# Lattice Constellations for aylei ading and Gaussian Ch S

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

2 BOUTROS et al.: GOOD LATTICE CONSTELLATIONS FOR BOTH RAYLEIGH FADING AND GAUSSIAN CHANNELS 503 P bits per two dimensions 2m q=- n Decoded Bit. c- (MAPPER)- - f MLDETECTION - Fig. 1. The transmission system. DEINTERLEAVER over the Gaussian channel. These constellations are ob1 ained using some results in algebraic number theory, which will be presented in the various subsections. The second approach (Section VI) goes in the opposite direction: starting from good constellations for the Gaussian channel we try modifying them to increase their diversity. In this section we will need some further results in algebraic number theoq related to ideals and their factorization. Section VI1 will illustrate the decoding algorithm used with these lattice constellations together with practical results. Finally, in Section VIII we discuss the two different approaches to establish which one is the most effective. 11. SYSTEM MODEL AND TERMINOLOGY The baseband transmission system is shown in Fig. I. The mapper associates an m-uple of input bits to a signal point z = (x~,xz,..., z,) in the n-dimensionid Euclidean space R. Let M = 2m be the total number of signal points in the constellation. An interleaver precedes the channel in the system model. It interleaves the real components of the sequence of mapped points. The constellation points are transmitted either over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, giving r = z + n or over an independent Rayleigh fading channel (RFC) giving r = Q * z + n, where r is the received point, n = (1~1,122,..., n,) is a noise vector, whose real components n, are zero-mean, No variance Gaussian distributed independent random variables, a = (al, a2,... a,) are the random fading coefficients with unit second moment, and * represents the componentwise product. Signal demodulation is assumed to be coherent, so that the fading Coefficients can be modeled after phase elimination, as real random variables with a Rayleigh distribution. The independence of the fading samples represents the situation where ithe components of the transmitted points are perfectly interleaved. We note that in the case of totally complex lattices (Sections IV-C and VI), interleaving can be done symbol by symbol instead of componentwise. The A4 transmitted signals z are chosen from a finite constellation S which is carved from a lattice A. In panicular, the points of the constellation are chosen among the firsi, shells of the lattice, so that the signal set approaches the optimal spherical shape. Each point is labeled with an m-bit binary label. The spectral efficiency will be measured in number of and the signal-to-noise ratio per bit is given by Eb SNR = - NO where E,, is the narrowband average energy per bit and N0/2 is the narrowband noise power spectral density. Let E = E[l\zl12] be the average baseband energy per point of the constellation. The equality Eb = 0.5 * E /m = E/(n c q) is very useful to relate the SNR to the constellation s second moment. After de-interleaving the components of the received points, the maximum-likelihood detection criterion imposes the minimization of the following metric: for AWGN channel and i=l n for Rayleigh fading channel with perfect side information. Using this criterion we obtain the decoded point 9 from which the decoded bits are extracted SEARCHING FOR OPTIMAL LATTICE CONSTELLATIONS To address the search for good constellations we need an estimate of the error probability of the above system. Since a lattice is geometrically uniform we may simply write Pe(A) = Pe(AIz) for any transmitted point z E A. For convenience, z is usually taken to be the all zero vector 0. We now apply the union bound which gives an upper bound to the point error probability Pe(S) I pe(~) r#= I CP(~ -+ Y) where P(z -+ y) is the painvise error probability, the probability that the received point is closer to y than to z according to the metric defined in (1) or (2), when z is transmitted. The first inequality takes into account the edge effects of the finite constellation S compared to the infinite lattice A. For the AWGN channel, (3) simply becomes [6, ch. 31 where r is the kissing number and demin is the minimum Euclidean distance of the lattice. The error probability per point of a cubic constellation can be easily upper-bounded (see Appendix I) with a function of the signal-to-noise ratio given by (3) (4)

3 504 JEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL 42, NO 2, MARCH 1996 where is the fundamental gain of A. We recall that y(zn) = l(zn is the n-dimensional integer grid lattice), so that y(a) is the asymptotic gain of A over 2". For spherical constellations the total gain should also take into account the shape gain. For the Rayleigh fading channel, the standard Chemoff bound technique [l] or the direct computation using the Gaussian tail function approximation (see Appendix II), give an estimate of the pairwise error probability and for large signal-to-noise ratios and T~ = A (L), the kissing number for the L-product dp distance. The terms in (10) clearly become less important when I increases, but the values of A (1) and d\$)(x, y) should be taken d? into account for nonasymptotic considerations. In fact, the asymptotic coding gain of a system-2 over a reference system- 1, having the same spectral efficiency and the same diversity L is given by with the definitions given above. In general, the asymptotic coding gain may not be defined for systems with different diversities L1 and L2; in such cases the coding gain varies with the signal-to-noise ratio. In the sequel of this paper, we limit our search for optimal constellations, with high diversity and low energy, to the class of lattices constructed from algebraic number fields. is the number of points y at I-product distance d;) from z and with 1 different components, L n. The series in K1 can be interpreted as a theta series of the lattice [6],'when the product distance is considered instead of the Euclidean distance. In (10) we find all the ingredients to obtain a low error probability at a given signal-to-noise ratio Eb/No. In order of relevance we have to 1) maximize the diversity L = min(z); 2) minimize the average energy per constellation point E; 3) minimize Kl and especially take care of dp,min = min(dr)(z, Y)) Iv. LATTICES FROM ALGEBRAIC NUMBER FIELDS In the following, we will assume that the reader is familiar with the basic definitions on lattices (see [6]) and we show the way to construct lattices from algebraic number fields. where We will present only the strictly relevant definitions and d\$)(x, y) is the (normalized) 1-product distance of z from y when these two points differ in 1 components results in algebraic number theory, which lead to the lattice construction. The exposition is self-contained and is based on 2 n (Xi- Yz) simple examples, but the interested reader may consult any book on algebraic number theory to quench their thirst for rigor (9) (e.g., [13]-[15]). The basic ideas and definitions of Section IV are as follows: Asymptotically, (3) is dominated by the term ~ /(E~/No)~ *-The number field K and its ring of integers OK. where L is the minimum number of different components The primitive element 6' such that K = Q(6') and its of any two distinct constellation points. L is the so-called minimal polynomial,uq (x). diversity of the signal constellation. The integral basis (w~, w2,..., wn) of K giving OK = In general, rearranging (3) we obtain Z[WI, ~ 2..,', ~ n].. n The n Q-isomorphisms 0% defined by.,(e) = 6% the ith root of p~(z) and the canonical embedding 0: K 4 R". The two special cases of totally real lattices (6,'s totally real) and totally complex lattices (0,'s totally complex). where A. Algebraic Number Fields Let 2 be the ring of rational integers and let K be a field containing Q, the field of rational numbers. Algebraic number theory studies the properties of such fields in relation to the solution of algebraic equations. Dejnition 1: Let a be an element of K, we say that Q is an algebraic number if it is a root of a monk polynomial with coefficients in Q. Such polynomial with lowest degree is called the minimal polynomial of a and denoted pcy(x). If all the elements of K are algebraic we say that K is an algebraic extension of Q. Example I: Let us consider the field K = {a + b&i? with a, b E Q}. It is simple to see that K is a field containing Q and that any a E K is a root of the polynomial pa(.) = x2-2ax + a2-2b2 with rational coefficients. We conclude that K is an algebraic extension of Q.,, ~ I,

