2-1-3: Conventional Energy & Fossil Fuels

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1 2-1-3: Conventional Energy & Fossil Fuels After this lecture you should be able to Explain how different types of fossil fuels are formed and harvested. Analyze the pros and cons of using fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Compare potential reserves with regional and global consumption patterns. Identify potential, long-term environmental impacts of extensive fossil fuel use.

2 When I say FOSSIL FUELS what is the first thing that comes to mind?

3 What are Fossil Fuels Fossil Fuels are a series of compounds that are formed from the anaerobic (without oxygen) decomposi=on of organic ma>er. The process that forms F.F. can takes millions of years and extremely high pressure. When combusted (burned) the energy stored in the bonds of these compounds is released. 90% of energy consumed in the world is derived from the combus=on of fossil fuels. Fossil Fuels include: Coal Petroleum Natural Gas

4 The Short Version of a LONG Story

5 Petroleum & Natural Gas Petroleum and Natural Gas can be found in large pockets or traps in the Earth s crust. The rock that makes up the layers of the Earth s crust have varying degrees of porosity that allow for petroleum and natural gas to migrate through the crust. When the petroleum reaches a layer that is impermeable to it it becomes trapped in a reservoir, or well.

6 But Where to Drill?

7 Drilling, Mining and Extraction There are various methods of extrac=on, but most consist of drilling through the crust and pumping the contents out. Primary Produc=on (direct pumping) is only able to extract about 25% of the es=mated reserve in a specific well. Enhanced Recovery involves injec=ng steam, chemicals and gasses into the well to dive reserves up, resul=ng in approximately 60% extrac=on.

8 Getting to it and Getting it out

9 Now What? Extracted crude oil must be refined. This includes hea=ng and chemical separa=on process that The crude can be refined into gasoline and other fuels or can also be processed and used to produce plas=cs, asphalt, and a variety of other products.

10 The Downside(s) Drilling & Extrac=on Drilling is a massive undertaking that can fundamentally disrupt any ecosystem where it takes place. Habitat destruc=on Cycle disrup=ons Popula=on varia=ons Oil is brought up through several layers that go through underground water supply and can result in sink holes. Leaks can result in spills of crude oil that is very difficult to remove from ecosystem, especially aqua=c ecosystems. Processing & Refining As with any refining process, the unwanted/unusable products are removed from the source product. Those contaminants/ pollutants must be discarded, but are highly concentrated. If not treated properly, these by- products can end up back in the soil, water, and air where they are processed.

11 The Downside(s) (Continued) Transporta=on Burning of Fossil Fuels When moving petroleum products from source to loca=on of use, there is always a risk of spills, leaks, and other issues. Combus=on of fossil fuels result in the release of carbon dioxide gas, which, in high quan==es, can trap heat in the atmosphere. Addi=onally, the amount of energy need to transport these products is considerable given their mass and the shear amount needed by the receiver. Combus=on also results in other gasses being placed into the atmosphere including: Sulfur Oxides (Acid rain) V.O.C. s

12 Oil in the 21 st Century Dependency Having a source of energy that accounts for over 90% of the global energy consump=on pushes technological advances toward use of that energy source. As advances in technology become more common place, the perceived need for that energy source increases. The result is a dependency on that type of energy. Poten=al Issues The world consumes approximately 3 barrels of oil for each 1 it produces (sustainable?) Impending shortages would likely result in: Military conflicts Food source disrup=on Erra=c markets To avoid these we need to consider energy alterna=ves, find more efficient ways of extrac=on of fossil fuels and/or find new sources.

13 End of Lecture Objectives Explain how different types of fossil fuels are formed and harvested. Analyze the pros and cons of using fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Compare potential reserves with regional and global consumption patterns. Identify potential, long-term environmental impacts of extensive fossil fuel use.

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