Report on Equality Rights of. Aboriginal People

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1 Report on Equality Rights of Aboriginal People

2 The following symbols are used in this publication: E F ** Symbol Definition Use with caution, coefficient (CV) of variation between16.5% and 33.3% Too unreliable to be published Not significantly different from reference category (p < 0.05) Cat. No. HR4-22/2013E-PDF ISBN

3 Table of Contents Message from the Acting Chief Commissioner... 3 Background... 4 Introduction... 4 Methodology... 4 Chapter 1: A Snapshop of Aboriginal People... 8 Chapter 2: Economic Well-Being Chapter 3: Employment Chapter 4: Education Chapter 5: Housing Chapter 6: Health Chapter 7: Justice and Safety Chapter 8: Political Engagement and Social Inclusion Bibliography

4 MESSAGE FROM THE ACTING CHIEF COMMISSIONER This report describes the impact of persistent conditions of disadvantage on the daily lives of Aboriginal people across Canada. Drawn primarily from Statistics Canada surveys, the report compares Aboriginal and non-aboriginal people across a spectrum of indicators, including education, employment, economic well-being, health, and housing. These comparisons confirm the persistence of barriers to equality of opportunity faced by Aboriginal people. The report provides as comprehensive a statistical portrait as can be drawn from available data. Aboriginal people living off reserve are better represented in statistical surveys. On reserve, the gaps are significant. In some cases, data is simply not available. The report shows that, compared to non-aboriginal people, Aboriginal people living in Canada: Have lower median after-tax income; Are more likely to experience unemployment; Are more likely to collect employment insurance and social assistance; Are more likely to live in housing in need of major repairs; Are more likely to experience physical, emotional or sexual abuse; Are more likely to be victims of violent crimes; and Are more likely to be incarcerated and less likely to be granted parole. For decades, study after study has chronicled the social injustice faced by Aboriginal people, on and off reserve. This report adds to our understanding by providing an empirical reference point regarding the impacts of systemic discrimination on the equality rights of a group protected by Canadian human rights legislation and international conventions. It is hoped that this report will serve to inform the work of stakeholders and government departments seeking to address these issues. David Langtry Acting Chief Commissioner Canadian Human Rights Commission 3

5 BACKGROUND The Report on Equality Rights of Aboriginal People is the first of its kind and is based on the Framework for Documenting Equality Rights (Framework). 1 Published by the Canadian Human Rights Commission (CHRC) in 2010, the Framework is a tool for developing a consolidated portrait of equality in Canada. It lays out the parameters for presenting reliable and policy-relevant data on equality rights for the groups protected by Canadian human rights legislation. It also identifies gaps in available data related to equality issues in Canada. INTRODUCTION The Report on Equality Rights of Aboriginal People presents a national portrait of Aboriginal peoples compared to non-aboriginal peoples based on the seven dimensions of well-being widely considered critical from an equality rights perspective. The seven dimensions of well-being are economic well-being, education, employment, health, housing, justice and safety, and political and social inclusion. This report brings together existing data from an equality rights perspective. The purpose of the report is to document the status of Aboriginal peoples with respect to their well-being. It is not a report card, nor an evaluation of Canada s performance. METHODOLOGY Data sources The report uses data from several surveys conducted by Statistics Canada. Aboriginal identity "refers to those persons who reported identifying with at least one Aboriginal group, that is, North American Indian, Métis or Inuit, and/or those who reported being a Treaty Indian or a Registered Indian, as defined by Canada s Indian Act, and/or those who reported they were members of an Indian band or First Nation." 2 Where feasible, data is presented by sex and by the following age groups: 3 adults 15 to 24 years of age; working-age adults 15 to 64 years of age; 1 Canadian Human Rights Commission. Framework for Documenting Equal Rights. Ottawa: Statistics Canada Census Dictionary. Ottawa: The level of disaggregation varies depending on the sample size and data quality. 4

