. Additionally, these moving

### Physics 30 Worksheet # 14: Michelson Experiment

Physics 30 Worksheet # 14: Michelson Experiment 1. The speed of light found by a Michelson experiment was found to be 2.90 x 10 8 m/s. If the two hills were 20.0 km apart, what was the frequency of the

### Quantum Phenomena and the Theory of Quantum Mechanics

Quantum Phenomena and the Theory of The Mechanics of the Very Small Waseda University, SILS, Introduction to History and Philosophy of Science . Two Dark Clouds In 1900 at a Friday Evening lecture at the