Lecture 7 Immunology

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Lecture 7 Immunology"

Transcription

1 Slide 1 Lecture 7 Immunology Structure Components Leukocytes Lymphoid tissue Recognition of self Innate Immunity Physical and chemical barriers Phagocytosis Inflammation Adaptive immunity Humoral responses (B cells) Cell mediated responses (T cells) Immune Disorders Autoimmune diseases AIDS Learning Outcomes 1. List the principal lymphoid tissues and outline their roles 2. List the differences between innate and adaptive immunity 3. Outline some key processes of innate immunity 4. Explain some key features of adaptive immunity 5. Explain the pathophysiology of some immune disorders. Dr Alan Tuffery Physiology Medical Science 7 1 Slide 2 Role of the Immune System (IS) A network of cells and tissues that: 1. Defends the body against invading pathogens 2. Removes worn-out cells 3. Destroys abnormal/mutant cells within the body (e.g. control of cancer) Immune System can also have harmful effects: 1. Allergies / autoimmune diseases 2. Tissue rejection. Dr Alan Tuffery Physiology Medical Science 7 2 1

2 Slide 3 Infection-causing organisms (Pathogens) FUNGUS Epidermophyton floccosum (athlete s foot) BACTERIA Staphylococcus aureus (causes sepsis) VIRUS PARASITE Tapeworm Dr Alan Tuffery Physiology Polio Medical Science 7 3 Slide 4 Components White Blood Cells Lymphocyte Monocyte/macrophage B cells - secrete antibodies T cells - directly destroy foreign cells Natural Killer cells - fight Phagocytosis Secrete cytokines (signalling molecules other than antibodies). viruses Dr Alan Tuffery Physiology Medical Science 7 4 2

3 Slide 5 Components Lymphoid Tissues CENTRAL LYMPHATIC TISSUES Bone marrow - site of B cell development (and pre- T cell) Thymus site of T cell development PERIPHERAL LYMPHATIC TISSUES Spleen Lymph nodes Gut-associated lymphatic tissue (GALT) [Peyer s Patches] Adenoids Appendix Tonsils. Dr Alan Tuffery Physiology Medical Science 7 5 Slide 6 Components self-recognition Major Histocompatibilty Complex MHC on every (nucleated) cell Also known as human leukocyte associated antigens (HLA) Normally the body s immune system does not attack cells that carry this self marker i.e. MHC No two individuals, except identical twins, will ever share identical MHC. Transplant rejection Organ transplants and skin grafts may be rejected due to presence of MHC To minimise rejection, the MHC of donor and recipient are matched as closely as possible i.e. tissue typing Siblings usually provide the closest match MHC do not play a role in transfusion reactions because red blood cells do not have MHC. Dr Alan Tuffery Physiology Medical Science 7 6 3

4 Slide 7 Organisation of the Immune System IMMUNE SYSTEM INNATE IMMUNITY (non-specific; natural) ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY (specific; acquired) Skin & mucous membranes Phagocytosis Inflammation HUMORAL-MEDIATED (antibody mediated) B cells CELL-MEDIATED T cells Dr Alan Tuffery Physiology Medical Science 7 7 Slide 8 Innate vs Adaptive Immunity Innate (Phagocytosis, Inflammation) Nonspecific Defends against any pathogen upon first exposure Responds to infectious agents, chemical irritants, tissue injury, burns Adaptive (Lymphocytes) Specific Responds to specific pathogens on 2nd or later exposure Comes into play after nonspecific responses have begun. Dr Alan Tuffery Physiology Medical Science 7 8 4

5 Slide 9 Innate Immunity Initial & immediate response against invasion by a variety of pathogens The response is rapid and non-specific Main mechanisms 1. Interferon, NK cells and complement system 2. Phagocytosis (by neutrophils & macrophages) 3. Inflammation. Dr Alan Tuffery Physiology Medical Science 7 9 Slide 10 Innate 1. Interferon, Natural Killer Cells Interferon Released by virusattacked cells Protects other cells from any virus Anti-cancer effects Slows cell division Enhances action of NK cells and cytotoxic T cells (qv) Natural Killer cells Attack virusinfected cells Cause lysis NB Both IF and NK cells are non-specific any virus. Dr Alan Tuffery Physiology Medical Science

6 Slide 11 Innate 1. Complement System Many very complex actions Innate response is recognition of microorganisms Lysis of invading micro-organisms Also reinforces other inflammatory responses [hence name!]. Dr Alan Tuffery Physiology Slide 12 Medical Science 7 11 Innate 2. Phagocytosis SEM macrophage engulfing bacteria Stages of Phagocytosis 1. Attachment 2. Internalisation (0.1 s) 3. Degradation 4. Exocytosis. S&G Dr Alan Tuffery Physiology Medical Science

7 Slide 13 Innate 3. Inflammatory Response 1. Bacteria enter tissue/damage 2. Release of histamine Increased blood flow Increased vascular permeability 3. Increased leucocytes at site Results Destroy or inactivate invaders - Remove débris - Prepare for healing & repair. Animation of allergic (atopic) response Atopic_Dermatitis Dr Alan Tuffery Physiology Medical Science 7 13 Slide 14 Adaptive Immunity 1. Specificity Lymphocytes (B and T cells) bind and respond to foreign molecules known as antigens via antigen receptors 1. Diversity The body possesses millions of lymphocytes that can recognise and respond to millions of antigens (one each) Memory 1 st exposure to an antigen generates lymphocytes & long-lived memory cells next exposure to the same antigen, memory cells react more quickly & stronger response Self-Tolerance Lymphocytes can distinguish self (our normal antigens) from non-self (antigens from foreign material). Dr Alan Tuffery Physiology Medical Science

