OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)

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1 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Link-state based routing protocol: an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) for inside ASs (modified by M. Veeraraghavan) 1 What is OSPF? Open Developed by IETF IGP working group, RFC2328 SPF Each router floods link-state information through its neighbors to other routers Based on the flooded link-state information, each router maintains a complete link-state database Based on the link-state database, a routing table is constructed using SPF (e.g., Dijkstra s) algorithm Runs over IP directly, protocol number 89 (modified by M. Veeraraghavan) 2 1

2 Features of OSPF Use flexible metrics instead of only hop count Supports variable-length subnetting Allows load balancing among equal-cost paths Supports multiple routes; one for each IP type of service (ToS) Authenticates route exchanges Quick convergence Uses multicast rather than broadcast of its messages to reduce network load (modified by M. Veeraraghavan) 3 Hierarchical OSPF AS is organized as two-level hierarchy AS is partitioned into self-contained areas Areas are interconnected by a backbone area Areas are identified by a 32-bit area ID is reserved for the backbone area Four types of routers Internal router, area border router, backbone router, autonomous system boundary router (ASBR) (modified by M. Veeraraghavan) 4 2

3 OSPF AS organized into a 2-level hierarchy Within each area, border router responsible for routing outside the area Backbone area contains all area border routers and possibly others (ASBR) Exactly one area is backbone area (modified by M. Veeraraghavan) 5 OSPF packets Five types of OSPF packets Hello(1) Database description(2) Link-State Request(3)/Update(4)/Acknowledgement(5) OSPF common header Version Type (1-5) Packet Length Router ID Area ID Checksum Authentication Type Authentication Authentication (modified by M. Veeraraghavan) 6 3

4 OSPF common header fields Version number: 2 Type: Type of OSPF packet Packet length: in bytes, includes OSPF header Router ID: 32-bit number assigned to each OSPF running router uniquely identifies router within AS Area ID: any four-byte number ( reserved for backbone area) Checksum: error detection Three Authentication related fields: to authenticate OSPF packets (modified by M. Veeraraghavan) 7 Hello packet Network mask Hello interval Options Dead interval Designated router Backup designated router Neighbor 1 Neighbor n Priority (modified by M. Veeraraghavan) 8 4

5 Hello packet fields Network mask: Subnet mask of the interface the packet is sent on Hello interval: Number of seconds between Hello packets Options: optional capabilities supported by the router Priority: of the router used in election of designated router Dead interval: Number of seconds before declaring a nonresponding neighbor down Designated router/backup: Every broadcast network with at least two routers has a designated router. This sends network LSAs for the broadcast network. This field is if there is no designated router Neighbors: Router ID of each neighbor from whom Hello packets have recently been received (modified by M. Veeraraghavan) 9 Database description packet Database description packet Interface MTU Options Zero Database description sequence number I M M S LSA header(s) LSA header LSA: Link State Advertisement Link-state age Link-state checksum Link-state ID Options Advertising router Link-state sequence number Length Link-state type (modified by M. Veeraraghavan) 10 5

6 Database description packet fields Interface MTU: MTU of the associated interface Options: optional capabilities supported by the router I bit: Init bit set to 1 if this packet is the first in the sequence of database description packets M bit: More bit is set to 1 if more database description packets are to follow MS bit: Master/Slave bit Database description seq. no.: identifies the packet number sequentially so that a receiver can detect a missing packet (modified by M. Veeraraghavan) 11 LSA header fields Link-state age: time since LSA generation Options: optional capabilities supported by the router Link-state type: router LSA, network LSA, summary LSA for IP networks, summary LSA for ASB routers, AS-external LSAs Link-state ID: describes routing domain for the LSA; depends on LSA type Advertising router: router ID of the router that generated the LSA Link-state sequence number: Numbers LSAs sequentially to identify old and duplicate LSAs Link-state checksum: entire contents of LSA except link-state age Length: in bytes of LSA including LSA header (modified by M. Veeraraghavan) 12 6

7 Link-state Request/Update/ Acknowledgement Link-state Request Link-state type Link-state ID Advertising router (above 3 fields repeated for each link) Link-state Update Number of LSAs LSA 1 LSA n Link-state Acknowledgement (modified by M. Veeraraghavan) 13 Router LSA 32 bits LSA header 0 V E B 0 #links per-link fields Type #TOS Metric Link ID Link Data Repeat per-link fields for each link (modified by M. Veeraraghavan) 14 7