4 BOUTROS et al.: GOOD LATTICE CONSTELLATIONS 'OR BOTH RAYLEIGH FADING AND GAUSSIAN CHANNELS 505 Dejinition 2: We say that a E K is an algebraic integer if it is a root of a monic polynomial with coefficients in 2. The set of algebraic integers of K is a ring called the ring of integers of K and is indicated with OK. Example 1 (Continued): In our example, all the algebraic integers will take the form a+bfi with a, b E 2. Care should be taken in generalizing this result (see Erample 3). OK is a ring contained in K since it is closed under all operations except for the inversion. For example, (2 + 2fi)-' =; (2- a)/6 does not belong to OK. ~ Definition 3: We define the degree [K: Q] of an algebraic extension K of Q as the dimension of I-< when considered as a vector space over Q. An algebraic number field is an algebraic extension of Q of finite degree. Example I (Continued): K is a vector space over Q of dimension 2 so it is an algebraic number field of degree 2 (a quadratic field). This is one way of seeing algebraic number fields: as finite dimensional vector spaces over Q. Result I: Let K be an algebraic number field. There exists an element 8 E K, called primitive element, such that the Q vector space K is generated by the powers of 0 If K has degree n then (1,6', 02,..., is a basis of K and deg(pe(z)) = n. We will write K = Q(6'). Example 1 (Continued): In the above example we have K = Q (d). 6' = fi is a primitive element since (1,fi) form a basis. The minimal polynomial is p~(x) = x Exumple 2: Let us consider a slightly more complex exam- ple with K generated by fi and &; all its elements may be written as a + b fi + c 6 + d fi with a, b, c, d E Q so that (1, a, &, &) is a basis of K. If we consider the element 0 = fi + fi, we have /1 0 5 o\ Result 3: The ring of integers OK of K forms a 2-module of rank n (a linear vector space of dimension n over 2). Definition 4: Let (w1, w2,..., wn) be a basis of K. We say that (U,) is an integral basis of K if OK = Z(w1, wg,..., w,), that is, if (w,) is a generating set of the 2-module OK. So that we can write any element of OK as Ea, a,w, with a, E 2. Example 3: Take K = Q(&); we know that any algebraic integer /3 in K has the form a + b& with a, b E Q such that the polynomial pp(x) = x2-2ax + a2-5b2 has integer coefficients. By simple arguments it can be shown that all the elements of OK take the form /3 = (U + v&)/2 with both U,U integers with the same parity. So we can write /3 = h + k(1 + &)/2 with h,k E 2. This shows that is not integral since a + b& with a, b E 2 is only a subset of OK. Incidently, (1 + &)/2 is also a primitive element of K with minimal polynomial x2 - x - 1. There exist efficient algorithms to find an integral basis of a given algebraic number field in polynomial time [ll], [12]. Defnition 5: Let K and K' be two fields containing Q, we call 4 : K -+ K' a Q-homomorphism if for each a E Q, 4(a) = a. If K' = C, the field of complex numbers, a Q-homomorphism 4 : K -+ C is called an embedding of K into C. Result 4: Let 6' be a primitive element of K and pg(x) its minimal polynomial with roots (QI, 6'2,..., 0,), 6' = 81. There are exactly n embeddings of K into C. Each embedding c, : K -+ C, c,(q) = B,, is completely identified by a root (1, (1 + &)/2) is an integral basis. The basis (1, fi) 8, E c of pe(5). Notice that ol(6') = 6'1 = 8 and thus g1 is the identity mapping o1(k) = K. When we apply the embedding CT, to an arbitrary element a of K using the properties of Q- homomorphisms we have / n \ n n The transition matrix is invertible in Q proving that we can write K = Q(6'). The minimal polynomial of 8 is x4 - lox2 + 1 and its roots are In this particular case they are all primitive elements. The problem of finding the primitive element given a basis is in general very complex. Usually we start from a field defined by its primitive element. Result 2: There exists a primitive element 19 which is an algebraic integer of K. In other words, the minimal polynomial pe(s) has coefficients in 2. In the above examples 8 is not only a primitive element but also an algebraic integer. B. Integral Basis and Canonical Embedding In the special case K = Q(fi), we have seen that he ring of integers OK was the set of all elements a + bfi with a, b integers. OK = ~(fi) is a vector space over z with (1, JZ) as a basis. OK is called a 2-module, since Z is a rmg and not a field. and we see that the image of any a under ci is uniquely identified by 8i. Definition 6: The elements 01 (a), 02 (a),..., c, (a) are called the conjugates of a and n z=1 is the algebraic norm of a. Result5: For any a E K, we have N(a) E Q. If a E OK we have N(a) E 2. Example 1 (Continued): The roots of the minimal polynomial x2-2 are O1 then = fi and 82 = -fi = fi O~(U + bjz) = a + bjz ~(6') = -Jz 02(a + bfi) = a - bjz. The algebraic norm of Q is N(a) = o~(q)ct~(q) = a2-2b2 and we can verify the above result. Dejinition 7: Let (w1, wg,..., w,) be an integral basis of K. The absolute discriminant of K is defined as dk = det[44)i2.