8 Slide 15 Adaptive Immunity humoral (antibody-mediated) 1. B Cells Clonal Selection Antigen fits B cell s receptors Proliferation and differentiation into S&G 23.7 (see Sherwood 12-11) 1. Plasma cells Produce antibodies in blood (immunoglobulins I g G, I g M, I g E, I g A, I g D) Short-lived 2. Memory cells (clone) With same receptor Long-lived. Dr Alan Tuffery Physiology Medical Science 7 15 Slide 16 Adaptive Cell-mediated Immunity T cells must become activated before they can attack pathogens The antigen is presented to the T cell by an ANTIGEN PRESENTING CELL (e.g. an infected macrophage) via its MHC Dr Alan Tuffery Physiology Medical Science

9 Slide 17 Activated T cell enlarges & divides into: CYTOTOXIC T CELLS kill infected cells by lysis (direct action) HELPER T CELLS (~70% of T cells) secrete cytokines that enhance the activity of cytotoxic T cells; enhance phagocytosis stimulate development of B cells into plasma cells (indirect action) SUPPRESSOR T CELLS secrete cytokines that suppress the activity of B cells, helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells; inhibit phagocytosis. Dr Alan Tuffery Physiology Medical Science 7 17 Slide 18 Adaptive Immunity can be NATURAL or ARTIFICIAL Adaptive Immunity Natural Artificial ACTIVE Antibodies or lymphocytes are produced as a result of infection PASSIVE Antibodies are passed to foetus via placenta or colostrum ACTIVE Antibodies are produced as a result of immunisation with a vaccine PASSIVE Antibodies that have been produced by another animal or given artificially. Dr Alan Tuffery Physiology Medical Science

10 Slide 19 Immune Disorders Autoimmune Diseases If immune system does not recognise its self (e.g. MHC), it reacts against normal cells and tissues DISEASE Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) SYMPTOMS fever, arthritis, mouth ulcers, Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) Multiple sclerosis (MS) (p116) inflammation and damage to the cartilage and bone of joints T cells attack myelin: Blurred vision, Muscle weakness, Ataxia Dr Alan Tuffery Physiology Medical Science 7 19 Slide 20 Immune Disorders - AIDS AIDS is caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) HIV binds to the surface of helper T cells and its nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) enter the T cell Inside the cell, HIV uses the cell to make copies of itself HIV slowly destroys helper T cells in the body (Helper T cells = 70% of all T cells) When T cell function is impaired, immune responses weaken and other diseases develop. Dr Alan Tuffery Physiology Medical Science

11 Slide 21 Immune Disorders - AIDS SYMPTOMS HIV AIDS Fatigue, fever, swollen glands, headache Swollen lymph nodes, decreased T cell count; Susceptibility to pneumonia and Kaposi sarcoma; AIDS dementia TRANSMISSION Through blood, semen, vaginal secretions and breast milk. Dr Alan Tuffery Physiology Medical Science 7 21 Slide 22 Learning Outcomes 1. List the principal lymphoid tissues and outline their roles Thymus (T cell dev.); Gut B cells) 2. List the differences between innate and adaptive immunity Specificity, 1st exposure, cell-mediated, speed 3. Outline some key processes of innate immunity phagocytosis, inflammation, immune memory, self recognition) 4. Explain some key features of adaptive immunity 5. Explain the pathophysiology of some immune disorders. Dr Alan Tuffery Physiology Medical Science

Lymphatic System - Structures

Lymphatic System - Structures Lymphatic System - Structures Lymphatic vessels Lymphatic tissues and organs 1 Lymphatic System - Functions Returns leaked plasma to blood vessels Cleanses lymph of bacteria & other foreign matter Provides

More information

11/20/2011. Outline. Immune System Function. Terminology. Two Types of Immune Defense. Innate Immunity = Non Specific

11/20/2011. Outline. Immune System Function. Terminology. Two Types of Immune Defense. Innate Immunity = Non Specific Chapter 43 Immune System Outline I. Nonspecific Defenses A. Barrier B. Protective proteins C. Phagocytes D. Natural killer cells E. Inflammatory reaction II. Specific Defenses A. B cells Antibody mediated

More information

The Immune System. 2 Types of Defense Mechanisms. Lines of Defense. Line of Defense. Lines of Defense

The Immune System. 2 Types of Defense Mechanisms. Lines of Defense. Line of Defense. Lines of Defense The Immune System 2 Types of Defense Mechanisms Immune System the system that fights infection by producing cells to inactivate foreign substances to avoid infection and disease. Immunity the body s ability

More information

ANIMALS FORM & FUNCTION BODY DEFENSES NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES PHYSICAL BARRIERS PHAGOCYTES. Animals Form & Function Activity #4 page 1

ANIMALS FORM & FUNCTION BODY DEFENSES NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES PHYSICAL BARRIERS PHAGOCYTES. Animals Form & Function Activity #4 page 1 AP BIOLOGY ANIMALS FORM & FUNCTION ACTIVITY #4 NAME DATE HOUR BODY DEFENSES NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES PHYSICAL BARRIERS PHAGOCYTES Animals Form & Function Activity #4 page 1 INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE ANTIMICROBIAL

