Biology, I: Midterm Review Mrs. DiMarcella

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1 Unit 1: Foundations of Biology Biology, I: Midterm Review Mrs. DiMarcella The Science of Life (pages 4-29) o The World of Biology o Themes in Biology o The Study of Biology LAB: Dependent and Independent Variables Chemistry of Life (pages 30-49) o Composition and Matter o Energy o Water and Solutions LAB: Enzymes and Reactions Biochemistry (pages 50-65) o Carbon Compounds o Molecules of Life LAB: Organic Macromolecules Unit 2: Cell Biology Cell Structure and Function (pages 68-95) o The History of Cell Biology o Introduction to Cells o Cell Organelles and Features o Unique Features of Plant Cells LAB: Eukaryote Cells Homeostasis and Cell Transport (pages ) o Passive Transport o Active Transport LAB: Passive and Active Transport Photosynthesis (pages , ) o Leaves (Chapter 29, pages ) o The Light Reactions o The Calvin Cycle LAB: Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration (pages ) o Glycolysis and Fermentation o Aerobic Respiration LAB: Cellular Respiration Cell Reproduction (pages ) o Chromosomes o Cell Division o Meiosis LAB: The Cell Cycle and Cancer LAB: Meiosis

2 The Science of Life 1. The steps of the scientific method are: a. b. c. d. e. f. 2. Describe the difference between a control and a variable in an experiment. 3. List and describe 2 types of variables. variable variable - 4. Be able to convert from milli-, centi-, kilo-, in any direction. Example: convert 45mm into cm. 5. What is the total magnification for a microscope with an ocular at 10x magnification and an objective at 50x magnification? 6. What are the differences and similarities and uses of: a. Light microscope: b. Scanning electron microscope: (SEM) c. Transmission electron microscope: (TEM) 7. List and describe characteristics of living things? 2

3 Chemistry of Life 8. Define atom, elements, and compounds. Atom Elements Compound - 9. Determine the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons given an element from the periodic table or given the mass number and atomic number for an element. Fill in the table below using a periodic table. Element Atomic # # of protons # of electrons # of neutrons Mass # Si B Compare and contrast isotopes of the same element P U Explain the difference between covalent bonds, ionic bonds, and hydrogen bonds. 12. Identify the number and kind of atoms in a chemical formula. Practice with the following chemical equation: 6H 2 O + 6CO 2 è C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O Distinguish between acids and bases. Illustrate acids and bases by diagraming on a scale of 0 to 14. Reference neutral and where on the scale it would be located. 14. Identify the reactants and products in the following chemical equation: 6H 2 O + 6CO 2 è C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 3

4 15. Why is water an important and abundant compound for life? 16. Describe the structure of a water molecule = polar compound. 17. Explain the unique properties of water and give an example of each: a. Cohesion b. Adhesion c. Surface tension d. Capillary action i. Example 18. Define the terms solution, solute, and solvent and give an example of each. a. Solution - b. Solute - c. Solvent What is a monomer? Biochemistry 20. Carbon can form how many and which type of bonds? bonds. 21. Name and give the function of a carbohydrate monomer. 4

5 22. Name and give the functions of 2 disaccharides and 2 polysaccharides. Two Examples Disaccharides Polysaccharides Two Functions 23. Compare and contrast Starch and Cellulose. 24. What is an enzyme and how does it work as a catalyst in relationship to activation energy? 25. Draw 2 amino acids joined together by dehydration. Circle and name the 2 functional groups. Mark the peptide bond with an arrow and remove the molecule of. 26. Using the dehydration synthesis reaction below, CIRCLE the reactants and BOX the products? Why is the hydrolysis reaction considered the opposite reaction to dehydration? 27. What are the monomers of proteins? 28. What is C 6 H 12 O 6? 29. Lipid monomer is composed of 3 and. 30. The monomer of nucleic acids is called. 5

6 31. Identify the 3 parts of a nucleotide? a. b. c. 32. An example of complex carbohydrate found in plants is and its function is. 33. Which element is found in a compound that is organic? 34. Are CO and CO 2 organic? Why or why not? 35. What indicator should be used to test for the presence of starch? Describe the color change. 36. is the most abundant inorganic compound in living things and give 3 reasons why it is necessary for life. a. b. c. 37. Label the following functional groups. 6

