Literature. Discussion Groups. Objectives. Common Core

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1 Literature Discussion Groups Nancy Hall, Lori Wertz, Melodee Cincotta, and Jill Cook Bissett Elementary Objectives Understand how Literature Discussion Groups align with Common Core Explain the components of Literature Discussion Groups Leave with ideas of how to implement Literature Discussion Groups in the classroom Common Core Speaking and Listening CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others ideas and expressing their own clearly. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4.1a Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4.1b Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4.1c Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4.1d Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.

2 Common Core Reading: Informational Text CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4.2 Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4.3 Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4.8 Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.5.1 Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.5.2 Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.5.3 Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.5.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 4 5 text complexity band independently and proficiently. What are Literature Discussion Groups? Small, heterogeneous groups having conversations about books. In literature study, students use their comprehending strategies to investigate the meaning of texts in a deep, intensive way. Through literature study, they learn how to explain their ideas in public, the goal being to gain greater meaning than they can on their own. (Guiding Readers and Writers by Fountas and Pinnell, pg 258.) Key Elements 1. Reading and thinking about works of literature. 2. Collaborating with others to reflect on, analyze, and criticize literature. 3. Developing and sharing responses to literature. 4. Extending understandings through talk and/or writing. (Guiding Readers and Writers by Fountas and Pinnell, pg 252.)

3 Purposes of Literature Study Increase student s enjoyment of reading. Make students aware of the value of their personal responses to what they read. Engage students in meaningful literary discussion. Expand students literacy and background knowledge. Build students knowledge of authors and illustrators. Provide rich experiences with a range of genres representing many periods and cultures. Deepen students understanding of the qualities that make well-crafted literature. Demonstrate new ways of interpreting and analyzing text. Foster critical thinking. (Guiding Readers and Writers by Fountas and Pinnell, pg 252.) Framework of Literature Discussion Groups 1. Introduction 2. Selection of books 3. Routines are established 4. Read, think, and note 5. Group discussion and teacher conferences 6. Response or project Introduction Teacher Preparation: Familiarize yourself with Literature Discussions Show a mock video of an effective literature discussion Students create a T-Chart Options: What I hear/what I see Teacher Side/Student Side Class Discussion What we already know about having discussions (Making Meaning and Discussions during Guided Reading)

4 Videos Segment 1: The Summer My Father Was Ten Segment 2: Honeysuckle House (Teaching for Deep Comprehension, Linda Dorn and Carla Soffos, DVD) Selection of Books Teacher Preparation: Choose a theme and select books students will enjoy Common Core: Informational Text Different leveled books Flexibility with length of books Focus: The Universe Books: Earth, Sun, and Moon (National Geographic) Exploring Space (National Geographic) Our Solar System Stars and Galaxies (National Geographic) Integrating Science with Literature Discussions 5 th grade

5 Focus: Civil Rights Books: Freedom Train (Harriet Tubman) I Have a Dream (MLK, Scholastic) Frederick Douglass Fights for Freedom (Scholastic) Freedom s Children A group of my students really wanted to read Freedom Train so I tried to incorporate that into the theme. Integrating Social Studies w/ Literature Discussions 5 th grade 4 th grade Focus: Science Books: Magic School Bus: Ina Beehive Inside the Earth Inside a Hurricane The Electric Field Trip In the Time of the Dinosaurs Inside the Human Body Integrating Science w/ Literature Discussions 4 th grade Selection of Books Book Talk Students rank the books Teacher creates groups Keep management in mind Behaviors Establish buddy reading for struggling readers to have a mentoring partner

6 Routines are Established Establish routines that will help your students have a successful discussion Discuss effective ways to talk books Create norms Practice the routines Routines are Established (option1) How I did it: Watch videos again to listen for Ways to Talk Books Create an anchor chart for students to understand what are good discussion starters Practice using discussion starters with something familiar to all, such as a recent field trip Have a mock discussion that compares effective discussions with ineffective ones Create Ways to Respond Our ways to respond when reading: = I liked learning about! = I was surprised when? = I still wonder about * = I learned that means = I disagree with the author when = My favorite part was Students added symbols to sticky notes and placed in book Students included symbol and response in literature response books

7 Routines are Established (option 2) How I did it: Students in their new groups came up with a list of 4 guidelines that they think would help their group have an effective discussion Students share out their routines Teacher and students create Literature Discussion Guidelines Poster Disclaimer: These are not the only options. Do what you think is best for your class to establish the routines. Routines are Established: Practice Whole Class How I did it: I introduced the new literature discussion log we would be using. Whole group, we went through each part of the log. We practiced whole group with a familiar text. Routines are Established: Practice Whole Class How I did it: - Read a text similar to the focus (20 mins, 3 days) - Give students a RTFO (read to find out) - Pause and allow students to respond - Students share responses with one another - After finishing, answer RTFO and break students up into groups - Students practice Ways to Talk Books - Monitor and create Plus/ Delta on how it went and make suggested improvements - Have students reflect on individual engagement (rubric in their lit. discussion response books)