More information

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Introduction Immune system the body s defenses against pathogens that produce disease 2 types of immunity Nonspecific immune mechanisms (Innate immunity) Provide

More information

specific B cells Humoral immunity lymphocytes antibodies B cells bone marrow Cell-mediated immunity: T cells antibodies proteins

specific B cells Humoral immunity lymphocytes antibodies B cells bone marrow Cell-mediated immunity: T cells antibodies proteins Adaptive Immunity Chapter 17: Adaptive (specific) Immunity Bio 139 Dr. Amy Rogers Host defenses that are specific to a particular infectious agent Can be innate or genetic for humans as a group: most microbes

More information

10. T and B cells are types of a. endocrine cells. c. lymphocytes. b. platelets. d. complement cells.

10. T and B cells are types of a. endocrine cells. c. lymphocytes. b. platelets. d. complement cells. Virus and Immune System Review Directions: Write your answers on a separate piece of paper. 1. Why does a cut in the skin threaten the body s nonspecific defenses against disease? a. If a cut bleeds, disease-fighting

More information

Name (print) Name (signature) Period. (Total 30 points)

Name (print) Name (signature) Period. (Total 30 points) AP Biology Worksheet Chapter 43 The Immune System Lambdin April 4, 2011 Due Date: Thurs. April 7, 2011 You may use the following: Text Notes Power point Internet One other person in class "On my honor,

More information

The Lymphatic System

The Lymphatic System The Lymphatic System Transports escaped fluids back to the blood Plays essential roles in body defense and resistance to disease Lymph excess tissue fluid carried by lymphatic vessels Properties of lymphatic

More information

Chapter 43: The Immune System

Chapter 43: The Immune System Name Period Our students consider this chapter to be a particularly challenging and important one. Expect to work your way slowly through the first three concepts. Take particular care with Concepts 43.2

More information

Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION

Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION TORTORA FUNKE CASE Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION Differentiate between innate and acquired immunity. Chapter 17 Specific Defenses of the Host: The Immune Response B.E Pruitt & Jane J. Stein

More information

Test 4 Immune System (Chapters 20 & 21)

Test 4 Immune System (Chapters 20 & 21) Test 4 Immune System (Chapters 20 & 21) Name: Date: 1) The is the largest lymphoid organ. 1) A. lymph node B. spleen C. thymus D. tonsil 2) Tonsils promote memory of pathogens by. 2) A. secreting antibodies

More information

The Body s Defenses CHAPTER 24

The Body s Defenses CHAPTER 24 CHAPTER 24 The Body s Defenses PowerPoint Lectures for Essential Biology, Third Edition Neil Campbell, Jane Reece, and Eric Simon Essential Biology with Physiology, Second Edition Neil Campbell, Jane Reece,

More information

Chapter 22: Lymphatic System and Immunity

Chapter 22: Lymphatic System and Immunity I. Lymphatic System A. Functions of the Lymphatic System - list and describe: 1. 2. 3. B. Lymphatic Vessels 1. What are lymphatic capillaries? 2. Lymphatic capillaries differ from blood capillaries in

More information

ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Thymus glandular organ near the heart where T cells learn their jobs

ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Thymus glandular organ near the heart where T cells learn their jobs THE IMMUNE SYSTEM 1 ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM 2 We all get sick sometimes...but then we get better. What happens when we get sick? Why do we get better? The immune system is localized in several parts

More information

Human Immunity. How our body s cells defend against microbial and viral invaders

Human Immunity. How our body s cells defend against microbial and viral invaders Human Immunity How our body s cells defend against microbial and viral invaders What is Immunity? The word immunity comes from the Latin immunus meaning free of burden. Thus; it is a body s general ability

More information

The Immune System: A Tutorial

The Immune System: A Tutorial The Immune System: A Tutorial Modeling and Simulation of Biological Systems 21-366B Shlomo Ta asan Images taken from http://rex.nci.nih.gov/behindthenews/uis/uisframe.htm http://copewithcytokines.de/ The

More information

Supplemental Material CBE Life Sciences Education. Su et al.

Supplemental Material CBE Life Sciences Education. Su et al. Supplemental Material CBE Life Sciences Education Su et al. APPENDIX Human Body's Immune System Test This test consists of 31 questions, with only 1 answer to be selected for each question. Please select

More information

The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs

The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs Lymphatic system functions Transports escaped fluids back

More information

One of the more complex systems we re looking at. An immune response (a response to a pathogen) can be of two types:

One of the more complex systems we re looking at. An immune response (a response to a pathogen) can be of two types: Immune system. One of the more complex systems we re looking at. An immune response (a response to a pathogen) can be of two types: (pathogen - disease causing organism) 1) Non specific. Anything foreign

More information

The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses

The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses o The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses Lymphatic system Anatomy Non specific defenses o The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs Lymphatic

More information

Recognise phagocytes and lymphocytes under the light microscope;

Recognise phagocytes and lymphocytes under the light microscope; Immunity The immune system Vaccination Learning Objective Recognise phagocytes and lymphocytes under the light microscope; The following micrographs show as to how different types of phagocytes and lymphocytes

More information

Chapter 17A: Adaptive Immunity Part I

Chapter 17A: Adaptive Immunity Part I Chapter 17A: Adaptive Immunity Part I 1. Overview of Adaptive Immunity 2. T and B Cell Production 3. Antigens & Antigen Presentation 4. Helper T cells 1. Overview of Adaptive Immunity The Nature of Adaptive

More information

The Immune System. How your immune system works. Organs of the Immune System

The Immune System. How your immune system works. Organs of the Immune System UW MEDICINE PATIENT EDUCATION The Immune System How your immune system works The immune system is a network of special cells, tissues, and organs that defend the body against attacks from foreign invaders,

More information

2) Macrophages function to engulf and present antigen to other immune cells.

