Case Study BAY AREA TRANSIT DISTRICT (BART) SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA

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1 Case Study BAY AREA TRANSIT DISTRICT (BART) SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA Transit Agency Profile and Reason for Selection of Transit Agency Overview The San Francisco Bay Area Transit District (BART) is recognized as being on the cutting edge of rapid rail transit since the fully automated system began passenger service on September 11, The fast and comfortable BART vehicles with their high reliability and a train control system that provides the highest level of safety were required to attract commuters from their beloved automobile. Over the last 35 years, BART has accomplished its initial task and the system has grown with additional stations and vehicles to meet the increasing demand. The increased service also includes the San Francisco Airport, a destination long awaited by BART s loyal riders. System Description The District provides fully-automated, high-speed, urban rail mass transit for the San Francisco Bay Area, serving San Francisco, Contra Costa, San Mateo, and Alameda counties. The system consists of 105 miles of double track rail service and 43 passenger stations, and a 4-mile underwater tube linking San Francisco with Oakland. Daily patronage is about 330,000 passenger trips. Stations are staffed with station agents who provide assistance in system usage and directional information to patrons as well as emergency service support. In addition, the agents monitor station facilities for station maintenance and patron safety. All stations are serviced by local bus companies to provide convenient commuting for BART patrons. Station platforms are 700 feet long and are serviced by escalators and an elevator. The right-of-way in which the trains operate consists of at-grade, aerial, and subway. BART operates in an exclusive right of way with no grade crossings and with fencing on all at-grade rights-of-way. Much of the right-of-way is in the freeway median to minimize using residential and business property. BART train cars are 70 feet long and have a capacity of about 200 people per car. BART trains have a maximum of 10 cars and a minimum of 3 cars. A 10-car train can carry about 2,000 passengers under crush load conditions and about 700 passengers in a fully seated load. Automatic Train Control (ATC) provides a failsafe train protection system and central supervisory functions, including fully automated train operations and automatic schedule adjustment. 77

2 BART Operations Control Center The Operations Control Center (OCC), located at the BART Lake Merritt Headquarters, provides supervision over all phases of operations, including trains, patrons, system power, and wayside equipment. The Central Manager is responsible, through controllers working in the OCC, for all of the various functions that support revenue and non-revenue (e.g., maintenance) operations. The primary control functions at the OCC are train control, third-rail power control, wayside equipment control, alarm monitoring and response coordination. The OCC also coordinates assistance for difficulties encountered with mainline vehicles, stations or wayside facilities, and provides information to BART passengers. Transportation Supervisors, through the Tower Supervisors, are responsible for all activities performed in each yard area. These activities include third rail power control, changing train lengths, movement through yard via route control, dispatching and receiving trains from mainline and assigning Train Operators duties within the yard and for mainline service. Train Operators are responsible for the train/cars they have been assigned to operate. 78

3 The Department of Rolling Stock & Shops maintains the revenue vehicle fleet and is responsible for the movement of revenue vehicles within the shop areas and on yard leads. Cars are cleaned, inspected, repaired, and stored in the yards and shops. Problem Identification and Need for Innovative Security Measures BART s at-grade, aerial, and subway systems usually do not offer good concealment, particularly with the frequency of the trains and the operating hours. In addition, during hours of train operation, the opportunity for unauthorized persons to be in the right-of-way without being detected by passing trains is greatly reduced. However, at night and in subway sections there is greater opportunity to be undetected. There are longer headways between trains so fewer eyes are available and lower lighting levels provide better concealment. Securing this operating environment from the risk of criminal activity or terrorist attacks is very challenging. Currently, there are no viable means of providing public access to the transit system that ensure an adequate 79

4 level of security while maintaining the rapid movement of people. After purchasing a ticket, patrons have almost complete access to the passenger stations and trains. BART recognized that one of their most basic security needs was ensuring access control, particularly in more vulnerable locations, structures, and facilities. These include areas of higher vulnerability where terrorist attacks would have the greatest impact to the system. While the use of security forces, door locks, and card key access had provided sufficient security throughout the system in general, facilities in remote locations and those with no permanent staff created a need for additional innovative countermeasures. Previous Attempts to Address Problems and Results BART has always been aware of the need to control access to all its facilities. Locked doors, fences, gates, and personnel training have historically been the barriers to uncontrolled access. However, incidents such as 9/11 have caused public transit agencies to rethink their previous control methods, which may not be sufficient given a terrorist bent on suicide to accomplish their goal. Reasons for Proposed Solution The primary reason BART designed and constructed an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) was to provide a capability that did not exist, reduce system security costs, and protect people and assets from deliberate harm. Under the worst-case scenarios, BART could lose the ability to operate major parts of the system, and thus severely limit mobility in the area. In addition, a major incident could lead to high capital repair and/or replacement costs for system facilities. Solution Proposed/Implemented To formally identify and rank areas of high potential risk, BART conducted a Threat and Vulnerability Analysis. A TVA provides an analytical process to consider the likelihood that a specific threat will endanger the transit system. Using the results of a transit security and emergency management capabilities assessment and a FBI Terrorism Vulnerability Self- Assessment, the TVA identifies activities to be performed to reduce the risk of an attack and to mitigate its consequences. These assessments typically use a combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques to identify security requirements, including historical analysis of past events, intelligence assessments, physical surveys, and expert evaluation. When the risk of hostile acts is greater, these analyses may draw more heavily upon information from intelligence and law enforcement agencies regarding the capabilities and intentions of the aggressors. The following graphic portrays the process utilized by BART: 80