5 506 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. 42, NO. 2, MARCH 1996 Result 6: The absolute discriminant belongs to 2. Example 3 (Continued): Applying the two Q-homomorphisms to the integral basis w1, w2, we obtain 2 Definition 8: Let (01, u2,... a,) be the n Q-homomorphisms of K into C. Let 7-1 be the number of Q-homomorphisms with image in R, the field of real numbers, and 27-2 the number of Q-homomorphisms with image in C so that TI = n. The pair (7-1, 7-2) is called the signature of K. If 7-2 = 0 we have a totally real algebraic number field. If r1 = 0 we have a totally complex algebraic number field. In all other cases we will speak about a complex algebraic number field. Example 4: All the previous examples were totally real algebraic number fields with 7-1 = m. Let us now consider K = Q(n).,The minimal polynomial of is x2 + 3 and has two complex roots so the signature of K is (0,l). For later use we observe that (I, a) is not an integral basis. If we take where z = fl, we have 0 = ez.ir/3 - (1 + 4 )/2 K = Q(Q) = Q(G) and an integral basis is (1, (1 + i&)/2). The minimal polynomial of 0 is z2 - z + 1. The ring of integers of this field is also known as the Eisenstein integer ring. This is the simplest example of cyclotomicfield, i.e., a field generated by an mth root of unity. Definition 9: Let us order the 0, so that a,(~) E R for 1 5 i and 03+Tz (a) is the complex conjugate of aj (a) for We call canonical embedding a : K + RT1 x Cr2 the isomorphism defined by 4a) = (m(a).. g7-1 (a),%+1(a),..., a,,+,,(a)) 2 E R" x C'". If we identify RT1 x CT2 with R", the canonical embedding can be rewritten as a:k i Rn 4a) = (m(a),... > ar1(a), %G.,+1(a), %.,+l(~),..., ROT, +Tz (a),%gt1 +rz (a)) E Rn where R is the real part and S is the imaginary part. This definition establishes a one-to-one correspondence between the elements of an algebraic number field of degree n and the vectors of the n-dimensional Euclidean space. The final step for this algebraic construction of a lattice is given by the following result. Result 7: Let (w1, w2,..., w,) be an integral basis of K and let dk be the absolute discriminant of K. The n vectors ui = a(w,) E R" are linearly independent, so they define a full rank lattice A = ~ (OK) with generator matrix (see (12) at the bottom of this page). The vectors U, are the rows of G. The volume of the fundamental parallelotope of A is given by [13] vol (A) = ldet (G)I = 2-T2 x a. (13) C. Totally Real and Totally Complex Number Fields Result 8: The lattices obtained from the generator matrix (12) exhibit a diversity L = Pro08 Let z # o be an arbitrary point of A with A, E 2 and U, = (ziz3) = a(w,) the rows of the lattice generator matrix G. n n I n I TItT7 I / n \ I n 2=1 (14) The algebraic integer C~=lAx,wz is nonzero because all Xz's are not null together (2 # 0). This implies that a3(c&1azw,) # 0 and so the first product at the right side of the above expression contains exactly 7-1 nonzero factors. The minimum number of nonzero factors in the second and the third products is 7-2 since the real and imaginary parts of any one of the complex embeddings may not be null together. We then conclude that for such lattices we have a diversity L 2 TI Now, let us take the special element 01 = 1 in OK. The canonical embedding applied to 1 gives exactly nonzero terms in the above product (a3(1) = 1 for any j). Hence, we can 1 I i

6 BOUTROS et al.: GOOD LATTICE CONSTELLATIONS FOR BOTH RAYLEIGH FADING AND GAUSSIAN CHANNELS 507 confirm that L = r1 + TZ, as indicated in [lo]. Q.E.D. TABLE I MINIMAL ABSOLWE DISCRIMINANTS (Values with an * are the best known values.) In the case of totally real algebraic number fields ( ~ 2 = O), presented in [9], we have I 6 I I ' I28037' I - I The lattice A constructed in this case attains the maximum degree of diversity L = n. The n-product distance of x from 0 is Since C~=lA2w, E OK and it is different from zero, according to Result 5, we have dt)(o,z) 2 1 vz # I). The minimum product distance dp,min == 1 is given by the elements of K with algebraic norm 1, the so-called units of K. The fundamental parallelotope has volume vol(a) = a. The totally real algebraic number fields with minimum absolute discriminant are known up to dimension 8 (first column of Table I) and appear to be the best asymptotically good lattices for the Rayleigh fading channel. In fact, for a fixed number of points M, the energy of constellations carved from these lattices is proportional to vol (A) and vol (A) is minimized by selecting the fields with minimum a.bsolute discriminants. Still, two disadvantages are hidden behind the maximal diversity and the minimal absolute discriminant. The fundamental volume can be further reduced if we choose a signature where 7-2. # 0, i.e. if the number field is complex. Equation (14) shows that vol (A) can be divided by 2r2. We cim even maximize r2 by working in a totally complex field TZ = n/2. Lattices derived from totally real number fields have bad performance over a Gaussian channel (a negative fundamental gain as shown in Section VII) mainly because of their high values of vol (A) (Table I). The second disadvantage appears over the fading channel and is related to the product kissing number T ~. We find that the product kissing number is much higher for real fields lattices than for complex fields 1,attices. High diversity dense lattices built frorn complex algebraic number fields have been first proposed in [lo]. The totally Nothing can be said about the value of the minimum product distance dp,min for complex fields lattices, since it is not related to the algebraic norm as in the totally real case. Looking at Table I we immediately notice that the absolute discriminants of the complex fields are comparatively smaller than the ones for the totally real fields. This fact, combined with the fact that vol (A) is reduced by a factor 2-'2, results in lower average energy of the constellation S, for complex fields. Of course, the price to pay is the reduced diversity unless we use number fields with higher degrees such as 12, 16 or 24. This led us to search for good lattices (A16 or A24) adapted to Rayleigh channel and the logical continuation is Section VI. In the next section, we study in detail some of the lattices constructed by canonical embedding applied to fields in Tables I and 11. v. LATTICES FROM MINIMAL ABSOLUTE DISCRIMINANT FIELDS In Table I we have all the known minimal absolute discriminant fields up to dimension 8. These fields (especially in dimensions above 4) have been a subject of study of a branch of mathematics known as computational algebraic number theory. Computational algebraic number theory has developed powerful algorithmic tools which enable to extend many results, with the aid of computers, to fields of higher degree [ll], [12]. Part of this table, up to n = 6, can be found in [15] and the references therein. All the totally real fields are reported in [9]. For degree 5 and 6 complex fields see [16] and [17], respectively. The degree 8, totally complex field of minimal absolute discriminant can be found in [ 181 together with other 25 totally complex fields of absolute discriminant smaller than Table I1 gives the reduced minimal polynomials of the fields of Table I along with the fundamental volume of the corresponding lattice obtained from the canonical embedding. A minimal polynomial is called reduced if the powers of one of its roots (the primitive element)