2) Macrophages function to engulf and present antigen to other immune cells. Immunology The immune system has specificity and memory. It specifically recognizes different antigens and has memory for these same antigens the next time they are encountered. The Cellular Components

More information

CHAPTER 35 HUMAN IMMUNE SYSTEM STANDARDS:SC.912.L.14.52 & SC.912.L.14.6

CHAPTER 35 HUMAN IMMUNE SYSTEM STANDARDS:SC.912.L.14.52 & SC.912.L.14.6 CHAPTER 35 HUMAN IMMUNE SYSTEM STANDARDS:SC.912.L.14.52 & SC.912.L.14.6 SECTION 1 - Infectious Disease 1.Identify the causes of infectious disease. 2.Explain how infectious diseases are spread. Causes

More information

The Lymphatic System and Immunity

The Lymphatic System and Immunity 14 The Lymphatic System and Immunity FOCUS: The lymphatic system includes lymph, lymphocytes, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils, the spleen and the thymus gland. The lymphatic system helps maintain

More information

Types of Hypersensitivity. Type I: Allergic Reactions. more on Allergic Reactions

Types of Hypersensitivity. Type I: Allergic Reactions. more on Allergic Reactions Chapter 19: Disorders of the Immune System 1. Hypersensitivity 2. Autoimmunity 3. Transplant Rejection 1. Hypersensitivity What is Hypersensitivity? Hypersensitivity is an immunological state in which

More information

1) Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal A) Antibodies. B) Red blood cells. C) Transferrin. D) White blood cells. E) Receptors.

1) Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal A) Antibodies. B) Red blood cells. C) Transferrin. D) White blood cells. E) Receptors. Prof. Lester s BIOL 210 Practice Exam 4 (There is no answer key. Please do not email or ask me for answers.) Chapters 15, 16, 17, 19, HIV/AIDS, TB, Quorum Sensing 1) Siderophores are bacterial proteins

More information

Immunity. Humans have three types of immunity innate, adaptive, and passive: Innate Immunity

Immunity. Humans have three types of immunity innate, adaptive, and passive: Innate Immunity Immunity Humans have three types of immunity innate, adaptive, and passive: Innate Immunity Everyone is born with innate (or natural) immunity, a type of general protection. Many of the germs that affect

More information

Bio 20 Chapter 11 Workbook Blood and the Immune System Ms. Nyboer

Bio 20 Chapter 11 Workbook Blood and the Immune System Ms. Nyboer Bio 20 Chapter 11 Workbook Blood and the Immune System Ms. Nyboer Name: Part A: Components of Blood 1. List the 3 plasma proteins and describe the function of each Albumins osmotic balance Globulins antibodies,

More information

Chapter 14: The Lymphatic System and Immunity

Chapter 14: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Chapter 14: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Major function of the Lymphatic System o Network of vessels that collect and carry excess fluid from interstitial spaces back to blood circulation o Organs

More information

Psychoneuroimmunology. Josée L. Jarry, Ph.D. Health Psychology, psy333 Department of Psychology University of Toronto September 30, 2002

Psychoneuroimmunology. Josée L. Jarry, Ph.D. Health Psychology, psy333 Department of Psychology University of Toronto September 30, 2002 Psychoneuroimmunology Josée L. Jarry, Ph.D. Health Psychology, psy333 Department of Psychology University of Toronto September 30, 2002 Psychoneuroimmunology - Definition The study of the link between

More information

Lymph capillaries, Lymphatic collecting vessels, Valves, Lymph Duct, Lymph node, Vein

Lymph capillaries, Lymphatic collecting vessels, Valves, Lymph Duct, Lymph node, Vein WLHS/A&P/Oppelt Name Lymphatic System Practice 1. Figure 12-1 provides an overview of the lymphatic vessels. First color code the following structures. Color code in Figure 12-1 Heart Veins Lymphatic vessels/lymph

More information

Immunity and Abnormal Responses. Immune System. The Normal Immune Response. Bio 375. Pathophysiology

Immunity and Abnormal Responses. Immune System. The Normal Immune Response. Bio 375. Pathophysiology Immunity and Abnormal Responses Bio 375 Pathophysiology Immune System The immune system is a major component of the body s defenses It is a SPECIFIC defense, responding to particular substances: Cells

More information

The Immune System and Disease

The Immune System and Disease Chapter 40 The Immune System and Disease Section 40 1 Infectious Disease (pages 1029 1033) This section describes the causes of disease and explains how infectious diseases are transmitted Introduction

More information

Figure 14.2 Overview of Innate and Adaptive Immunity

Figure 14.2 Overview of Innate and Adaptive Immunity I M M U N I T Y Innate (inborn) Immunity does not distinguish one pathogen from another Figure 14.2 Overview of Innate and Adaptive Immunity Our first line of defense includes physical and chemical barriers

More information

CHAPTER 16: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY OBJECTIVES. Transport excess tissue fluid back to blood stream

