Fossil Fuel Formation. How did fossil fuels form?

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1 Fossil Fuel Formation How did fossil fuels form?

2 Fossil Fuels three major forms of fossil fuels: coal, oil and natural gas. all formed 360 to 286 million years ago most before the time of the dinosaurs the land was covered with swamps filled with huge trees, ferns and other large leafy plants the water and seas were filled with algae - the green stuff that forms on a stagnant pool of water. (Algae is actually millions of very small plants.)

3 COAL formed from the remains of vegetation most of our coal was formed about 300 million years ago, when much of the earth was covered by steamy swamps as plants and trees died, their remains sank to the bottom of the swampy areas, accumulating layer upon layer and eventually forming a soggy, dense material called peat most important element in the plant material is carbon, which gives coal most of its energy

4 COAL Don t confuse coal and charcoal! NOT Charcoal that comes from burned wood

5 land material washed into the sea from the land sea living material dies remains of plankton tiny forms of sea life layers of sediment form when sand and other materials settle on the ocean floor

6 parts of the dead materials change to hydrocarbons mixed with other sedimentary materials layers become more and more compressed as further layers settle on top

7 new material depositing sediment forms a layer that cannot be penetrated, called cap rock gas oil gas, oil, and water Earth movements cause folds in Earth s crust

8 Cross section of porous sandstone. The dark shading indicates the spaces that contain oil.

9 OIL also formed more than 300 million years ago scientists believe that tiny diatoms are the source of oil diatoms are sea creatures the size of a pin head like plants they convert sunlight directly into stored energy as the diatoms died they fell to the sea floor and were buried under sediment and other rock the rock squeezed the diatoms and the energy in their bodies could not escape the carbon eventually turned into oil under great pressure and heat

10 About three-quarters (3/4) of the oil used in the United States comes from outside the Persian Gulf in the Middle East. That's due to large North American producers like the U.S. itself, Canada and Mexico. The U.S. is among the world's leaders in oil production. Almost 40% of the oil we consume is produced here at home, primarily in Texas, Alaska, California, Louisiana, and Oklahoma

11

12 Natural Gas most scientists believe that natural gas was formed from the remains of tiny sea animals and plants that died million years ago main ingredient is methane, a natural compound that is formed whenever plant and animal matter decays after a long period of time concentrations of natural gas became trapped in the rock layers much like a wet household sponge traps water

13 Natural Gas don't confuse natural gas with "gasoline," which we call "gas" for short. Natural Gas comes from pockets of gas deep in the Earth Gas is a petroleum product and comes from oil

14 Tiny sea plants and animals died and were buried on the ocean floor. Over time, they were covered by layers of silt and sand. Over millions of years, the remains were buried deeper and deeper. The enormous heat and pressure turned them into oil and gas. Today, we drill down through layers of sand, silt, and rock to reach the rock formations that contain oil and gas deposits.

15 Natural Gas Use Vehicle fuel 0.1% Pipeline Fuel 2.6% Oil & Gas industry operations 4.9%

16 Saving Fossil Fuels Fossil fuels take millions of years to make. We are using up the fuels that were made more than 300 million years ago before the time of the dinosaurs. Once they are gone they are gone. So, it's best to not waste fossil fuels. They are not renewable; they can't really be made again. We can save fossil fuels by conserving energy.

17 What did you learn? 1. Which one of these is NOT a fossil fuel? A. natural gas B. coal C. oil D. charcoal

18 2. How was most of our fossil fuel formed? A. from dead dinosaurs B. from dead plants and animals C. from oil wells D. from sedimentary rock

19 3. Why are oil, coal, and natural gas called Nonrenewable fuels. A. because they are hard to find B. because people don t use them C. because it takes millions of years to make more D. because they are buried underground

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