7 508 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. 42, NO. 2, MARCH 1996 &,I A21 A6,3 A6,4 A6.s re(2) ZlOI(L,L) 2' - X ' ' - z3 + 2 t z3 t 2' - 1 2' 4 z4-42' - 32' &,e 1 2' - Z6-7z4 + 2Z3 + 72' A8,4 &,a 2' - 2%' + 4z6-4x4 + 32' ' + 22' - 72' - 82' t 15x4 + 82' - 90' - 22: + 1 I is an integral basis of the number field. These lattices will be indicated with hn,~. The main steps for the construction of a lattice from an algebraic number field K = Q(8) can be summarized as follows: 0 Find an integral basis of K, which identifies OK. Find the n roots of pe (z), which identify the n embeddigs 01,0z,..., an. Construct the generator matrix applying the canonical embedding. We show the application of this procedure to some of the lattices of Table 11. Az,i - K = Q(i&) From Example 4 we have the integral basis (1,1+ i&/2). The two embeddings are a&&) = Z&,a2(iv5) = -2v5 and the lattice generator matrix is We may recognize in the above matrix the hexagonal lattice Az. The fundamental volume is vol(h2,l) = ldet(g)i = &/2 and the minimum squared Euclidean distance is dgmin = 1. r1 = 0,rz = 1 and the diversity is L = 1 since the vector (1,O) belongs to the lattice. &,z From Example 3 we have the integral basis (1,1+ fi/2). The two embeddings are al(6) = 6, a~(&) = -A and the lattice generator matrix is - K = &(A) The fundamental volume is vol (Az,~) = ldet (G) I = and the minimum squared Euclidean distance is dlmln = 2. r1 = 2, = ~ 0 and the diversity is L = 2. A3,2 - K = Q(8) 0 is a primitive element with minimal polynomial z3 - z - 1, whose roots are where The primitive element B coincides with 82 and an integral basis is 1,8,fI2. The three embeddings are al(19) = 81 (real), az(8) = 02, and 03(B) = 83, where a2 and a3 are conjugates (TI = 1,ra = 1). We obtain the lattice generator matrix (see the bottom of this page). The fundamental volume is vol (h3,2) = Jdet (G)) = 2.39 and the minimum squared Euclidean distance is dim,, = The diversity is given by L = r1 +rz = 2 since the vector (1,1,0) belongs to the lattice and df) (( 0, 0,O), (1,1,0)) = 1. A3,3 - K = &(COS (2~/7)) An integral basis is (2cos (27r/7), 2cos (47r/7), 2cos (6n/7)) ) [:::: = ) + & V2-4UV) --(U2 - V2)

8 BOUTROS et al.: GOOD LATTICE CONSTELLATIONS PDR BOTH RAYLEIGH FADING AND GAUSSIAN CHANNELS 509 With the following three embeddings: al(cos (2~/7)) = COS (2~/7) C~~(COS (2~/7)) = COS (4~/7) COS (2~/7)) COS (6~/7) we obtain the lattice generator matrix ( 2 COS (27r/7) 2 COS (47r/7) 2 cos (6n/7) G = 2 COS (47r/7) 2 COS (67r/7) 2 COS (2n/7) 2 cos (67r/7) 2 cos (27r/7) 2 cos (47r/7) The fundamental volume is vol (h3,3) = ldet (G)I = 7 and the minimum squared Euclidean distance is dlmln = 3. The diversity is L = 3. A4,2 - K = Q(0) 0 is a primitive element with minimal polynomial x4 + 2z and roots Taking the following signs for the roots: 81 : (++), 6 2 =: (-+), 03 : (+-), 84 : (--) we have the primitive element 6 = 01 and the four embeddings 01(8) = 81, 02(0) = 82, = 83 04(8) = 84 The canonical embedding is given by a = (Rcq, sal, Ra2, so-2) but (1,0, 02, 03) is not an integral basis, because x4 + 2x is not reduced. An integral basis is (1, \$(I +e), i(3 + e, +(1+ 0)(3 + 8 ) We obtain the lattice generator matrix: G= ( i The fundamental volume is vol (Ag,2) = Idlet (G)I = 2.70 and the minimum squared Euclidean distance IS dg,,, = 2. The diversity is given by L = 7-2 = 2 since the vector (1,(I, 1,O) belongs to the lattice and df ((O,O, O,O), (1,0,1,0)) = and - K = Q(2J-3 + 2&) The roots of the minimal polynomial x4-6x2-11 are e4 = h. With 0 = the four embeddings are g1(0) = 81, a,(o) = 02, ~ ~ ( = 8 03, ) and 04(0) = 84 and the integral basis has the same form as in h4,2. The canonical embedding is given by a = (ol, a2,?iz03,%03). We obtain the lattice generator matrix: ( G= As an example we show the calculation of the element (4,2) of the above matrix az(i(l+ 0)(3 + 02)) = ua(~)az(l+ 0)02(3 + P) = a 2(3(02(1) + m(0)). (Q(3) f a2(e2)) = +(I + 82)(3 + 0, ) = The fundamental volume is vol (h4,3) = ldet (G)I = 8.29 and the minimum squared Euclidean distance is dkmin = 2. The diversity is given by L = = 3 since the vector (1,1,1,0) belongs to the lattice and df ((O,O,O,O), (1,1,1,0)) = 1. A4,4 - K Q(m) The roots of the minimal polynomial x are and 8,=-47+2& 6 3=47-2& 04 = -47-2h. With 8 = Q1, the four embeddings are al(0) = 01,az(0) = &,03(8) = 83, ~74 (0) = 04, and an integral basis has the same form as in R4,2. We obtain the lattice generator matrix ( i G= The fundamental volume is vol (h4,4) = ldet (G)I = and the minimum squared Euclidean distance is dkmin = 4. According to Section IV-C, the diversity is 4 and d, = 1. VI. LATTICES FOR THE GAUSSIAN CHANNEL ADAPTED TO THE FADING CHANNEL The idea of rotating a QAM constellation in order to increase its diversity was first presented in [81. The advantage of such a technique lays in the fact that the rotated constellation holds its properties over the Gaussian channel. The method proposed was straightforward: find the rotation angle which gives a diversity of 2 and maximizes the minimum product distance. It was found that for a 16-QAM the rotation angle of 7r/8 was optimum. Unfortunately, in dimensions greater than 2 this method becomes imtxacticable.