CHAPTER 16: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY OBJECTIVES. Transport excess tissue fluid back to blood stream CHAPTER 16: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY OBJECTIVES 1. Name the organs that compose the lymphatic system and give three general functions performed by this system. Control Disease Bone Marrow Thymus Transport

More information

Lymphatic/Immune System Vocabulary Key

Lymphatic/Immune System Vocabulary Key Term Acquired Immunity Adenoids Antibody Antigen Axillary nodes B cell (B lymphocyte) Cervical nodes Complement system Cytokines Cytotoxic T cell Dendritic cell Helper T cell Immunity Immunoglobulins Immunotherapy

More information

The Human Immune System

The Human Immune System The Human Immune System What is the immune system? The body s defense against disease causing organisms, malfunctioning cells, and foreign particles The First Line of Defense Skin The dead, outer layer

More information

Core Topic 2. The immune system and how vaccines work

Core Topic 2. The immune system and how vaccines work Core Topic 2 The immune system and how vaccines work Learning outcome To be able to describe in outline the immune system and how vaccines work in individuals and populations Learning objectives Explain

More information

Immunity Unit Test Z

Immunity Unit Test Z Immunity Unit Test Z Name MB Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the pathogens in Figure 31.1 cause disease by taking over healthy

More information

GRADE 8 STUDY PACKET IMMUNE SYSTEM SC.6.L.14.5 AA

GRADE 8 STUDY PACKET IMMUNE SYSTEM SC.6.L.14.5 AA GRADE 8 STUDY PACKET IMMUNE SYSTEM SC.6.L.14.5 AA SC.6.L.14.5 AA Identify and investigate the general functions of the major systems of the human body (digestive, respiratory, circulatory, reproductive,

More information

Chapter 43: The Immune System

Chapter 43: The Immune System Name Period Our students consider this chapter to be a particularly challenging and important one. Expect to work your way slowly through the first three concepts. Take particular care with Concepts 43.2

More information

Name Date Class. This section explains what kinds of organisms cause infectious disease and how infectious diseases are spread.

Name Date Class. This section explains what kinds of organisms cause infectious disease and how infectious diseases are spread. Fighting Disease Name Date Class Infectious Disease This section explains what kinds of organisms cause infectious disease and how infectious diseases are spread. Use Target Reading Skills Before you read,

More information

CHAPTER 22 LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY

CHAPTER 22 LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY CHAPTER 22 LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY CHAPTER OVERVIEW: This chapter introduces the lymphatic system including diffuse lymphatic tissues. Inflammation, non-specific immunity and specific immunity are

More information

MISSION DEBRIEFING: Teacher Guide

MISSION DEBRIEFING: Teacher Guide Activity on the IMMUNE SYSTEM: The Body Fights Back In this activity, the students will use a hands-on approach to learn about the immune system and how it fights off pathogens that invade the body. They

More information

What is the lymphatic system and what are its functions? Detail the path followed by fluid entering lymphatic capillaries. What forces cause the

What is the lymphatic system and what are its functions? Detail the path followed by fluid entering lymphatic capillaries. What forces cause the 2. 2. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1 12. 13. 14. 15. What is the lymphatic system and what are its functions? Detail the path followed by fluid entering lymphatic capillaries. What forces cause the fluid

More information

Unit 9: The Lymphatic and Immune Systems NURSING PHYSIOLOGY (NRSG237)

Unit 9: The Lymphatic and Immune Systems NURSING PHYSIOLOGY (NRSG237) Unit 9: The Lymphatic and Immune Systems Dr. Moattar Raza Rizvi NURSING PHYSIOLOGY (NRSG237) Functions: Transports Excess Interstitial Fluid Back to Bloodstream Lymphatic vessels collect lymph from loose

More information

AN INTRODUCTION TO IMMUNOLOGY. Paul Thomas Unit 1 Department of Immunology St. Jude Children s Research Hospital

AN INTRODUCTION TO IMMUNOLOGY. Paul Thomas Unit 1 Department of Immunology St. Jude Children s Research Hospital AN INTRODUCTION TO IMMUNOLOGY Paul Thomas Unit 1 Department of Immunology St. Jude Children s Research Hospital CATEGORIES OF PATHOGENS Viruses (~0.2 microns) Bacteria (1-2 microns) Parasites (Millimeters)

More information

Chapter 3. Immunity and how vaccines work

Chapter 3. Immunity and how vaccines work Chapter 3 Immunity and how vaccines work 3.1 Objectives: To understand and describe the immune system and how vaccines produce immunity To understand the differences between Passive and Active immunity

More information

18 The Lymphatic System (Immune System) Nonspecific Resistance, Specific Immunity. Taft College Human Physiology

18 The Lymphatic System (Immune System) Nonspecific Resistance, Specific Immunity. Taft College Human Physiology 18 The Lymphatic System (Immune System) Nonspecific Resistance, Specific Immunity Taft College Human Physiology O 2 Diagram of Lymphatic and Cardiovascular Systems Lungs Heart Arteries w/ Plasma Arterioles

More information

Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 5e (Martini/Nath) Chapter 14 The Lymphoid System and Immunity. Multiple-Choice Questions

Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 5e (Martini/Nath) Chapter 14 The Lymphoid System and Immunity. Multiple-Choice Questions Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 5e (Martini/Nath) Chapter 14 The Lymphoid System and Immunity Multiple-Choice Questions 1) The lymphoid system is composed of A) lymphatic vessels. B) lymph nodes.

