The Nucleus of the Atom

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1 The Nucleus of the Atom Chapter 12 Great Idea: Nuclear energy depends on the conversion of mass into energy

2 Chapter Outline Empty Space, Explosive Energy The Organization of the Nucleus Radioactivity Energy from the Nucleus

3 Empty Space, Explosive Energy

4 Empty Space, Explosive Energy Relation of atom to nucleus What goes on in the nucleus has almost nothing to do with the atom s chemistry, and vice versa The energies available in the nucleus are much greater than those available among electrons Remember E=mc 2?

5 iclicker Question True or False: Matter cannot be converted into energy. A True B False

6 iclicker Question True or False: What goes on in the nucleus of the atom has almost nothing to do with the atom s chemistry, and vice versa. A True B False

7 iclicker Question True or False: The energies available among electrons are much greater than those available in the nucleus. B True A False

8 The Organization of the Nucleus

9 Rutherford Nucleus Proton neutron The Organization of the Nucleus Nucleus gives atom its mass

10 Atomic Numbers, Isotopes, Atomic number # of protons in nucleus Defines chemical behavior Isotopes Elements with different numbers of neutrons Mass number Total protons and neutrons and the Mass Number

11 The Strong Force Strong force Holds nucleus together Operates over short distances Binding energy

12 Geller s Subatomic Interlude

13 Subatomic Interlude II

14 A Subatomic Interlude III

15 Subatomic Interlude IIII

16 A Subatomic Interlude V Neutrinos are produced in the Weak Interaction, for example Neutrinos from the earth natural radioactivity Man-made neutrinos accelerators, nuclear power plants. Astrophysical neutrinos Solar neutrinos Atmospheric neutrinos Relic neutrinos left over from the big bang.

17 Neutrino Detection Detecting neutrinos requires a different kind of a detector.

18 Neutrino Factoids The earth receives about 40 billion neutrinos per second per cm 2 from the sun. About 100 times that amount are passing through us from the big bang. This works out to about 330 neutrinos in every cm 3 of the universe! By comparison there are about protons per cm 3 in the universe. Our body emits about 340 million neutrinos per day from 40 K. Neutrinos don t do much when passing through matter. Remember, it is very difficult to observe neutrinos.

19 Neutrino Detection II The neutrino is observed by detecting the product of its interactio n with matter. ν e ν μ Electron Muon

20 Neutrinos reveal information about the Sun s core and have surprises of their own Neutrinos emitted in thermonuclear reactions in the Sun s core have been detected, but in smaller numbers than expected Recent neutrino experiments explain why this is so

21 iclicker Question A subatomic particle with a charge of +1 is called a: A proton B neutron C electron

22 iclicker Question A subatomic particle with a charge of zero is called a: A proton B neutron C electron

23 iclicker Question Two atoms with the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons are called: A isomers B isotopes C ions

24 iclicker Question The attractive force holding particles together in the nucleus is called the: A weak force B medium force C electromagnetic force D strong force

25 iclicker Question Which subatomic particles are located in an atom s nucleus? A protons and electrons B electrons and neutrons C neutrons and protons D neutrons only

26 Radioactivity

27 What s Radioactive? Radioactivity or radioactive decay Radiation

28 The Kinds of Radioactive Decay Alpha Decay Release of particle Composed of 2 protons and 2 neutrons Beta Decay Emission of electron Neutrino Effect Weak Force Gamma Radiation Electromagnetic radiation

29 Moving Down the Chart of the Isotopes

30 Ionization Radiation and Health Stripping electron(s) Long-term effects Cancer Birth defects

31 Half-Life Half-life Average time for decay of ½ batch of radioactive isotopes Wide range of half-lives Cannot predict half-life

32 Radiometric Dating Radiometric dating Measurement of halflife Carbon-14 Half-life = 5700 years Geology Need longer halflives

33 Decay chains Decay Chains Series of decays Continues until stable isotope appears

34 Indoor Radon Decay of Uranium-238 Radon-222 Can build up Increase ventilation

35 iclicker Question The spontaneous release of energetic particles is called: A electron diffusion B magnetic repulsiveness C fusion D radioactivity

36 iclicker Question Alpha decay involves emission of which particle? A electron B helium-4 nucleus C gamma ray

37 iclicker Question Beta decay involves emission of which particle? A electron B helium-4 nucleus C gamma ray

38 iclicker Question Which statement about radiation and health is most correct? A Radiation is extremely hazardous in small amounts and kills many people shortly after exposure. B Only in unusual circumstances, such as the aftermath of nuclear weapons used on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, or the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl do people die shortly after exposure. C There are no recorded examples of human deaths occurring shortly after exposure to radioactivity.

39 iclicker Question Consider a 10.0 gram sample of an isotope which has a half-life of 15 minutes. What amount of the sample is left after 1 hour? A none B 2.5 grams C grams D 15.0 grams

40 Energy from the Nucleus

41 Nuclear Fission Fission Splitting of nuleus Nuclear Reactor Extracts energy Meltdown

42 Fusion Fusion 2 atoms of H combine to form He Some mass converted to energy Sunlight

43 iclicker Question The only significant difference between a nuclear reactor and a coal-fired generating plant is: A the turbine must spin at a much higher rate B the way the generator turns is in a clockwise direction C the way in which the steam is generated

44 iclicker Question Would you ever consider living close (within 20 miles) to a nuclear power plant? A yes B no

45 iclicker Question Do you believe the government should spend more money to develop nuclear fusion reactors to produce energy? A yes B no

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