6 younger working-age adults 25 to 54 years of age; older working-age adults 55 to 64 years of age; and seniors aged 65 and over. The following surveys were used to produce the report. Survey on Labour and Income Dynamic (SLID) Fifth Panel : SLID is one of the most important sources of information about the economic wellbeing of Canadian families, households and individuals. The target population is Canadians aged 15 to 69 who do not live on First Nations reserves, in institutions or in one of the three territories General Social Survey (GSS), Cycle 22 on Social Networks Main Analytical File: This survey collected data on social networks and civic participation. The target population was Canadians aged 15 and over residing outside institutions in the 10 provinces. This survey included people living on reserves, but excluded residents of some remote regions in Nunavut General Social Survey (GSS), Cycle 23 on Victimization Main and Incident Files: This survey asked Canadians about their experiences with and perceptions of crime and the criminal justice system in As with the 2008 GSS, the target population was Canadians aged 15 and over residing outside institutions in the provinces and territories. The survey included people living on reserves, but excluded residents of some remote regions in Nunavut Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) Annual Component:This survey provides information on health determinants, health status and health system utilization across Canada. It gathers health-related data at the sub-provincial levels (health region or combined health regions). The target population for the 2010 survey was all Canadians aged 12 and over. The 2010 survey excluded: o individuals living on First Nations reserves and Crown lands; o residents of institutions; o full-time members of the Canadian Forces; and o residents of some remote regions. In Nunavut, the CCHS collected information only from the 10 largest communities Census of Population:The census of population is designed to provide information on the demographic and social characteristics of people living in Canada and the housing/dwelling units they occupy. For the 2006 census, the target population was the entire Canadian population: Canadian citizens (by birth or naturalization), landed immigrants, and non-permanent residents and their families living with them in Canada. It included Aboriginal peoples living on and off reserve, as well as Canadian citizens and landed immigrants temporarily outside the country. It also included federal and provincial government employees working outside 5

7 Canada, Canadian embassy staff and members of the Canadian Forces posted abroad and all Canadian crew members of merchant vessels and their families Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS): The Aboriginal Peoples Survey is a national survey of Aboriginal peoples (First Nations peoples living off-reserve, Métis and Inuit) in Canada. The 2006 survey s target population excluded: o individuals living on-reserve in the provinces and in First Nations communities in the territories; and o people living in collective dwellings (institutions such as homes for the aged, hospitals or prisons) (Class of 2005) National Graduates Survey: This survey collected information on the educational backgrounds and work experiences of people who graduated from post-secondary institutions in The target population was graduates from Canadian public post-secondary institutions (universities, colleges, trade schools) who graduated or completed the requirements for degrees, diplomas or certificates during the reference calendar year. Excluded were: o graduates from private post-secondary institutions; o persons who completed continuing education programs that do not include a degree, diploma or certificate; o persons who completed vocational programs lasting less than three months; o persons who completed programs other than in the skilled trades (e.g. basic training and skill development); o persons who completed provincial apprenticeship programs; and o persons living outside of Canada and the United States at the time of the survey. 6

8 Method of analysis In this report, proportions are used to compare the situation of Aboriginal peoples to that of non-aboriginal peoples. In addition, central tendency statistics (mean/average and median) are used for comparisons. When feasible, the following comparisons are made: 1) Aboriginal peoples compared to non-aboriginal people; 2) Aboriginal men compared to non-aboriginal men; 3) Aboriginal women compared to non-aboriginal women; and 4) Aboriginal women compared to Aboriginal men. Information is presented in the form of tables and charts followed by a short statistical descriptive analysis. Statistical tests were run on all comparisons to determine if differences are significant at the 0.05 level. Non-significant differences are noted as a legend in the tables. It is important to note that differences documented between the situation of Aboriginal and non-aboriginal adults do not necessarily indicate discrimination as defined in human rights laws. A number of other factors may account for the differences. However, the differences may point to areas for further study. Limitations of the data There are several limitations in using data from multiple surveys. For example, none of the surveys used in this report were intended to document equality rights. Since each survey had its own purpose, design, definitions of key concepts and sample size, comparisons between surveys have not been made. Another limitation relates to the fact that most of the surveys excluded Aboriginal peoples living on-reserve. In addition, some of the sample sizes were so low that some measures had to be dropped to protect the identities of the respondents, in accordance with Statistics Canada confidentiality requirements. Other measures were dropped because the value of the coefficient of variation (CV) was too high. 4 4 The coefficient of variation (CV) is used to determine the reliability of the data. The following values are used: When the CV is greater than 33.3%, the results are considered unacceptable. When the CV is greater than 16.5% and less than or equal to 33.3%, the results are considered poor and must be used with caution. When the CV is 16.5% or less, the results are considered "acceptable" and are published without restrictions. 7