8 LSA fields bit V (Virtual): 1 when router is a virtual link endpoint bit E (External): 1 when router is an ASBR bit B (Border): 1 when router is an area border router # links: # of links described in this LSA Per link: Type: Point-to-point connection to another router: 1 Connection to a transit network: 2 Connection to a stub network: 3 Virtual link: 4 (modified by M. Veeraraghavan) 15 LSA fields contd. Per-link: #TOS: number of TOS metrics other than the required link metric given to this link; if none, 0 Link ID: Identifies the type of node connected to this link If type 1, Neighboring router's Router ID If type 2, IP address of Designated Router If type 3, IP network/subnet number If type 4, Neighboring router's Router ID Link Data: depends upon type of link For links to stub networks: Network's IP address mask For point-to-point links: the interface's MIB-II ifindex value. For the other link types: the router interface's IP address. Metric: cost of using this link (modified by M. Veeraraghavan) 16 8

9 Link state updates Each Link State Update packet carries a set of new link state advertisements (LSAs) one hop further away from their point of origination. A single Link State Update packet may contain the LSAs of several routers. Each LSA is tagged with the ID of the originating router and a checksum of its link state contents. (modified by M. Veeraraghavan) 17 OSPF operations Hello protocol Database synchronization Propagation of link-state information Building of routing table (modified by M. Veeraraghavan) 18 9

10 Hello Protocol Hello packets are transmitted to all interfaces periodically Discover neighbors, establish and maintain neighbor adjacency relationships Elect Designated Router (DR) if there are multiple routers in a broadcast network (modified by M. Veeraraghavan) 19 Database synchronization Two neighboring routers exchange database description packets to synchronize their link-state databases. Database description includes only a list of LSA headers. New or more up-to-date LSAs will be requested later Packets sent by master are acknowledged by slave (modified by M. Veeraraghavan) 20 10

11 Propagation of link-state information Link-state request sent When a router wants to update parts of its link-state database Link-state update sent When a link state is requested, or When a link-state changes, or Periodically Link-state acknowledgement sent in response to a link-state update Link-state updates retransmitted periodically until acknowledged (modified by M. Veeraraghavan) 21 Flooding LSAs A node receiving a link-state update selectively first installs each LSA in the update into its LSA database Then it decides on which of its other links to flood the LSA it may decide not to flood an LSA out a particular interface if there is a high probability that the attached neighbors have already received the LSA. (modified by M. Veeraraghavan) 22 11

12 Building of routing table Router S has knowledge of the entire area topology (complete link-state database) Some algorithm such as Dijkstra s is used to generate shortest path tree, rooted at router S Only the next hop will be used in the routing table (modified by M. Veeraraghavan) 23 Example N1 3 RT1 N AREA 1 Backbone area 1 Assume that all RT3 interfaces have 3 as their host ID RT4 N RT2 1 RT3 2 N RT This is the link metric - note NOT hostid Construct Router LSA for RT3 (modified by M. Veeraraghavan) 24 12

13 RT3 s router-lsa for Area 1 LS age = 0; true on origination Options =; LS type = 1; indicates router-lsa Link State ID = ; RT3's Router ID Advertising Router = ; RT3's Router ID bit E = 0; not an AS boundary router bit B = 1; area border router #links = 2 Link to N3: [COMMENT] Link ID = ; IP address of Desig. Rtr. Link Data = ; RT3's IP interface to net Type = 2; connects to transit network Link to N4: [COMMENT] Link ID = ; IP Network number Link Data = 0xffffff00; Network mask Type = 3; connects to stub network # TOS metrics = 0 metric = 2 Audio asks you to consult slides 10, 12, 14, 24: if new slides are added, these numbers will change, but here are the slide titles # TOS metrics = 0 slide 10: DDP+ LSA header slide 12: LSA header fields metric = 1 slide 14: Router LSA slide 24: Example (modified by M. Veeraraghavan) 25 RT3's router-lsa for the backbone LS age = 0; always true on origination Options = ; LS type = 1; indicates router-lsa Link State ID = ; RT3's router ID Advertising Router = ; RT3's router ID bit E = 0; not an AS boundary router bit B = 1; area border router #links = 1 Link to RT6 Link ID = ; Neighbor's Router ID Link Data = ; MIB-II ifindex of P-P link Type = 1; connects to router # TOS metrics = 0 metric = 8 (modified by M. Veeraraghavan) 26 13

14 References Section of Communication Networks by A. Leon Garcia and I. Widjaja RFC 2328 (can be obtained from (modified by M. Veeraraghavan) 27 14

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