### The Dirichlet Unit Theorem

Chapter 6 The Dirichlet Unit Theorem As usual, we will be working in the ring B of algebraic integers of a number field L. Two factorizations of an element of B are regarded as essentially the same if

### Ideal Class Group and Units

Chapter 4 Ideal Class Group and Units We are now interested in understanding two aspects of ring of integers of number fields: how principal they are (that is, what is the proportion of principal ideals

### THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY

Chapter 8 THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 8.1 Introduction In this chapter we present a vector algebra approach to three dimensional geometry. The aim is to present standard properties of lines and planes,

### The Ideal Class Group

Chapter 5 The Ideal Class Group We will use Minkowski theory, which belongs to the general area of geometry of numbers, to gain insight into the ideal class group of a number field. We have already mentioned

### LINEAR ALGEBRA W W L CHEN

LINEAR ALGEBRA W W L CHEN c W W L Chen, 1997, 2008 This chapter is available free to all individuals, on understanding that it is not to be used for financial gain, and may be downloaded and/or photocopied,

### CHAPTER SIX IRREDUCIBILITY AND FACTORIZATION 1. BASIC DIVISIBILITY THEORY

January 10, 2010 CHAPTER SIX IRREDUCIBILITY AND FACTORIZATION 1. BASIC DIVISIBILITY THEORY The set of polynomials over a field F is a ring, whose structure shares with the ring of integers many characteristics.

### Mathematics Course 111: Algebra I Part IV: Vector Spaces

Mathematics Course 111: Algebra I Part IV: Vector Spaces D. R. Wilkins Academic Year 1996-7 9 Vector Spaces A vector space over some field K is an algebraic structure consisting of a set V on which are

### IRREDUCIBLE OPERATOR SEMIGROUPS SUCH THAT AB AND BA ARE PROPORTIONAL. 1. Introduction

IRREDUCIBLE OPERATOR SEMIGROUPS SUCH THAT AB AND BA ARE PROPORTIONAL R. DRNOVŠEK, T. KOŠIR Dedicated to Prof. Heydar Radjavi on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. Abstract. Let S be an irreducible

### ON GALOIS REALIZATIONS OF THE 2-COVERABLE SYMMETRIC AND ALTERNATING GROUPS

ON GALOIS REALIZATIONS OF THE 2-COVERABLE SYMMETRIC AND ALTERNATING GROUPS DANIEL RABAYEV AND JACK SONN Abstract. Let f(x) be a monic polynomial in Z[x] with no rational roots but with roots in Q p for

### MOP 2007 Black Group Integer Polynomials Yufei Zhao. Integer Polynomials. June 29, 2007 Yufei Zhao yufeiz@mit.edu

Integer Polynomials June 9, 007 Yufei Zhao yufeiz@mit.edu We will use Z[x] to denote the ring of polynomials with integer coefficients. We begin by summarizing some of the common approaches used in dealing

### The van Hoeij Algorithm for Factoring Polynomials

The van Hoeij Algorithm for Factoring Polynomials Jürgen Klüners Abstract In this survey we report about a new algorithm for factoring polynomials due to Mark van Hoeij. The main idea is that the combinatorial

### Mathematics Review for MS Finance Students

Mathematics Review for MS Finance Students Anthony M. Marino Department of Finance and Business Economics Marshall School of Business Lecture 1: Introductory Material Sets The Real Number System Functions,

### Unique Factorization

Unique Factorization Waffle Mathcamp 2010 Throughout these notes, all rings will be assumed to be commutative. 1 Factorization in domains: definitions and examples In this class, we will study the phenomenon

### A number field is a field of finite degree over Q. By the Primitive Element Theorem, any number

Number Fields Introduction A number field is a field of finite degree over Q. By the Primitive Element Theorem, any number field K = Q(α) for some α K. The minimal polynomial Let K be a number field and

### Chapter 4, Arithmetic in F [x] Polynomial arithmetic and the division algorithm.

Chapter 4, Arithmetic in F [x] Polynomial arithmetic and the division algorithm. We begin by defining the ring of polynomials with coefficients in a ring R. After some preliminary results, we specialize

### OSTROWSKI FOR NUMBER FIELDS

OSTROWSKI FOR NUMBER FIELDS KEITH CONRAD Ostrowski classified the nontrivial absolute values on Q: up to equivalence, they are the usual (archimedean) absolute value and the p-adic absolute values for

### Communication on the Grassmann Manifold: A Geometric Approach to the Noncoherent Multiple-Antenna Channel

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. 48, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2002 359 Communication on the Grassmann Manifold: A Geometric Approach to the Noncoherent Multiple-Antenna Channel Lizhong Zheng, Student

### PHASE ESTIMATION ALGORITHM FOR FREQUENCY HOPPED BINARY PSK AND DPSK WAVEFORMS WITH SMALL NUMBER OF REFERENCE SYMBOLS

PHASE ESTIMATION ALGORITHM FOR FREQUENCY HOPPED BINARY PSK AND DPSK WAVEFORMS WITH SMALL NUM OF REFERENCE SYMBOLS Benjamin R. Wiederholt The MITRE Corporation Bedford, MA and Mario A. Blanco The MITRE

### Quotient Rings and Field Extensions

Chapter 5 Quotient Rings and Field Extensions In this chapter we describe a method for producing field extension of a given field. If F is a field, then a field extension is a field K that contains F.

### Factoring Polynomials

Factoring Polynomials Sue Geller June 19, 2006 Factoring polynomials over the rational numbers, real numbers, and complex numbers has long been a standard topic of high school algebra. With the advent

### minimal polyonomial Example

Minimal Polynomials Definition Let α be an element in GF(p e ). We call the monic polynomial of smallest degree which has coefficients in GF(p) and α as a root, the minimal polyonomial of α. Example: We

### DEFINITION 5.1.1 A complex number is a matrix of the form. x y. , y x

Chapter 5 COMPLEX NUMBERS 5.1 Constructing the complex numbers One way of introducing the field C of complex numbers is via the arithmetic of matrices. DEFINITION 5.1.1 A complex number is a matrix of

### A matrix over a field F is a rectangular array of elements from F. The symbol

Chapter MATRICES Matrix arithmetic A matrix over a field F is a rectangular array of elements from F The symbol M m n (F) denotes the collection of all m n matrices over F Matrices will usually be denoted

### Section 1.1. Introduction to R n

The Calculus of Functions of Several Variables Section. Introduction to R n Calculus is the study of functional relationships and how related quantities change with each other. In your first exposure to

### Linear Codes. Chapter 3. 3.1 Basics

Chapter 3 Linear Codes In order to define codes that we can encode and decode efficiently, we add more structure to the codespace. We shall be mainly interested in linear codes. A linear code of length

### PUTNAM TRAINING POLYNOMIALS. Exercises 1. Find a polynomial with integral coefficients whose zeros include 2 + 5.

PUTNAM TRAINING POLYNOMIALS (Last updated: November 17, 2015) Remark. This is a list of exercises on polynomials. Miguel A. Lerma Exercises 1. Find a polynomial with integral coefficients whose zeros include

### Coded modulation: What is it?

Coded modulation So far: Binary coding Binary modulation Will send R information bits/symbol (spectral efficiency = R) Constant transmission rate: Requires bandwidth expansion by a factor 1/R Until 1976:

### The Mathematics of Origami

The Mathematics of Origami Sheri Yin June 3, 2009 1 Contents 1 Introduction 3 2 Some Basics in Abstract Algebra 4 2.1 Groups................................. 4 2.2 Ring..................................