9 CHAPTER 1: A SNAPSHOT OF ABORIGINAL PEOPLE This chapter provides information on people who reported Aboriginal status and Aboriginal identity. Table 1.1: Distribution of Aboriginal adults by age groups and sex reference year 2006 Age Groups Women Men Total Number % , % 105, % 212, % , % 222, % 474, % , % 39, % 81, % , % 25, % 56, % Total 430, % 393, % 823, % Source: 2006 Census of Population. All percentages are rounded to the nearest one decimal point. The sum of the values for each category may differ from the total due to rounding. Table 1.2: Distribution of Aboriginal adults who report multiple identities 5 groups and sex reference year 2006 by age Age Groups Women Men Total Number % % % 1, % , % 1, % 3, % % % % % % % Total 2, % 2, % 5, % Source: 2006 Census of Population. All percentages are rounded to the nearest one decimal point. The sum of the values for each category may differ from the total due to rounding. 5 For example, an Aboriginal person could have reported being of First Nations and Inuit identity. 8

10 Table 1.3: Distribution of First Nations adults by age groups and sex reference year 2006 Age Groups Women Men Total Number % , % 62, % 124, % , % 126, % 272, % , % 20, % 44, % , % 14, % 31, % Total 249, % 223, % 473, % Source: 2006 Census of Population. All percentages are rounded to the nearest one decimal point. The sum of the values for each category may differ from the total due to rounding. Table 1.4: Distribution of Métis adults by age groups and sex reference year 2006 Age Groups Women Men Total Number % , % 35, % 71, % , % 81, % 168, % , % 16, % 31, % , % 9, % 19, % Total 148, % 142, % 291, % Source: 2006 Census of Population. All percentages are rounded to the nearest one decimal point. The sum of the values for each category may differ from the total due to rounding. 9

11 Table 1.5: Distribution of Inuit adults by age groups and sex reference year 2006 Age Groups Women Men Total Number % , % 5, % 10, % , % 8, % 17, % , % 1, % 2, % % % 1, % Total 16, % 15, % 32, % Source: 2006 Census of Population. All percentages are rounded to the nearest one decimal point. The sum of the values for each category may differ from the total due to rounding. 10

12 CHAPTER 2: ECONOMIC WELL-BEING The right to fair wages, equal remuneration for work of equal value, social security and an adequate standard of living are listed in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (articles 6-11), as well as in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (article 17). This chapter gives a portrait of the economic well-being of Aboriginal and non-aboriginal adults using three indicators: 6 1) median household after-tax income; 7 2) share of the total household after-tax income; and 3) low income. 8 All data on income is presented using the total after-tax income of individuals. 9 6 Data used for longitudinal analysis is extracted from the 5th panel ( ) of the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics. Cross-sectional analysis was carried out using data specific to the reference year Income for this purpose refers to the sum of one s market income and government transfers. 8 The wealth indicator as proposed in the Framework was dropped during the development of this report. Data on Aboriginal people is unavailable using the 2005 Survey of Financial Security. 9 Statistics Canada recommends the use of after-tax income for two reasons: first, after-tax income reflects the entire redistributive impact of Canada s tax/transfer system, by including the effect of transfers [and the] effect of income taxes ; and second, since the purchase of necessities is made with after-tax dollars, after-tax income can be used to draw more precise conclusions about the overall economic wellbeing of individuals: Giles, Philip, Low-Income Measurement in Canada, Statistics Canada s Income Research Paper Series, Income Statistics Division, Catalogue no. 75F0002MIE No. 011, 2004, 20p. 11

13 Indicator One: Median household after-tax income Chart 2.1: Median household after-tax income 10 by age groups, sex and Aboriginal status reference year 2009 Median Income ($) 45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5, to to Aboriginal People Non- Aboriginal People Women Men Am Source: 2009 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics. Amounts are in dollars. In general, Aboriginal adults have a lower median household after-tax income than non- Aboriginal adults. More specifically, the median income for Aboriginal women aged 15 to 64 is $6,564 less for non-aboriginal women. For Aboriginal men aged 15 to 64, the median income is $6,264 less than it is for non-aboriginal men from the same age group. The largest gap can be seen in the 65+ age group, where the median income of Aboriginal women and men is respectively $8,488 and $9,368 lower than the median income of non-aboriginal women and men. 10 The median income is the mid-point where, by definition, half of the population falls above the median line and half falls below. The median income measure was chosen over the commonly used average/mean income, in part because median income provides better information about the distribution of income in the population. 12