More information

Specific Defense: Adaptive Immunity

Specific Defense: Adaptive Immunity Specific Defense: Adaptive Immunity CHAPTER SUMMARY Elements of Specific Immunity (pp. 462-472) The body augments the mechanisms of nonspecific defense with another line of defense that destroys invaders

More information

Innate Immunity: Nonspecific Defenses of the Host

Innate Immunity: Nonspecific Defenses of the Host 16 Innate Immunity: Nonspecific Defenses of the Host SLOs Differentiate between innate and adaptive immunity. Define toll-like receptors. Differentiate physical from chemical factors, and list examples

More information

Body Defenses & Immunity

Body Defenses & Immunity immunity = resistance to disease Body Defenses & Immunity the immune system provides defense against all the microorganisms and toxic cells to which we are exposed without it we would not survive till

More information

Immune System Memory Game

Immune System Memory Game Immune System Memory Game Recommended Age: 12 years old Time: 45 minutes Everyday our bodies come in contact with millions of tiny organisms and particles that could potentially make us sick. Despite this,

More information

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System Slide 1 Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System Slide 2 What are the major components of the lymphatic system? Slide 3 Components of the Lymphatic System 1. Lymph: a fluid similar to plasma does not have plasma

More information

Immunology in pathology (immunopathology) Patology. immunology in pathology. immunologic response. lecture 3

Immunology in pathology (immunopathology) Patology. immunology in pathology. immunologic response. lecture 3 Patology Immunology in pathology (immunopathology) lecture 3 prof. dr hab. n. med. Andrzej Marszałek immunology in pathology Diseases with immunologic mechanism of tissue injury. Hypersensitivity reactions:

More information

Chapter 6. Fig What are the functions of blood? What is the composition of blood? Cardiovascular System: Blood

Chapter 6. Fig What are the functions of blood? What is the composition of blood? Cardiovascular System: Blood Cardiovascular System: Blood Chapter 6 6.1 Blood: An overview What are the functions of blood? Transportation: oxygen, nutrients, wastes, carbon dioxide and hormones Defense: against invasion by pathogens

More information

Basics of Immunology

Basics of Immunology Basics of Immunology 2 Basics of Immunology What is the immune system? Biological mechanism for identifying and destroying pathogens within a larger organism. Pathogens: agents that cause disease Bacteria,

More information

Welcome to Mini Med School at the Child & Family Research Institute

Welcome to Mini Med School at the Child & Family Research Institute Glossary Welcome to Mini Med School at the Child & Family Research Institute On behalf of the Faculty and Staff at the Child & Family Research Institute (CFRI), we would like to welcome you to CFRI s

More information

SYSTEM Teacher Pages THE IMMUNE. Your students will learn:

SYSTEM Teacher Pages THE IMMUNE. Your students will learn: Grade Level 3-5 Sergeant Cell s Immune System Defense Team Webquest Activity Summary Comparing immune cells with a police team, the webquest activity guides students to research the immune system online.

More information

Microbiology 532 Immunology Examination KEY October 30, 2003

Microbiology 532 Immunology Examination KEY October 30, 2003 KEY October 30, 2003 All questions have equal point value. You may keep the test questions. Multiple Choice (choose the best answer) 1. Receptors associated with innate immunity recognize microbes by detecting:

More information

Overview of the Cattle Immune System 1

Overview of the Cattle Immune System 1 Oregon State University BEEF043 Beef Cattle Library Beef Cattle Sciences Overview of the Cattle Immune System 1 Reinaldo F. Cooke 2 Introduction On average, the U.S. cattle industry loses more than $1

More information

Chapter 16: Innate Immunity

Chapter 16: Innate Immunity Chapter 16: Innate Immunity 1. Overview of Innate Immunity 2. Inflammation & Phagocytosis 3. Antimicrobial Substances 1. Overview of Innate Immunity The Body s Defenses The body has 2 types of defense

More information

Adaptive Immunity in Organ Transplantation

Adaptive Immunity in Organ Transplantation Adaptive Immunity in Organ Transplantation Rainer Krebs Transplantation Laboratory Cardiopulmonary Research Group 12-02-2014 Adaptive vs innate immunity INNATE immunity: first line of defense quick reaction,

More information

BLOOD-Chp. Chp.. 6 What are the functions of blood? What is the composition of blood? 3 major types of plasma proteins

BLOOD-Chp. Chp.. 6 What are the functions of blood? What is the composition of blood? 3 major types of plasma proteins 6.1 Blood: An overview BLOOD-Chp Chp.. 6 What are the functions of blood? Transportation: oxygen, nutrients, wastes, carbon dioxide and hormones Defense: against invasion by pathogens Regulatory functions:

More information

Immunity and how vaccines work

Immunity and how vaccines work 1 Introduction Immunity is the ability of the human body to protect itself from infectious disease. The defence mechanisms of the body are complex and include innate (non-specific, non-adaptive) mechanisms

More information

IMMUNE SYSTEM. The body s defense against:

IMMUNE SYSTEM. The body s defense against: The body s defense against: IMMUNE SYSTEM disease causing organisms or infectious agents malfunctioning cells or abnormal body cells as cancer foreign cells or particles Basic Immunity Depends on the ability

