Standardizing Cloud Services for Financial Institutions through the provisioning of Service Level Agreements (SLAs)

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1 Standardizing Cloud Services for Financial Institutions through the provisioning of Service Level Agreements (SLAs) Robert Bohn, PhD Advanced Network Technologies Division Cloud FS Americas 2015 New York, New York 22 July 2015

2 Introduction Problem Statement Be able to procure cloud services in a secure, reliable, repeatable, and measureable manner which reflect the business & technical requirements of an organization. Goals of this talk Understand the NIST Model of Cloud Computing Understand the Variety of Cloud Services Understand Service Level Agreements & their limitations. Relationship between Requirements and Metrics 2

3 Cloud.. blah.. blah.. Services.. blah.. blah SLAs.. blah.. blah Pete s Journey to Cloud 1. To know the business & technical requirements of his organization. 2. To understand landscape of cloud computing, cloud services and service level agreements (SLAs). 3

4 NIST Definition of Cloud Computing Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. 3 Service Models Software as a Service Platform as a Service Infrastructure as a Service (SaaS) (PaaS) (IaaS) 4 Deployment models Public, Private, Community, Hybrid 5 Essential Characteristics On demand self-service Broad network access Resource Pooling Rapid Elasticity Measured Service Determine the What of Cloud Computing Significantly different from How to Build 4

5 NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture Actors and their Roles Cloud Consumer Person or organization that maintains a business relationship with, and uses service from Cloud Providers. Cloud Auditor A party that can conduct independent assessment of cloud services, information system operations, performance and security of the cloud implementation. Cloud Provider Person, organization or entity responsible for making a service available to Cloud Consumers. Cloud Broker An entity that manages the use, performance and delivery of cloud services, and negotiates relationships between Cloud Providers and Cloud Consumers. Cloud Carrier The intermediary that provides connectivity and transport of cloud services from Cloud Providers to Cloud Consumers. 5

6 NIST CCRA (NIST SP ) Cloud Consumer Cloud Auditor Security Audit Privacy Impact Audit Performance Audit Service Layer IaaS PaaS SaaS Resource Abstraction and Control Layer Physical Resource Layer Hardware Facility Cloud Provider Cloud Service Management Business Support Provisioning/ Configuration Portability/ Interoperability Cloud Broker Service Intermediation Service Aggregation Service Arbitrage Cloud Carrier Security & Privacy Everyone has some responsibility in managing S&P 6

7 Example Services Available to a Cloud Consumer ERP Billing Sales CRM Human Resources Social Networks Financials Content Management Cloud Provider Business Intelligence Development & Testing Collaboration PaaS Consumer Document Management Database Application Deployment Integration SaaS Consumer Storage CDN Backup & Recovery & Office Productivity IaaS Consumer Services Management Platform Hosting Compute 7

8 Types of Cloud Services Address Verification as a Service Anything as a Service API as a service (APIaaS) Application Delivery as a Service Application Platform as a Service Architecture as a Service Authentication as a Service Backend as a Service Backup as a Service Big Data as a Service Broker as a Service Business as a Service Business Process as a Service Cloud Load Balancers as a Service Collaboration-as-a-Service Commerce as a Service Communication as a Service Computing as a Service Contact Center as a Service Data as a service Database as a service Desktop as a Service (DTaaS) Development as a Service DevTest as a Service (DTaaS) Disaster Recovery as a Service Drupal as a Service as a Service Encryption as a Service Everything as a Service Firewall as a Service Framework as a Service Globalization as a Service Hadoop as a Service Hardware as a Service High Performance Computing as a Service Identity as a Service Infrastructure PaaS Integrated Development Environment as a Service Integration as a Service Integration Platform as a Service IT as a Service Java Platform as a Service Knowledge as a Service Light as a Service Logon as a Service Management as a Service Mashups as a Service Message Queuing as a Service Mobility as a Service Mobility Backend as a Service Monitoring as a Service Network Access Control as a Service Network as a service Operations as a Service Optimization as a Service Payment as a Service Quality as a Service Query as a Service Recovery as a Service Remote Backup as a Service Risk Assessment as a Service Security as a service Service Desk as a Service Storage as a service Telepresence as a Service Test environment as a service Testing as a Service Unified Communications as a Service Video Conferencing as a Service Video Surveillance as a Service Voice as a Service Web Site as a Service 8