8 Routines are Established: Practice Whole Class How I did it: Day 1: Students practice filling out Literature Discussion Forms. Student created questions that begin with What, How and Why. (Open-ended) Struggle for some But lead to questioning the text On the notebook paper provided, students answered the Read to Find Out (RTFO) Routines are Established: Practice Whole Class How I did it (con t): Day 2: Discussion Students got in their groups and discussed the books Students practiced filling out the reflection form Groups discussed one thing their group did well and one thing their group needed to work on in their next discussion Shared with class Teacher Feedback Days: 2 Routines are established 1. To be prepared. 2. To sit where they can see everyone. 3. To share leadership roles. 4. That only one person can speak at a time and that there are established procedures for getting a turn. 5. To take responsibility for ensuring that every person has a chance to talk. 6. To keep the conversation focused and move it forward when appropriate. 7. To evaluate the discussion and agree on any next steps. (Guiding Readers and Writers by Fountas and Pinnell, pg 268.)

9 Read, Think, and Note Silent reading Some students will be listening to book on tape, reading with another student, or reading with the teacher. Students monitor their thinking and prepare for discussion using story maps, sticky notes, and response logs. Read, Think, and Note How I did it: The day they couldn t wait for. They got their books! I met with each group and gave their reading assignment and due date. They were given the choice to read independently or with a buddy. Since I had students who did not read at a text level P, I buddied them up with someone in their group. They were very excited about this. Read, Think, and Note How I did it (con t): Students were busy reading and working on their assignments, I walked around, dropping in with the students to ask them how things were going and to answer any questions they had.

10 Read, Think, and Note How I did it (con t): By the end of this day, some had finished their assignments, they were very eager to read on, but they had to wait on the rest of the group. Some students decided to do further research on their topic and others decided to read independently a book of their choice. Since I had a due date, I monitored closely and anyone not making adequate progress worked during recess. That usually did the trick. Read, Think, and Note How I did it: Students first assignment Students met in their groups with me to receive their assignment and to discuss any questions they had before reading Fill out Literature Discussion Form Answer Read to Find Out (Teacher Question) Flag our Thoughts! Students who were reading below their reading level had a buddy to read with.

11 Group discussion and/or teacher conferences Groups meet, with or without the teacher, to discuss the book or portion of the book read. The teacher monitors the students comprehension and redirects the dialogue if the talk becomes off-task. The goal is to support the text discussion by scaffolding and offering assistance as needed while promoting independent thinking within the group. (Teaching for Deep Comprehension, Dorn and Soffos, pg. 86.) Group discussion and/or teacher conferences Groups got together and had their discussion time. My literacy coach helped me go around and sit in with every group. There were some groups where no one would talk and we had to troubleshoot that. I made a conversation movers page for each group. This contained prompts to get the discussion moving. I gave it to them the next day and we tried it again. Observing and Scaffolding Groups Record data as you walk around to observe groups Individual student behaviors Group successes and weaknesses What in general do students need more help with Teacher scaffolds Prompt if needed (Does anyone disagree with what said? Can anyone add something more about?) Used the following to help groups: Talking sticks (popsicle sticks) Pre-made question cards (What issues did the characters face?, If you were the main character how would you have solved the problem?)

12 Reflect! Review student responses each day, as well as their rubrics. Comment on them. Give positive feedback Pause struggling groups and observe a group that is doing a great job Revisit anchor charts and add to them if necessary Reflect! Students filled out their reflection forms once they were done with their discussions Met back in their groups and students shared what went well in their groups and what they should work on Each group shared with the class Praised each group with one thing I noticed Response or Project Read another book by the same author. Conduct an internet search of the books topic or theme. Write a letter to the author. Rewrite the text into a play. Interview the main character. Research the author or illustrator. Write a poem related to the reading. Create a timeline of events. Create a PowerPoint presentation about the book.

13 Culminating Activity We had each student choose which book they enjoyed the most. Then they made a poster to persuade students to want to go on their field trip. They had to use facts and information from the text. I gave them the rubric I would use to grade the poster. I printed pictures of Ms. Frizzle for them to use and the rest of the artwork they did themselves. We had the students share their posters. They had a blast! Schedule Day 1: Students prepare and complete assignments/teacher conferences 2:15-2:45 Students completed other reading assignments (Guided reading) or read independently once finished Met with students to check comprehension Day 2: Students Discuss and reflect 2:15-2:30 Discuss* 2:30-2:40 Independent Reflection 2:40-2:45 Group or whole-class reflection Be flexible* Schedule 1:35 1:40 = review what was previously read 1:40 2:00 = read, answer RTFO, and respond with 5 flags/ work on a lit. extension if time Teacher monitors student engagement and reads with students during this time 2:05 2:20= literature discussions Teacher conferences with 1 group on their learning 2:20 2:30 = finish up/ students fill out reflective rubric Students switched books every 4 days, but groups were kept the same.

14 Resources Effective Videos of Literature Discussions Video Video Video Teaching For Deep Comprehension by Linda Dorn and Carla Soffos Guiding Readers and Writers by Irene Fountas and Gay Su Pinnell Litcircles.org Addresses Questions??

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