14 Table 2.1: Median household after-tax income for adult men by quintile, 11 Aboriginal status and age groups reference year 2009 Quintile Aboriginal Men Non-Aboriginal Men Difference Age 15 to 64 Age 65+ Age 15 to 64 Age 65+ Age 15 to 64 Age 65+ Lowest 20% $13,773 $19,419 $16,784 $19,313 $3,011 $106 Second 20% $22,066 $20,198 $29,835 $26,068 $7,769 $5,870 Third 20% $35,092 $25,975 $41,121 $34,131 $6,029 $8,156 Fourth 20% $46,258 $32,380 $53,404 $43,917 $7,146 $11,537 Highest 20% $65,872 $60,249 $77,288 $62,160 $11,416 $1,911 Source: 2009 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics. Amounts are in dollars. Aboriginal men have a lower median household after-tax income than non-aboriginal men in all quintiles and age groups except in the lowest quintile of the 65+ age group. The difference between the lowest and the highest quintile for Aboriginal men aged 15 to 64 is $52,099 as compared to $60,504 for non-aboriginal men. For the 65+ age group, the difference between the lowest and the highest quintile is $40,830 for Aboriginal men compared to $42,847 for non-aboriginal men. 11 A quintile: the portion of a frequency distribution containing one fifth of the total sample. 13

15 Table 2.2: Median household after-tax income for adult women by quintile, Aboriginal status and age groups reference year 2009 Quintile Aboriginal Women Non-Aboriginal Women Difference Age 15 to 64 Age 65+ Age 15 to 64 Age 65+ Age 15 to 64 Age 65+ Lowest 20% $11,219 $15,720 $16,343 $17,545 $5,124 $1,825 Second 20% $22,055 $18,468 $28,769 $22,903 $6,714 $4,435 Third 20% $32,784 $22,577 $39,230 $30,712 $6,446 $8,135 Fourth 20% $44,100 $32,017 $51,700 $40,673 $7,600 $8,656 Highest 20% $62,903 $59,133 $75,562 $57,043 $12,659 $2,090 Source: 2009 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics Amounts are in dollars. Aboriginal women have a lower median household income than non-aboriginal women in all quintiles and age groups except in the highest quintile of the 65+ age group. The difference between the lowest and the highest quintile for Aboriginal women aged 15 to 64 is $51,684 as compared to $59,219 for non-aboriginal women in the same age group. For the age group 65+, the difference between the lowest and the highest quintile is $43,413 for Aboriginal women compared to $39,498 for non-aboriginal women. 14

16 Table 2.3: Median household after-tax income for Aboriginal adults by quintile, sex and age groups reference year 2009 Quintile Aboriginal Women Aboriginal Men Difference Age 15 to 64 Age 65+ Age 15 to 64 Age 65+ Age 15 to 64 Age 65+ Lowest 20% $11,219 $15,720 $13,773 $19,419 $2,554 $3,699 Second 20% $22,055 $18,468 $22,066 $20,198 $11 $1,730 Third 20% $32,784 $22,577 $35,092 $25,975 $2,308 $3,398 Fourth 20% $44,100 $32,017 $46,258 $32,380 $2,158 $363 Highest 20% $62,903 $59,133 $65,872 $60,249 $2,969 $1,116 Source: 2009 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics Amounts are in dollars. Aboriginal women have a lower median household after-tax income than Aboriginal men in all quintiles and age groups. There is little difference between the lowest and the highest quintile for Aboriginal women aged 15 to 64 ($51,684) compared to Aboriginal men in the same age group ($52,099). For those aged 65+, the difference between the lowest and highest quintile for Aboriginal women is $43,413, while it is $40,830 for Aboriginal men. 15

