Lecture (05) OSPF. By: Dr. Ahmed ElShafee. Dr. Ahmed ElShafee, ACU : Fall 2016, Practical App. Networks II

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1 Lecture (05) OSPF By: Dr. Ahmed ElShafee ١ Dr. Ahmed ElShafee, ACU : Fall 2016, Practical App. Networks II Overview OSPF is an interior gateway protocol and a classless link state routing protocol. Because OSPF is widely deployed, knowledge of its configuration and maintenance is essential. ٢

2 OSPF Features ٣ OSPF is a routing protocol developed for IP networks by the IGP working group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Similar to IGRP, OSPF was created in the mid 1980s because RIP was increasingly incapable of serving large, heterogeneous intemetworks. OSPF routes packets within a single autonomous system. ٤

3 OSPF has two primary characteristics. The first is that the protocol is an open standard, which means that its specification is in the public domain. The second characteristic is that OSPF is based on the SPF algorithm (Shortest Path First). ٥ OSPF and Distance Vector Routing Protocol Comparison OSPF is a link state routing protocol, whereas RIP and IGRP are distance vector routing protocols. Routers that are running distance vector algorithms send all or a portion of their routing tables in routing update messages to their neighbors. The link as an interface on a router. The state of the link is a description of that interface and of its relationship to its neighboring routers. the interface would include, for example, the IP address of the interface, the subnet mask, the type of network to which it is connected, the routers connected to that network, and so on. ٦

4 The collection of all these link states forms a link state database. A router sends LSA packets to advertise its state periodically and when the router state changes. Information about attached interfaces, metrics used, and other variables are included in OSPF LSAs. As OSPF routers accumulate link state information, they use the SPF algorithm to calculate the shortest path to each node. ٧ A topological (link state) database is, essentially, an overall picture of networks in relation to routers. The topological database contains the collection of LSAs received from all routers in the same area. Because routers within the same area share the same information, they have identical topological databases. OSPF can operate within a hierarchy. The largest entity within the hierarchy is the autonomous system, which is a collection of networks under a common administration that share a common routing strategy. An autonomous system can be divided into a number of areas, which are groups of contiguous networks and attached ٨ hosts.

5 Hierarchical Routing ٩ Hierarchical routing enables you to separate a large internetwork (autonomous system) into smaller internetworks, called areas. routing still occurs between the areas (called interarea routing), but many of the minute internal routing operations, such as recalculating the database, are kept within an area. ١٠

6 if area I is having problems with a link going up and down, routers in other areas need not continually run their SPF calculation because they are isolated from the area I problem ١١ advantages: Reduced frequency of SPF calculations Smaller routing tables Reduced link state update overhead ١٢

7 Shortest Path First Algorithm ١٣ LSAs are flooded throughout the area using a reliable algorithm, which ensures that all routers in an area have exactly the same topological database ١٤

8 The shortest path is calculated using Dijkstra's algorithm. This algorithm places each router at the root of a tree and calculates the shortest path to each destination based on the cumulative cost that is required to reach that destination. Each router will have its own view of the topology, even though all the routers will build a shortest path tree using the same link state database. ١٥ The cost, or metric, of an interface is an indication of the overhead that is required to send packets across a certain interface The cost of an interface is inversely proportional to the bandwidth of that interface, so a higher bandwidth indicates a lower cost. There is more overhead, higher cost, and more time delays involved in crossing a 56 kbps serial line than in crossing a 10 Mbps Ethernet line. ١٦

9 ١٧ Single Area OSPF Configuration a unique, arbitrary number that you select to identify the routing process. The process ID does not need to match the OSPF process ld on other OSPF routers. ١٨

10 ١٩ Router B has specified 191 as the local process ID for the OSPF routing process. Addresses that begin with 10 as the first octet are assigned to area 0 (the backbone area). In this case, both the S2 and the S3 interface on router 8 will be in OSPF area 0. Both routers A and C will have similar configurations specifying addresses in area 0. ٢٠

11 Routers that share a common segment become neighbors on that segment. In the figure, routers A and C are neighbors of router B, but not of each other. A router uses the OSPF hello protocol to establish neighbor relationships. Hello packets also act as keep alives to let routers know that other routers are still functional. ٢١ On multi access networks (networks supporting more than two routers) such as Ethernet networks, the hello protocol elects a designated router (DR) and a backup designated router (BDR). Among other things, the designated router is responsible for generating LSAs for the entire multi access network. Designated routers allow a reduction in routing update traffic and manage link state synchronization. ٢٢

12 The DR and BDR are elected based on the OSPF priority and OSPF router ID. In nonmulti access networks, such as a point to point serial link, there will not be a DR or BDR elected. ٢٣ OSPF Configuration Verification ٢٤

13 OSPF Configuration Troubleshooting ٢٥ ٢٦

14 Example ٢٧ PCS configuration ***************** PC fa0/1 PC fa0/1 ٢٨

15 ********************************************* **************** router A ********************* ********************************************* en config t interface fa0/0 ip address no sh interface serial0/0/0 ip address clock rate no sh end copy running config startup config ٢٩ exit ********************************************* **************** router B ********************* ********************************************* en config t interface serial0/0/0 ip address no sh interface serial0/0/1 ip address clock rate no sh end copy running config startup config ٣٠ exit

16 ********************************************* **************** router C ********************* ********************************************* en config t interface serial0/0/1 ip address no sh interface fa0/0 ip address no sh end copy running config startup config ٣١ exit PC1 >> PC2>> ping ping ٣٢

17 ********************************************* **************** router A ********************* ********************************************* en config t router OSPF 100 network area 0 network area 0 end copy running config startup config exit ********************************************* ٣٣ ********************************************* **************** router B ********************* ********************************************* en config t router OSPF 100 network area 0 network area 0 end copy running config startup config exit ***************************************** ٣٤

18 ********************************************* **************** router C ********************* ********************************************* en config t router OSPF 100 network area 0 network area 0 end copy running config startup config exit ***************************************** ٣٥ PC1 >> PC2>> router>> ping ping show ip protocol show ip interface brief show ip route debug ip EIGRP ٣٦

19 Thanks,.. See you next week (ISA), ٣٧ Dr. Ahmed ElShafee, ACU : Fall 2016, Practical App. Networks II

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