### Continued Fractions and the Euclidean Algorithm

Continued Fractions and the Euclidean Algorithm Lecture notes prepared for MATH 326, Spring 997 Department of Mathematics and Statistics University at Albany William F Hammond Table of Contents Introduction

### Students in their first advanced mathematics classes are often surprised

CHAPTER 8 Proofs Involving Sets Students in their first advanced mathematics classes are often surprised by the extensive role that sets play and by the fact that most of the proofs they encounter are

### The Open University s repository of research publications and other research outputs

Open Research Online The Open University s repository of research publications and other research outputs The degree-diameter problem for circulant graphs of degree 8 and 9 Journal Article How to cite:

### Information Theory and Coding Prof. S. N. Merchant Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay

Information Theory and Coding Prof. S. N. Merchant Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture - 17 Shannon-Fano-Elias Coding and Introduction to Arithmetic Coding

### EXERCISES FOR THE COURSE MATH 570, FALL 2010

EXERCISES FOR THE COURSE MATH 570, FALL 2010 EYAL Z. GOREN (1) Let G be a group and H Z(G) a subgroup such that G/H is cyclic. Prove that G is abelian. Conclude that every group of order p 2 (p a prime

### 7. Some irreducible polynomials

7. Some irreducible polynomials 7.1 Irreducibles over a finite field 7.2 Worked examples Linear factors x α of a polynomial P (x) with coefficients in a field k correspond precisely to roots α k [1] of

### Advanced Higher Mathematics Course Assessment Specification (C747 77)

Advanced Higher Mathematics Course Assessment Specification (C747 77) Valid from August 2015 This edition: April 2016, version 2.4 This specification may be reproduced in whole or in part for educational

### Introduction to finite fields

Introduction to finite fields Topics in Finite Fields (Fall 2013) Rutgers University Swastik Kopparty Last modified: Monday 16 th September, 2013 Welcome to the course on finite fields! This is aimed at

### 11 Ideals. 11.1 Revisiting Z

11 Ideals The presentation here is somewhat different than the text. In particular, the sections do not match up. We have seen issues with the failure of unique factorization already, e.g., Z[ 5] = O Q(

### 1 Sets and Set Notation.

LINEAR ALGEBRA MATH 27.6 SPRING 23 (COHEN) LECTURE NOTES Sets and Set Notation. Definition (Naive Definition of a Set). A set is any collection of objects, called the elements of that set. We will most

### Inner Product Spaces and Orthogonality

Inner Product Spaces and Orthogonality week 3-4 Fall 2006 Dot product of R n The inner product or dot product of R n is a function, defined by u, v a b + a 2 b 2 + + a n b n for u a, a 2,, a n T, v b,

### 15.062 Data Mining: Algorithms and Applications Matrix Math Review

.6 Data Mining: Algorithms and Applications Matrix Math Review The purpose of this document is to give a brief review of selected linear algebra concepts that will be useful for the course and to develop

### Appendix A. Appendix. A.1 Algebra. Fields and Rings

Appendix A Appendix A.1 Algebra Algebra is the foundation of algebraic geometry; here we collect some of the basic algebra on which we rely. We develop some algebraic background that is needed in the text.

### a 1 x + a 0 =0. (3) ax 2 + bx + c =0. (4)

ROOTS OF POLYNOMIAL EQUATIONS In this unit we discuss polynomial equations. A polynomial in x of degree n, where n 0 is an integer, is an expression of the form P n (x) =a n x n + a n 1 x n 1 + + a 1 x

### Math 4310 Handout - Quotient Vector Spaces

Math 4310 Handout - Quotient Vector Spaces Dan Collins The textbook defines a subspace of a vector space in Chapter 4, but it avoids ever discussing the notion of a quotient space. This is understandable

### Numerical Analysis Lecture Notes

Numerical Analysis Lecture Notes Peter J. Olver 5. Inner Products and Norms The norm of a vector is a measure of its size. Besides the familiar Euclidean norm based on the dot product, there are a number

### Algebra Unpacked Content For the new Common Core standards that will be effective in all North Carolina schools in the 2012-13 school year.

This document is designed to help North Carolina educators teach the Common Core (Standard Course of Study). NCDPI staff are continually updating and improving these tools to better serve teachers. Algebra

### CONTROLLABILITY. Chapter 2. 2.1 Reachable Set and Controllability. Suppose we have a linear system described by the state equation

Chapter 2 CONTROLLABILITY 2 Reachable Set and Controllability Suppose we have a linear system described by the state equation ẋ Ax + Bu (2) x() x Consider the following problem For a given vector x in

### Linear Algebra Notes for Marsden and Tromba Vector Calculus

Linear Algebra Notes for Marsden and Tromba Vector Calculus n-dimensional Euclidean Space and Matrices Definition of n space As was learned in Math b, a point in Euclidean three space can be thought of

### Mathematics of Cryptography

CHAPTER 2 Mathematics of Cryptography Part I: Modular Arithmetic, Congruence, and Matrices Objectives This chapter is intended to prepare the reader for the next few chapters in cryptography. The chapter

### Lecture Notes on Polynomials

Lecture Notes on Polynomials Arne Jensen Department of Mathematical Sciences Aalborg University c 008 Introduction These lecture notes give a very short introduction to polynomials with real and complex

### Sphere-Bound-Achieving Coset Codes and Multilevel Coset Codes

820 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL 46, NO 3, MAY 2000 Sphere-Bound-Achieving Coset Codes and Multilevel Coset Codes G David Forney, Jr, Fellow, IEEE, Mitchell D Trott, Member, IEEE, and Sae-Young

### Copy in your notebook: Add an example of each term with the symbols used in algebra 2 if there are any.

Algebra 2 - Chapter Prerequisites Vocabulary Copy in your notebook: Add an example of each term with the symbols used in algebra 2 if there are any. P1 p. 1 1. counting(natural) numbers - {1,2,3,4,...}

### 1 Homework 1. [p 0 q i+j +... + p i 1 q j+1 ] + [p i q j ] + [p i+1 q j 1 +... + p i+j q 0 ]

1 Homework 1 (1) Prove the ideal (3,x) is a maximal ideal in Z[x]. SOLUTION: Suppose we expand this ideal by including another generator polynomial, P / (3, x). Write P = n + x Q with n an integer not