17 Indicator Two: Share of the total household after-tax income Table 2.4: Proportionate share of the total household after-tax income of adult men by quintile, Aboriginal status and age groups reference year 2009 Quintile Aboriginal Men Non-Aboriginal Men Age 15 to 64 Age 65+ Age 15 to 64 Age 65+ Lowest 20% 6.7% 12.7% 6.7% 9.4% Second 20% 12.2% 11.3% 12.9% 13.3% Third 20% 19.4% 17.2% 17.8% 17.4% Fourth 20% 23.9% 19.0% 23.4% 22.7% Highest 20% 37.8% 39.7% 39.2% 37.2% Total Income ($Billions) of Each Group $14.13 $1.03 $448.2 $71.9 Table 2.5: Proportionate share of the total household after-tax income of adult women by quintile, Aboriginal status and age groups reference year 2009 Quintile Aboriginal Women Non-Aboriginal Women Age 15 to 64 Age 65+ Age 15 to 64 Age 65+ Lowest 20% 6.1% 12.8% 6.8% 9.4% Second 20% 12.4% 12.0% 12.8% 12.9% Third 20% 18.2% 14.7% 17.6% 17.1% Fourth 20% 24.9% 22.8% 23.3% 22.7% Highest 20% 38.3% 37.7% 39.6% 37.9% Total Income ($Billions) of Each Group $16.8 $1.22 $441.5 $81 Source: 2009 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics. All numbers are rounded to one decimal point. Amounts are in billions. There are no major differences between Aboriginal and non-aboriginal adults across all quintiles and age groups in terms of their proportionate share of their respective total after-tax household income. 16

18 Indicator Three: Low-income Low-income is measured by: a) low-income status; 12 b) average low-income gap ratio; c) persistent low-income status; and d) government transfers as major source of income. a) Low-income status In this report, the 2009 SLID Low-Income Measure (LIM) 13 threshold is used to identify those in low-income status. Table 2.6: Proportion of adult men in low-income status by age groups and Aboriginal status reference year 2009 Age Groups Aboriginal Men Non-Aboriginal Men 15 to , % 3,323, % ,900 E 37.4% E 543, % Table 2.7: Proportion of adult women in low-income status by age groups and Aboriginal status reference year 2009 Age Groups Aboriginal Women Non-Aboriginal Women 15 to , % 3,669, % ,646 E 53.4% E 698, % Source: 2009 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics. E Used with caution. Regardless of age and sex, the proportion of Aboriginal adults in low-income status is much higher than those of non-aboriginal adults, with differences ranging from 7.8% for adult men aged 65+ to 22.5% for adult women aged A person in low-income status is someone whose income falls below the threshold. 13 The Low-Income Measure is a fixed percentage (50%) of the median adjusted household income. Reference: Statistics Canada (2010), Low Income Lines, , Ottawa, Catalogue no. 75F0002M No. 005, page

19 There is a much higher proportion of Aboriginal women aged 65+ in low-income status compared to Aboriginal men in the same age group (53.4% vs. 37.4%). b) Low-income gap ratio 14 For this report, the SLID after-tax LIM threshold for 2009 was used to calculate average low-income gap ratios. Chart 2.2: Average low-income gap ratios of adults by sex, age groups and Aboriginal status reference year % 20.0% 19.3% 17.8% 15.0% 12.6% 11.6% Aboriginal 10.0% 5.0% 8.3% 6.0% 8.1% 6.0% Non- Aboriginal People 0.0% 15 to to Women Men Source: 2009 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics. Overall, Aboriginal adults in low-income status have on average an income that is further below the LIM threshold than that of non-aboriginal adults, ranging from 8.1% to 19.3%. More specifically, Aboriginal women aged 15 to 64 in low-income status have on average an income that is 19.3% below the LIM threshold, compared to 12.6% for non- Aboriginal women. A similar pattern is noted when comparing Aboriginal men to non- Aboriginal men aged 15 to 64 (17.8% vs. 11.6%). 14 The low-income gap is the difference between the Low-Income Measure and actual household income. For example, if the LIM cut-off is $20,000 and the income of a household is $15,000, the low-income gap would be $5000. In order to calculate the low-income gap ratio for this household, we divide the gap by the LIM cut-off: $5,000/$20,000 = 25%. Therefore, the low-income gap ratio for this household would be 25%. In other words, the income of the household falls 25% below the LIM cut-off. 18