More information

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CONCEPTS: BIO113 1

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CONCEPTS: BIO113 1 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CONCEPTS: BIO113 1 There are 4 portions of this review a list of objectives, a table of diseases, sample multiple choice questions, and general questions. Your notes are the most important

More information

I. Lymphatic System A. Lymphatic Vessels (Lymphatics) 1. Lymphatic Capillaries (Terminal Lymphatics) a. Absent in the following areas: 1) Avascular

I. Lymphatic System A. Lymphatic Vessels (Lymphatics) 1. Lymphatic Capillaries (Terminal Lymphatics) a. Absent in the following areas: 1) Avascular I. Lymphatic System A. Lymphatic Vessels (Lymphatics) 1. Lymphatic Capillaries (Terminal Lymphatics) a. Absent in the following areas: 1) Avascular Tissue 2) Central Nervous System 3) Bone 4) Bone Marrow

More information

B Cells and Antibodies

B Cells and Antibodies B Cells and Antibodies Andrew Lichtman, MD PhD Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School Lecture outline Functions of antibodies B cell activation; the role of helper T cells in antibody production

More information

Chapter Outline CHAPTER 35 LYMPH TRANSPORT AND IMMUNITY

Chapter Outline CHAPTER 35 LYMPH TRANSPORT AND IMMUNITY CHAPTER 35 LYMPH TRANSPORT AND IMMUNITY Chapter Outline 35.1 Lymphatic System A. Lymphatic System Characteristics 1. The mammalian lymphatic system consists of lymphatic vessels and lymphoid organs. 2.

More information

White Blood Cells (WBCs) or Leukocytes

White Blood Cells (WBCs) or Leukocytes Lec.5 Z.H.Al-Zubaydi Medical Physiology White Blood Cells (WBCs) or Leukocytes Although leukocytes are far less numerous than red blood cells, they are important to body defense against disease. On average,

More information

Blood, Lymphatic and Immune Systems

Blood, Lymphatic and Immune Systems Component 3-Terminology in Healthcare and Public Health Settings Unit 4-Blood, Lymphatic and Immune Systems This material was developed by The University of Alabama at Birmingham, funded by the Department

More information

Inflammation and Healing. Review of Normal Defenses. Review of Normal Capillary Exchange. BIO 375 Pathophysiology

Inflammation and Healing. Review of Normal Defenses. Review of Normal Capillary Exchange. BIO 375 Pathophysiology Inflammation and Healing BIO 375 Pathophysiology Review of Normal Defenses Review of Normal Capillary Exchange 1 Inflammation Inflammation is a biochemical and cellular process that occurs in vascularized

More information

CHAPTER 14 CELL SURFACE MARKERS OF T-CELLS, B-CELLS AND MACROPHAGES

CHAPTER 14 CELL SURFACE MARKERS OF T-CELLS, B-CELLS AND MACROPHAGES CHAPTER 14 CELL SURFACE MARKERS OF T-CELLS, B-CELLS AND MACROPHAGES An understanding of the distinct families of molecules present on different cells of the immune system provides the tools for distinguishing

More information

Blood & Marrow Transplant Glossary. Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Program Patient Guide

Blood & Marrow Transplant Glossary. Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Program Patient Guide Blood & Marrow Transplant Glossary Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Program Patient Guide Glossary Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) -- Also called "absolute granulocyte count" amount of white blood

More information

Autoimmunity and immunemediated. FOCiS. Lecture outline

Autoimmunity and immunemediated. FOCiS. Lecture outline 1 Autoimmunity and immunemediated inflammatory diseases Abul K. Abbas, MD UCSF FOCiS 2 Lecture outline Pathogenesis of autoimmunity: why selftolerance fails Genetics of autoimmune diseases Therapeutic

More information

SQA CfE Higher Human Biology Unit 4: Immunology and Public Health

SQA CfE Higher Human Biology Unit 4: Immunology and Public Health SCHOLAR Study Guide SQA CfE Higher Human Biology Unit 4: Immunology and Public Health Authored by: Eoin McIntyre Reviewed by: Sheena Haddow Previously authored by: Mike Cheung Eileen Humphrey Eoin McIntyre

More information

Type II. Antibody-mediated cytotoxic hypersensitivity

Type II. Antibody-mediated cytotoxic hypersensitivity Type II Antibody-mediated cytotoxic hypersensitivity The four types of hypersensitive responses Kuby J et al., Immunology 2003 Type II hypersensitivity reactions (1) - Caused by antibody to cell surface

More information

The Cardiovascular System: Blood

The Cardiovascular System: Blood Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, 4th Edition Martini / Bartholomew The Cardiovascular System: Blood PowerPoint Lecture Outlines prepared by Alan Magid, Duke University Slides 1 to 54 The Functions of

More information

ME 411 / ME 511. Biological Frameworks for Engineers

ME 411 / ME 511. Biological Frameworks for Engineers ME 411 / ME 511 Biological Frameworks for Engineers Class Organization Lab 1 due today Hw 3 due on Friday Lab 2 Lab-on-a-Chip Fri, More 320 Sign up for 2:00-3:15, 3:15-4:30 slots Read the pre-lab instructions

More information

T h. Immunity. Why? Model 1 Cell Mediated Response. How does our immune system protect us from disease?

T h. Immunity. Why? Model 1 Cell Mediated Response. How does our immune system protect us from disease? Why? Immunity How does our immune system protect us from disease? One way in which organisms maintain homeostasis is by detecting foreign cells and particles like pathogens and cancer cells. Once the pathogen

More information

Hapten - a small molecule that is antigenic but not (by itself) immunogenic.