### SECRET sharing schemes were introduced by Blakley [5]

206 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. 52, NO. 1, JANUARY 2006 Secret Sharing Schemes From Three Classes of Linear Codes Jin Yuan Cunsheng Ding, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract Secret sharing has

### Factoring of Prime Ideals in Extensions

Chapter 4 Factoring of Prime Ideals in Extensions 4. Lifting of Prime Ideals Recall the basic AKLB setup: A is a Dedekind domain with fraction field K, L is a finite, separable extension of K of degree

### 3 1. Note that all cubes solve it; therefore, there are no more

Math 13 Problem set 5 Artin 11.4.7 Factor the following polynomials into irreducible factors in Q[x]: (a) x 3 3x (b) x 3 3x + (c) x 9 6x 6 + 9x 3 3 Solution: The first two polynomials are cubics, so if

### Prime Numbers and Irreducible Polynomials

Prime Numbers and Irreducible Polynomials M. Ram Murty The similarity between prime numbers and irreducible polynomials has been a dominant theme in the development of number theory and algebraic geometry.

### FACTORING POLYNOMIALS IN THE RING OF FORMAL POWER SERIES OVER Z

FACTORING POLYNOMIALS IN THE RING OF FORMAL POWER SERIES OVER Z DANIEL BIRMAJER, JUAN B GIL, AND MICHAEL WEINER Abstract We consider polynomials with integer coefficients and discuss their factorization

### CONTINUED FRACTIONS, PELL S EQUATION, AND TRANSCENDENTAL NUMBERS

CONTINUED FRACTIONS, PELL S EQUATION, AND TRANSCENDENTAL NUMBERS JEREMY BOOHER Continued fractions usually get short-changed at PROMYS, but they are interesting in their own right and useful in other areas

### Summary of week 8 (Lectures 22, 23 and 24)

WEEK 8 Summary of week 8 (Lectures 22, 23 and 24) This week we completed our discussion of Chapter 5 of [VST] Recall that if V and W are inner product spaces then a linear map T : V W is called an isometry

### IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 55, NO. 1, JANUARY 2007 341

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 55, NO. 1, JANUARY 2007 341 Multinode Cooperative Communications in Wireless Networks Ahmed K. Sadek, Student Member, IEEE, Weifeng Su, Member, IEEE, and K.

### 3.4 Complex Zeros and the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra

86 Polynomial Functions.4 Complex Zeros and the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra In Section., we were focused on finding the real zeros of a polynomial function. In this section, we expand our horizons and

### 2 Complex Functions and the Cauchy-Riemann Equations

2 Complex Functions and the Cauchy-Riemann Equations 2.1 Complex functions In one-variable calculus, we study functions f(x) of a real variable x. Likewise, in complex analysis, we study functions f(z)

### Factoring Patterns in the Gaussian Plane

Factoring Patterns in the Gaussian Plane Steve Phelps Introduction This paper describes discoveries made at the Park City Mathematics Institute, 00, as well as some proofs. Before the summer I understood

### MATH 304 Linear Algebra Lecture 8: Inverse matrix (continued). Elementary matrices. Transpose of a matrix.

MATH 304 Linear Algebra Lecture 8: Inverse matrix (continued). Elementary matrices. Transpose of a matrix. Inverse matrix Definition. Let A be an n n matrix. The inverse of A is an n n matrix, denoted

### An Introduction to Galois Fields and Reed-Solomon Coding

An Introduction to Galois Fields and Reed-Solomon Coding James Westall James Martin School of Computing Clemson University Clemson, SC 29634-1906 October 4, 2010 1 Fields A field is a set of elements on

### Algebra 2. Rings and fields. Finite fields. A.M. Cohen, H. Cuypers, H. Sterk. Algebra Interactive

2 Rings and fields A.M. Cohen, H. Cuypers, H. Sterk A.M. Cohen, H. Cuypers, H. Sterk 2 September 25, 2006 1 / 20 For p a prime number and f an irreducible polynomial of degree n in (Z/pZ)[X ], the quotient

### AN ALGORITHM FOR DETERMINING WHETHER A GIVEN BINARY MATROID IS GRAPHIC

AN ALGORITHM FOR DETERMINING WHETHER A GIVEN BINARY MATROID IS GRAPHIC W. T. TUTTE. Introduction. In a recent series of papers [l-4] on graphs and matroids I used definitions equivalent to the following.

### Introduction to Finite Fields (cont.)

Chapter 6 Introduction to Finite Fields (cont.) 6.1 Recall Theorem. Z m is a field m is a prime number. Theorem (Subfield Isomorphic to Z p ). Every finite field has the order of a power of a prime number

### Fundamental to determining

GNSS Solutions: Carrierto-Noise Algorithms GNSS Solutions is a regular column featuring questions and answers about technical aspects of GNSS. Readers are invited to send their questions to the columnist,

### Groups, Rings, and Fields. I. Sets Let S be a set. The Cartesian product S S is the set of ordered pairs of elements of S, S S = {(x, y) x, y S}.

Groups, Rings, and Fields I. Sets Let S be a set. The Cartesian product S S is the set of ordered pairs of elements of S, A binary operation φ is a function, S S = {(x, y) x, y S}. φ : S S S. A binary

### Algebra 2 Chapter 1 Vocabulary. identity - A statement that equates two equivalent expressions.

Chapter 1 Vocabulary identity - A statement that equates two equivalent expressions. verbal model- A word equation that represents a real-life problem. algebraic expression - An expression with variables.

### Module MA3411: Abstract Algebra Galois Theory Appendix Michaelmas Term 2013

Module MA3411: Abstract Algebra Galois Theory Appendix Michaelmas Term 2013 D. R. Wilkins Copyright c David R. Wilkins 1997 2013 Contents A Cyclotomic Polynomials 79 A.1 Minimum Polynomials of Roots of

### The Characteristic Polynomial

Physics 116A Winter 2011 The Characteristic Polynomial 1 Coefficients of the characteristic polynomial Consider the eigenvalue problem for an n n matrix A, A v = λ v, v 0 (1) The solution to this problem

### ECEN 5682 Theory and Practice of Error Control Codes

ECEN 5682 Theory and Practice of Error Control Codes Convolutional Codes University of Colorado Spring 2007 Linear (n, k) block codes take k data symbols at a time and encode them into n code symbols.