20 c) Persistent low-income status In this report, persistent low-income status is defined as having been in low-income status for four consecutive years ( ). 15 Table 2.8: Proportion of adults aged 15+ in persistent low-income status by sex and Aboriginal status reference years Sex Aboriginal Adults Non-Aboriginal Adults Women 15.3% 6.3% Men 14.0% 4.6% Source: Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics. Overall, a much higher proportion of Aboriginal adults are in persistent low-income status than non-aboriginal adults. Furthermore, a higher proportion of women experienced persistent low-income than men regardless of their Aboriginal status. 15 Low income was determined through the Low-Income Measure used in the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, which is a fixed percentage (50%) of median adjusted household income. Persistent low-income was calculated using the following formula: Proportion in Persistent low-income status 19

21 d) Government transfers as major source of income Table 2.9: Proportion of adult men who receive government transfers as their major source of income 16 by age groups and Aboriginal status reference year 2009 Age Groups Aboriginal Men Non-Aboriginal Men 15 to 64 77, % 1,060, % ,240 E 73.0% E 8, % Table 2.10: Proportion of adult women who receive government transfers as their major source of income by age groups and Aboriginal status reference year 2009 Age Groups Aboriginal Women Non-Aboriginal Women 15 to , % 322, % , % 6, % Source: 2009 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics. There is a much higher proportion of Aboriginal adults who receive government transfers as their major source of income compared to non-aboriginal adults, regardless of age and sex. Furthermore, for both age groups, the proportion of Aboriginal women who receive government transfers as their major source of income is much higher than that of Aboriginal men. 16 Government transfers include all federal and provincial government transfers such as Employment Insurance, social assistance, Old Age Security, Canada child tax benefit, etc. 20

22 CHAPTER 3: EMPLOYMENT The right to work, the opportunity to earn a living, and the right to just and favourable work conditions are set out in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (articles 6 and 7). In addition, the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (article 17) states that Indigenous individuals have the right not to be subjected to any discriminatory conditions of labour and, inter alia, employment or salary. 17 The right to equal treatment at work is guaranteed in all Canadian human rights legislation. Employment can be linked to higher levels of income and can significantly improve quality of life. Employment provides the means for a more independent life. It is also an important indicator of social inclusion. This chapter examines the employment situation of Aboriginal and non-aboriginal adults using the following four indicators: 1) status in the labour force; 2) relationship between specialization and employment; 3) work-related benefits; and 4) access to income support. 18 Indicator One: Status in the labour force Status in the labour force is measured by: a) whether a person has single or multiple employment status; b) number of jobs held; c) reasons for difficulty finding work; d) type of employment: permanent employment, non-permanent employment, involuntary part-time employment; and e) chronic unemployment. 17 United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, March , The employment equity indicator as proposed in the Framework for Documenting Equality Rights was dropped during the development of this report. Data on employment equity for Aboriginal peoples in the federally regulated sector can be found at the Canadian Human Rights Commission s website. 21

23 a) Single or multiple 19 status in the labour force Table 3.1: Labour force status of adults aged 15+ by labour force status, Aboriginal status and sex reference year 2009 Single Multiple Labour Force Status Aboriginal Adults Non-Aboriginal Adults Women Men Women Men Employed all year 215, % 150, % 5,119, % 5,618, % Unemployed all year 20 F F 4,820 E 1.4% E 106, % 183, % Not in the labour force 21 all year 109, % 76,512 E 22.9 E 2,351, % 1,501, % Employed part-year, unemployed part-year Employed part-year, not in labour force part-year Unemployed part-year, not in labour force part-year Employed, unemployed and not in labour force during year Source: 2009 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics E Use with caution. F Too unreliable to be published. 24, % 42, % 508, % 765, % 29,983 E 7.3 E 21,950 E 6.6 E 524, % 445, % 5,885 E 1.4 E F F 191, % 174, % 22,703 E 5.5 E 23,706 E 7.1 E 384, % 392, % 19 Multiple labour force status refer to an individual whose labour status changed during the reference year. 20 Unemployed refers to persons who are without paid work or without self-employment work and were available for work and either: had actively looked for paid work in the past four weeks; or were on temporary lay-off and expected to return to their job; or had definite arrangements to start a new job in four weeks or less. 21 Not in labour force refers to persons who are neither employed nor unemployed. 22

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