Hapten - a small molecule that is antigenic but not (by itself) immunogenic. Chapter 3. Antigens Terminology: Antigen: Substances that can be recognized by the surface antibody (B cells) or by the TCR (T cells) when associated with MHC molecules Immunogenicity VS Antigenicity:

More information

Understanding the Immune System

Understanding the Immune System Understanding the Immune System How It Works U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Artwork by Jeanne Kelly Understanding

More information

DISEASE CAUSES AND TRANSMISSION DISEASE - any condition that prevents an organism from functioning effectively in its surroundings INFECTIOUS DISEASES

DISEASE CAUSES AND TRANSMISSION DISEASE - any condition that prevents an organism from functioning effectively in its surroundings INFECTIOUS DISEASES DISEASE CAUSES AND TRANSMISSION DISEASE - any condition that prevents an organism from functioning effectively in its surroundings INFECTIOUS DISEASES caused by pathogen (e.g. bacterium, fungus, protozoan,

More information

Lymphatic System. Chapter 20. Lymphatic System: Overview. Consists of two semi-independent parts:

Lymphatic System. Chapter 20. Lymphatic System: Overview. Consists of two semi-independent parts: Lymphatic System Chapter 20 Lymphatic System: Overview Consists of two semi-independent parts: A network of lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs scattered throughout the body Returns interstitial

More information

Candy Antigens and Antibodies

Candy Antigens and Antibodies LAB ACTIVITY: Candy Antigens and Antibodies TEACHER S EDITION Curricular Links: Biology 20, Science 30 Class Time: 1 period Suggested Answers: Question 1: What is the main function of red blood cells?

More information

Unit Four. Human Anatomy & Physiology

Unit Four. Human Anatomy & Physiology Human Anatomy & Physiology 16 Lymphatic System URLs http://www.howstuffworks.com/immune-system.htm http://www.thebody.com/step/immune.html http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/ BioBookIMMUN.html

More information

Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (SCID)

Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (SCID) Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (SCID) ASCIA EDUCATION RESOURCES (AER) PATIENT INFORMATION Severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) is the most serious form of primary immune deficiency and is usually

More information

Single-celled microorganisms, which can live inside or outside the body. Some cause sickness, but others are harmless.

Single-celled microorganisms, which can live inside or outside the body. Some cause sickness, but others are harmless. The Science behind the Noses are Red show: Introduction: The Noses are Red show is about allergies and the biological causes behind them. In order to explain allergies you need to understand a certain

More information

Understanding How Existing and Emerging MS Therapies Work

Understanding How Existing and Emerging MS Therapies Work Understanding How Existing and Emerging MS Therapies Work This is a promising and hopeful time in the field of multiple sclerosis (MS). Many new and different therapies are nearing the final stages of

More information

37 2 Blood and the Lymphatic System Slide 1 of 34

37 2 Blood and the Lymphatic System Slide 1 of 34 1 of 34 Blood is a connective tissue that contains both dissolved substances and specialized cells. 2 of 34 The functions of blood include: collecting oxygen from the lungs, nutrients from the digestive

More information

Overview. The Lymphatic System. Parts of the Lymphatic System. Organization of the Lymphatic System. The Immune System

Overview. The Lymphatic System. Parts of the Lymphatic System. Organization of the Lymphatic System. The Immune System Overview Chapter 20, 21. Lymphatic and Immune Systems Part I. Tissues and Nonspecific Immunity Lymphatic system functions Lymph vessel anatomy Lymphocytes Lymphatic tissues (nodules) Lymphatic organs (nodes,

More information

If you have a cold or the flu, you can spread the sickness to someone else. How does the sickness spread? Write your ideas on the lines below.

If you have a cold or the flu, you can spread the sickness to someone else. How does the sickness spread? Write your ideas on the lines below. The Immune System Textbook pages 100 109 Before You Read Section 3.1 Summary If you have a cold or the flu, you can spread the sickness to someone else. How does the sickness spread? Write your ideas on

More information

Immuno-Oncology Therapies to Treat Lung Cancer

Immuno-Oncology Therapies to Treat Lung Cancer Immuno-Oncology Therapies to Treat Lung Cancer What you need to know ONCHQ14NP07519 Introduction: Immuno-oncology represents an innovative approach to cancer research that seeks to harness the body s own

More information

Asthma (With a little SCID to start) Disclosures Outline Starting with the Immune System The Innate Immune System The Adaptive Immune System

Asthma (With a little SCID to start) Disclosures Outline Starting with the Immune System The Innate Immune System The Adaptive Immune System 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Asthma (With a little SCID to start) Lauren Smith, MD CHKD Pediatric Allergy/Immunology Disclosures None Will be discussing some medications that are not yet FDA approved Outline SCID

More information

Mosby s PATHOLOGY for Massage Therapists. Lesson 9.1 Objectives. Chapter 9 Lymphatic and Immune Pathologies. Lymphatic System Overview

Mosby s PATHOLOGY for Massage Therapists. Lesson 9.1 Objectives. Chapter 9 Lymphatic and Immune Pathologies. Lymphatic System Overview Mosby s PATHOLOGY for Massage Therapists Chapter 9 Lymphatic and Immune Pathologies Lesson 9.1 Objectives Discuss anatomic structures and physiologic processes related to the lymphatic system. Describe

More information