### The determinant of a skew-symmetric matrix is a square. This can be seen in small cases by direct calculation: 0 a. 12 a. a 13 a 24 a 14 a 23 a 14

4 Symplectic groups In this and the next two sections, we begin the study of the groups preserving reflexive sesquilinear forms or quadratic forms. We begin with the symplectic groups, associated with

### it is easy to see that α = a

21. Polynomial rings Let us now turn out attention to determining the prime elements of a polynomial ring, where the coefficient ring is a field. We already know that such a polynomial ring is a UF. Therefore

### a 11 x 1 + a 12 x 2 + + a 1n x n = b 1 a 21 x 1 + a 22 x 2 + + a 2n x n = b 2.

Chapter 1 LINEAR EQUATIONS 1.1 Introduction to linear equations A linear equation in n unknowns x 1, x,, x n is an equation of the form a 1 x 1 + a x + + a n x n = b, where a 1, a,..., a n, b are given

### Cryptography and Network Security. Prof. D. Mukhopadhyay. Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Cryptography and Network Security Prof. D. Mukhopadhyay Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Module No. # 01 Lecture No. # 12 Block Cipher Standards

### Chapter 13: Basic ring theory

Chapter 3: Basic ring theory Matthew Macauley Department of Mathematical Sciences Clemson University http://www.math.clemson.edu/~macaule/ Math 42, Spring 24 M. Macauley (Clemson) Chapter 3: Basic ring

### 10. Graph Matrices Incidence Matrix

10 Graph Matrices Since a graph is completely determined by specifying either its adjacency structure or its incidence structure, these specifications provide far more efficient ways of representing a

### NOTES ON MEASURE THEORY. M. Papadimitrakis Department of Mathematics University of Crete. Autumn of 2004

NOTES ON MEASURE THEORY M. Papadimitrakis Department of Mathematics University of Crete Autumn of 2004 2 Contents 1 σ-algebras 7 1.1 σ-algebras............................... 7 1.2 Generated σ-algebras.........................

### MATH10212 Linear Algebra. Systems of Linear Equations. Definition. An n-dimensional vector is a row or a column of n numbers (or letters): a 1.

MATH10212 Linear Algebra Textbook: D. Poole, Linear Algebra: A Modern Introduction. Thompson, 2006. ISBN 0-534-40596-7. Systems of Linear Equations Definition. An n-dimensional vector is a row or a column

### Integer Factorization using the Quadratic Sieve

Integer Factorization using the Quadratic Sieve Chad Seibert* Division of Science and Mathematics University of Minnesota, Morris Morris, MN 56567 seib0060@morris.umn.edu March 16, 2011 Abstract We give

### some algebra prelim solutions

some algebra prelim solutions David Morawski August 19, 2012 Problem (Spring 2008, #5). Show that f(x) = x p x + a is irreducible over F p whenever a F p is not zero. Proof. First, note that f(x) has no

### The Chebotarev Density Theorem

The Chebotarev Density Theorem Hendrik Lenstra 1. Introduction Consider the polynomial f(x) = X 4 X 2 1 Z[X]. Suppose that we want to show that this polynomial is irreducible. We reduce f modulo a prime

PYTHAGOREAN TRIPLES KEITH CONRAD 1. Introduction A Pythagorean triple is a triple of positive integers (a, b, c) where a + b = c. Examples include (3, 4, 5), (5, 1, 13), and (8, 15, 17). Below is an ancient

### We call this set an n-dimensional parallelogram (with one vertex 0). We also refer to the vectors x 1,..., x n as the edges of P.

Volumes of parallelograms 1 Chapter 8 Volumes of parallelograms In the present short chapter we are going to discuss the elementary geometrical objects which we call parallelograms. These are going to

### 2 The Euclidean algorithm

2 The Euclidean algorithm Do you understand the number 5? 6? 7? At some point our level of comfort with individual numbers goes down as the numbers get large For some it may be at 43, for others, 4 In

### Coding and decoding with convolutional codes. The Viterbi Algor

Coding and decoding with convolutional codes. The Viterbi Algorithm. 8 Block codes: main ideas Principles st point of view: infinite length block code nd point of view: convolutions Some examples Repetition

### ECE 842 Report Implementation of Elliptic Curve Cryptography

ECE 842 Report Implementation of Elliptic Curve Cryptography Wei-Yang Lin December 15, 2004 Abstract The aim of this report is to illustrate the issues in implementing a practical elliptic curve cryptographic

### 13 Solutions for Section 6

13 Solutions for Section 6 Exercise 6.2 Draw up the group table for S 3. List, giving each as a product of disjoint cycles, all the permutations in S 4. Determine the order of each element of S 4. Solution

### Cyclotomic Extensions

Chapter 7 Cyclotomic Extensions A cyclotomic extension Q(ζ n ) of the rationals is formed by adjoining a primitive n th root of unity ζ n. In this chapter, we will find an integral basis and calculate

### (57) (58) (59) (60) (61)

Module 4 : Solving Linear Algebraic Equations Section 5 : Iterative Solution Techniques 5 Iterative Solution Techniques By this approach, we start with some initial guess solution, say for solution and

### 802.11A - OFDM PHY CODING AND INTERLEAVING. Fernando H. Gregorio. Helsinki University of Technology

802.11A - OFDM PHY CODING AND INTERLEAVING Fernando H. Gregorio Helsinki University of Technology Signal Processing Laboratory, POB 3000, FIN-02015 HUT, Finland E-mail:gregorio@wooster.hut.fi 1. INTRODUCTION

### Sphere Packings, Lattices, and Kissing Configurations in R n

Sphere Packings, Lattices, and Kissing Configurations in R n Stephanie Vance University of Washington April 9, 2009 Stephanie Vance (University of Washington)Sphere Packings, Lattices, and Kissing Configurations

### Module 6. Channel Coding. Version 2 ECE IIT, Kharagpur

Module 6 Channel Coding Lesson 35 Convolutional Codes After reading this lesson, you will learn about Basic concepts of Convolutional Codes; State Diagram Representation; Tree Diagram Representation; Trellis

### MATRIX ALGEBRA AND SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS. + + x 2. x n. a 11 a 12 a 1n b 1 a 21 a 22 a 2n b 2 a 31 a 32 a 3n b 3. a m1 a m2 a mn b m

MATRIX ALGEBRA AND SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS 1. SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS AND MATRICES 1.1. Representation of a linear system. The general system of m equations in n unknowns can be written a 11 x 1 + a 12 x 2 +

### SECTION 0.6: POLYNOMIAL, RATIONAL, AND ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS

(Section 0.6: Polynomial, Rational, and Algebraic Expressions) 0.6.1 SECTION 0.6: POLYNOMIAL, RATIONAL, AND ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS LEARNING OBJECTIVES Be able to identify polynomial, rational, and algebraic