5 System Security Program Security Policy Security Plan Security Procedures Final Review/Assessment Identify Critical Assets Implement Controls Threat and Vulnerability Management Identify Threats to Assets Threat Scenarios Quantify Threats Design/Control Recommendations Threat Analysis Identify Standards and Requirements Identify Controls to Prevent/ Mitigate Vulnerabilities Vulnerability Analysis Identify Consequent Vulnerabilities Risk Management Threat and Vulnerability Management A Threat and Vulnerability Resolution Matrix was used by BART to prioritize the threats and vulnerabilities and identify the assets most at risk. Additionally, a scenario-based analysis was used to help define the most vulnerable targets. At the conclusion of the scenario-based analysis, BART developed a list of prioritized vulnerabilities that were documented in a confidential report. Based on this list of prioritized vulnerabilities developed through the scenario analysis, BART identified countermeasures to reduce those vulnerabilities. Threat and Vulnerability Resolution Matrix Frequency of Occurrence Vulnerability Categories Catastrophic Critical Marginal Negligible Frequent 1A 2A 3A 4A Probable 1B 2B 3B 4B Occasional 1C 2C 3C 4C Remote 1D 2D 3D 4D Improbable 1E 2E 3E 4E Unacceptable (Immediate Action Required) Unacceptable (Management Decision Required) Acceptable with Review by Management Acceptable Without Review 81

6 For BART, the potential of system intrusions posed significant threats. As such, BART developed a system of intrusion detection for high risk locations that is based upon a device for the detection of an unauthorized individual and a means for confirming the presence of the individual that helps to reduce the number of false alarms. The system has the ability to track the movement of a person within the protected location. Police response to the location will be directed to the last detected location and any need to restrict train service will be implemented. In the ranking of vulnerability and severity, these are highest risk locations that a successful attack would essentially eliminate a major portion of the service area. It is at these locations that BART has initially implemented their intrusion detection system. Many of the details of this intrusion detection system are inappropriate to identify in this document (classified as Security Sensitive Information). BART has a police force dedicated solely to the security of the BART system. The BART Police Department, Office of the Chief, Counterterrorism/Criminal Intelligence/SWAT, should be contacted at (510) for privileged information concerning this intrusion detection system. This case study includes a general description of the functions provided by the intrusion detection system and its development by BART. One of the requirements of such a system is reliability. What could be considered false alarms in a rail rapid transit environment would soon destroy the credibility and reliance upon the intrusion detection system (IDS) (which rarely, if ever, occur, according to a representative of the BART Police Department. The IDS must also be able to distinguish between trains, animals, debris and authorized personnel. Accomplishing reliability and definition with such a system requires the interaction and cooperation between engineering, rail operations, maintenance and police. The IDS was designed by BART Engineering using essentially off-the-shelf electronics and devices based upon BART Police performance criteria. Rail Operations currently provides the monitoring of the IDS and notification to BART Police when an intrusion is detected. Maintenance was required to establish procedures for the new equipment and configuration. When an alarm is received in the Operations Control Center, the Central Manager observes the status of the location monitored by the IDS to determine the validity of the alarm and whether or not the persons are authorized to be at the location. If the persons are authorized, the alarm is reset, but if not, BART Police is notified for response and the Central Manager provides the instructions, if necessary, to secure BART personnel and trains from the location. If a positive determination cannot be made from the information available, BART Police will be notified and will respond accordingly. Cost/Benefit Analysis BART did not conduct a cost benefit analysis for the intrusion detection system. However, the implementation of the IDS prevents BART from stationing guards or police officers to protect the most vulnerable facilities and locations, a far less cost effective means of providing security. In addition, this use of security employees could not been sustained over the long term due to budget constraints. 82

7 As in any system safety, removing a hazard or, in this case, a threat from the system by means of equipment design is almost always more effective than rules, procedures, or other human measures in cost and performance. Measure Effectiveness of Implementation/Performance Indicators One of the measures of the effectiveness of safety and security at any transit system is patronage. Currently, BART is at a high point in patronage. While much of the increased ridership could be related to increases in fuel prices, the safety and security patrons experience while riding help maintain current ridership and attracted new patrons. Choice riders are not likely to utilize a transit system that is viewed as unsafe or unsecure. While the IDS is not visible or advertised to the public, BART Police have shown they have increased security measures as complements to the IDS system. Additional station security announcements and destination sign messages provide warnings, alerts, instructions how to act when observing unusual behavior. In addition, the stationing of uniformed officers on platforms and trains lends an increased level of safety and security for patrons. Lessons Learned/Conclusions There are many challenges facing those who are responsible for making rail transit safe and secure. There are means available to evaluate the threats and vulnerabilities that a rail transit system faces. What is necessary to add to the mix of countermeasures is innovation and technology. It is important for transit system to communicate and share information because valuable time and money can be spent trying to reinvent the wheel. Sharing information about accomplishments and failures will not only save money; more importantly, effective measures in counterterrorism can be implemented to save lives and property. BART used the threat and vulnerability matrix to prioritize their threats and vulnerability and identify their assets most at risk. Additionally, a scenario based analysis was used to define the most vulnerable targets. This approach allowed BART to identify counter measures to reduce those vulnerabilities at high risk facilities and locations. The IDS provides constant monitoring of access to these locations eliminating the need for additional security personnel. Having the alarm directly in the Operations Control Center gives the Controllers the opportunity to restrict train and maintenance operations from the area while simultaneously the BART Police Dispatcher is being notified. 83

8 The level of implementation at the BART system will depend upon the level of funding made available for security measures. Ultimately, BART would like to have the Intrusion Detection System in all tube and tunnel locations. 84

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