Railway Pier Williamstown. Presented By David Wallace

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1 Race Signals

2 Railway Pier Williamstown Presented By David Wallace

3 Where does the Code of Signals come from? The first public commercial code (there were earlier private semi-commercial codes, as used for instance by the East India Company) was the "Code of Signals for the Merchant Service". This was produced in 1817 by Captain Fredrick Marryat, R.N. as the result of problems experienced by ships of the Royal Navy trying to communicate with merchant ships in convoy. It was a numeric code for British ships only, based upon the "Signal Book for Ships of War", which had been introduced for all ships in the Royal Navy in It was modified with words more appropriate for commercial use. Ships of other countries began using it, and in 1854, when the 12th edition was published, it was re-titled, "The Universal Code of Signals". In 1855 the British "Board of Trade" decided that maritime signals needed to be regulated, and authorised the publication in 1857, of the "Commercial Code of Signals". This was an alphabetical code and a considerable improvement on Marryat's code. It was re-named the "International Code" in about 1870, and revised in 1901 and There was another revision to the Code in 1969 but mainly to sections dealing with electronic communication.

4 Race signals Sail races are governed with flags and sound signals to indicate flag changes. The flags used are taken from the International Maritime Code of Signals flag set. During a race and for any signal concerning the race, these flags are defined in the ISAF Racing Rules of Sailing, but the signal can be modified by the Sailing Instructions. The raising (hoisting) or removing of a visual signal is accompanied by the emission of a sound signal to draw attention to the new signal. The type of the sound signal (one short sound, two short sounds, one long sound, etc.) is described by the rule according to the type of signal.

5 Signal flags that have been added to Race SI,s for various reasons The follow me flag used by RYCT to signal we are leaving the dock and going to the start area. The course was quite big due to variations in wind and tide and the boats did not have motors. Coach and Jury Flags to clarify which power boats were permitted on the course area

6 Postponement signal The Answering Pennant (AP) with or without a numerical pennant is used to indicate a postponed race. A numerical pennant below the AP denotes the time, in hours, of the race postponement. Flag signal Number of sound signals when raised Number of sound signals when lowered Description AP Races not yet started are postponed. AP 1 Races not yet started are postponed 1 hour. AP 2 Races not yet started are postponed 2 hours. AP 3 Races not yet started are postponed 3 hours. AP A Races not yet started are postponed. No more racing today. AP H Races not yet started are postponed. More information ashore.

7 Preparatory signal These signal flags are used before a race start and most commonly as part of a start sequence/procedure. Flag signal Number of sound signals when raised Number of sound signals when lowered Description P Normal preparatory signal - no starting penalties are in effect. A boat over the line at the start can return through the line or round an ends but must keep clear of boats not returning. If they fail to return through the line however they will be scored OCS I The Round-an-End Rule 30.1 will be in effect. A boat over the line during the minute before the start must sail to the pre-start side of the line around either end before starting. If they fail to do this they will be scored OCS Z The 20% Penalty Rule 30.2 will be in effect. A boat within the triangle formed by the ends of the line and the first mark during the minute before the start will receive a 20% scoring penalty I Z Both the I flag rule and the Z flag Rule will be in effect during the minute before the start. If they fail to round and end then they will be scored OCS black The Black Flag Rule 30.3 will be in effect. A boat within the triangle formed by the ends of the line and the first mark during the minute before the start will be disqualified without a hearing

8 Start signal These signal flags are used in the pre-start procedure. Class flags can be numeral pennants 1 Flag signal Number of sound signals when raised Number of sound signals when lowered Description, Warning Signal. 5 minutes to race start when class flag raised. (R flag is combined divisions in RYCV SIs.) P P Long sound Preparatory signal. 4 minutes to start when P flag raised. Flag P used or if a starting penalty applies I, Z, Black flag or I over Z is used in place of P. Preparatory signal. P flag removed 1 minute before start. Flag P used or if a starting penalty applies I, Z, Black flag or I over Z is used in place of P. Usually a horn or whistle. Start Signal. Race start when class flag removed.