9 Smorgasbord of Services 9

10 Cloud Services - Essential Characteristics On-Demand Self-Service Broad Network Access A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities, such as server time and network storage, as needed automatically without requiring human interaction with each service provider. Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e.g., mobile phones, tablets, laptops, and workstations). Resource Pooling The provider s computing resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand. There is a sense of location independence in that the customer generally has no control or knowledge over the exact location of the provided resources. Examples of resources include storage, processing, memory, and network bandwidth. (NIST SP ): The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing 10

11 Cloud Services - Essential Characteristics Rapid Elasticity Capabilities can be elastically provisioned and released, in some cases automatically, to scale rapidly outward and inward commensurate with demand. To the consumer, the capabilities available for provisioning often appear to be unlimited and can be appropriated in any quantity at any time. Measured Service Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering capability at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service (e.g., storage, processing, bandwidth, and active user accounts). Resource usage can be monitored, controlled, and reported. (NIST SP ): The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing 11

12 Apples to Apples 12

13 Cloud Service Level Agreements (SLAs) Cloud Service Level Agreement: A document stating the technical performance promises made by the cloud provider, how disputes are to be discovered and handled, and any remedies for performance failures. Differs from Master Service Agreement (MSA). No standard cloud computing contracts exist. Little agreement with respect to: which elements should appear within a SLA which metrics to use how terms are defined 13

14 Contents of an SLA Business Level Objectives Roles & Responsibilities Requirements Operational Policies Continuity Limitations Financial Glossary of Terms Service Level Objectives Resources Performance Indicators Service Deployment Service Management Description Security Privacy 14

15 Cloud Business & Performance Indicators 15

16 SLAs & Metrics Selecting & Decision Making Cloud Customer Metrics Cloud A Properties Cloud B Properties 16

17 SLAs & Metrics - Monitoring Services Cloud Customer Requirements Monitoring Metrics SLA Service Capabilities Cloud B offering 17

18 SLA Performance Metric - Service Availability An Availability Metric could be based on different definitions for measures: Most commonly, availability is evaluated based on the percentage of uptime (available state) of a resource, over some period of time. service_uptime_percentage: the percentage of qualified service availability time over the observation time, as defined by the expression: service uptime % = qualified_uptime_total observation_time_total 100 (NIST SP ) 18

19 Three parts to the process Decide - lay out the requirements for the service Agree - the MSA/SLA is the agreement connecting customer and provider Measure - are the SLA objectives met? 19

20 20

21 NIST Cloud Computing Special Publications CC Standards Roadmap CC Reference Architecture USG CC Technology Roadmap Security Reference Architecture Cloud Service Metrics Description Guidelines on Security and Privacy Definition of Cloud Computing CC Synopsis & Recommendations Searchable as NIST SP xxx-nnn 21

22 Dr. Abdella Battou Dr. Robert Bohn John Messina Dr. Michaela Iorga Annie Sokol Mike Hogan Eric Simmon Frederic de Vaulx Lisa Carnahan NIST ITL Cloud Computing Home Page Contacts CC Lead/ANTD Chief Program Mgr RA/Tax Co-Convener Security Standards Standards SLA/Standards Metrics Conformity Assessment NIST Cloud Computing Collaboration Site (twiki) 22

23 Thank You 23

24 USG Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap Requirements (NIST SP ) 1. International voluntary consensusbased standards 2. Solutions for High-priority Security Requirements, technically decoupled from organizational policy decisions 3. Technical specifications to enable development of consistent, highquality Service-Level Agreements 4. Clearly and consistently categorized cloud services 5. Frameworks to support seamless implementation of federated community cloud environments 6. Updated Organization Policy that reflects the Cloud Computing Business and Technology model 7. Defined unique government regulatory requirements and solutions 8. Collaborative parallel strategic future cloud development initiatives 9. Defined and implemented reliability design goals 10.Defined and implemented cloud service metrics 24

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