7 Cell Structure and Function 38. Describe 2 major differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. a. b. 39. Distinguish 3 major differences between a plant cell and an animal cell. a. b. c. 40. Give the function of the following organelles. a. Ribosome b. Central Vacuole c. Mitochondria d. Nucleus e. Nucleolus f. Rough ER g. Golgi apparatus h. Chloroplast - i. Cell wall j. Cell membrane 7

8 41. Using the terms listed above (#40), label the following cross-sections of animal and plant cells. 42. What part of the cell contains the genetic code in an eukaryote? and in a prokaryote? 43. What organelle is made up of a lipid bilayer with proteins embedded within? Homeostasis and Cell Transport 44. Compare and contrast diffusion and osmosis. Give an example of each. a. Diffusion b. Osmosis i. Example 45. What does selectively permeable refer to? 46. Distinguish between Active transport and Passive transport and give examples of each. a. Active transport i. Examples - b. Passive Transport i. Examples - 8

9 47. Define the following and the effects on plant and animal cells. a. hypertonic: i. Effects - b. hypotonic: i. Effects - c. isotonic: i. Effects Fill in the following: Active transport Exocytosis pumps 49. Describe the following and an example of each: a. Pinocytosis - b. Phagocytosis c. Exocytosis pinocytosis 50. Using the diagram, explain how and why the molecules move? Explain what is meant by equilibrium. Write your answer below the diagram. 9

10 Photosynthesis 51. Matching: Use the words below and match with the best definition. (Refer to Chapter 29) a. Waxy layer, prevents water loss: b. Opening in leaf (gas exchange): c. Transports food: d. Controls size of stoma: e. Transports H 2 O/minerals: Cutin/cuticle Guard cells Phloem Stoma Xylem 52. What is the balance equation for photosynthesis? a. Reactants: b. Products: 53. What is ATP? 54. What is the source of energy for photosynthesis? What kind of energy is it converted into by photosynthesis? 55. What are the reactants and products for the light reaction? 56. What are the reactants and products for the dark reaction? 57. Which is the most common pigment in plants? What wavelengths are absorbed? 58. Label where the light and dark reactions take place in the chloroplasts. 59. Use the following words to label the diagram: CO 2, Light, Water, ATP, NADP+, O 2, Sugar 10

11 Cellular Respiration 60. Where does respiration occur? Why? 61. The ultimate source of energy on earth is the. 62. What is the balance equation for cellular respiration? a. Reactants: b. Products: 63. What kinds of organisms perform cellular respiration? 64. Distinguish the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration. a. aerobic respiration b. anaerobic respiration 65. The process that involves oxygen and breaks down food molecules (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) to release energy is called. 66. Glucose is split into 2 pyruvic acid or pyruvate molecules by the process of. 67. The burning/cramping in our muscles after vigorous exercise is fermentation. 68. Aerobic respiration or complete cellular respiration takes place in which organelle? 69. Glycolysis produces how many ATP? 70. The complete breakdown of one molecule of glucose results in the making of ATP. 71. Photosynthesis is to chloroplasts as cellular respiration is to 11

12 Cell Reproduction Mitosis Review 72. Describe what happens in each of the stages of the cell cycle. a. Interphase: i. G 1 Phase - b. Mitosis: ii. S Phase - iii. G 2 Phase - c. Cytokinesis: 73. Assign Chromosome number to each phase of mitosis. (Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase). Assume there are 46 chromosomes in interphase. 74. Distinguish between: a. Chromatin b. Chromosome c. Chromatid d. Centromere What is the end result of Mitosis? 12

13 Meiosis Review 76. Complete the chart to compare and contrast Mitosis and Meiosis. Number of Divisions Number of Cells Produced New Cells: Haploid or Diploid? Purpose Mitosis Meiosis 77. Distinguish between chromosome number: a. Diploid b. Haploid Discuss how mutations and crossing-over affect genetic variety. 13

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