9 Recall signal Flag signal X Number of sound signals when raised Number of sound signals when lowered Description Individual recall. One or more boats did not start correctly and must return back and do a proper start. The X flag is displayed until the earliest of the following: all boats over the line early have returned correctly, 4 minutes from the start or until one minute before the next start. (The sound signal is in addition to the start sound signal) 1st Sub General recall. All boats are to return and then a new start sequence will begin. Signalled when there are unidentified boats over the line or subject to one of the starting penalties, or there has been an error in the starting procedure. The new warning signal for the recalled class will be made 1 minute after the 1st substitute is removed. (The two sound signals when the first substitute is displayed are in addition to the start sound signal)

10 Flag signal Number of sound signals when raised Number of sound signals when lowered Description S Shortened Course. When displayed at a rounding mark the finish is between the nearby mark and the mast displaying the S flag. When displayed at a line that boats are required to cross at the end of each lap the finish is that line. When displayed at a gate the finish is between the gate marks. C... Course Change. When displayed at a rounding mark, the position of the next mark has been changed. If the direction to the mark has changed it shall be indicated by displaying the new compass bearing or a green triangular flag (or board) for a change to starboard or a red rectangular flag (or board) for a change to port. If the length of the leg has changed then this shall be signalled by displaying a "-" if the leg will shorter or a "+" if the leg will be longer. Repeated sound signals should be made to draw attention to the signal.

11

12 On Station Flag I am on station and ready to take any sign-on requests as per S.I.s. A start sequence will be made soon. ( not less that 5 mins ) All sighting of the start line are taken between this flag and the Pin end buoy.

13 Abandonment signal Flag signal Number of sound signals when raised Number of sound signals when lowered Description N All races that have started are abandoned. Return to starting area for a new start. The first warning signal will be made 1 minute after N is removed. N A All races are abandoned. No more racing today. N H All races are abandoned. More information ashore.

14 Other signals Flag signal Number of sound signals when raised Number of sound signals when lowered Description L When displayed afloat means: Come within hail or follow this boat. When displayed ashore means: A notice to competitors has been posted. M... Indicates a boat or an object displaying this signal replaces a missing mark. Repeated sound signals should be made to draw attention to the signal. Y All people on board should wear a personal life jacket or personal buoyancy. BLUE When displayed the race committee boat is in position at the finishing line.

15 Alfa Diver Down; Keep Clear Bravo Dangerous Cargo Charlie Yes Delta Keep Clear Echo Altering Course to Starboard Foxtrot Disabled Golf Want a Pilot Hotel Pilot on Board India Altering Course to Port Juliet On Fire; Keep Clear

16 Kilo Desire to Communicate Lima Stop Instantly Mike I Am Stopped November No Oscar Man Overboard Papa About to Sail Quebec Request Pratique Romeo Sierra Engines Going Astern

17 Tango Keep Clear of Me Uniform Standing into Danger Victor Require Assistance Whiskey Require Medical Assistance X-ray Stop Your Intention Yankee Am Dragging Anchor Zulu Require a Tug

18 What flag am I?

19 Akuna 4 off Pt Lonsdale I am the pilot boat

20 1st Substitute Repeat First Flag 2nd Substitute Repeat Second Flag 3rd Substitute Repeat Third Flag

21 . Phew! What flag am I

22 The Church Pennant History The origin of the broad pennant combination of the English Flag at the hoist and the Dutch National Flag in the fly originating from the Anglo- Dutch wars of the late 17th century on Sundays to indicate that a church service was in progress and a ceasefire existed between the warring nations This may not be the true story of the origin of this pennant. But is still considered one of the oldest unchanged flags in the Naval flag signal locker.

23 Code End of Message / Decimal Zero One Two Three Four Five

24 Six Seven Eight Niner

25 Answer: I am in distress What do these flags all have in common?

26

27 So we can figure out what signals are these or what we need to use. Or can we? A flag (blue and white flag) means a diver below. See next slide to figure out the other 2 signs.

28 Multiple letter hoists Proceed at slow speed when passing. LOW WASH Please I am undertaking underwater survey work. Keep Clear and low wash

29 Gin Flag As per most of the navies of the Commonwealth The End Thankyou for your interest

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