Dr Roy Ramphal (UNISA)

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1 Dr Roy Ramphal (UNISA)

2 It is a process that involves obtaining scientific knowledge by means of various objective methods and procedures. Objective means that these methods and procedures do not rely on personal feelings and opinions.

3 Non Scientific Authority Opinions of peers Traditions Debating Accidental observation Scientific Systematic observation Control Replication Validity Reliability

4 This is the logic and theory that explains the research techniques and methods for a specific research problem. Includes problem statement, research question, research objectives, literature reviews, research design, data analyses, result discussion, conclusions, validity, reliability and repeatability,

5 Formulating research hypothesis Writing report and review Designing a research strategy Analysis and interpretation Collecting data

6 Qualitative Observing Quantitative Experience Case study Uniqueness

7 the purpose of the research is to describe and explain, explore and interpret, and build theory; the nature of the research process is more holistic and emergent, starts with unknown variables, uses flexible guidelines, leads to context-bound information, and incorporates personal views; the data collection is dependent on personal involvement with a small sample size, using loosely structured or non standardised observations and interviews; the data analyses search for themes and categories, inductive reasoning, and the analyses may be subjective and potentially biased; and the reports on findings are highly structured with words, narratives or individual quotes, with a more personal literary style.

8 the purpose of the research is to explain and predict, confirm and validate, and test theory; the nature of the research process is focused, with known variables, established guidelines, using predetermined methods, leading to context-free and detached view information; the data collection is numeric from large samples using well designed questionnaires or instruments; the data analyses incorporates statistical analyses leading to objective and deductive reasoning; and the reporting findings includes summarized statistics with numbers in and employs a formal scientific style using passive voice and impersonal language.

9 This refers to some difficulty that the researcher experiences in the context of a either a theoretical or practical situation and to which the researcher wants to obtain a solution. Sources: readings, experienced problems, previous research, theories

10 Problem 1 Problem 2 Research statement Research question

11 BARRIERS SCOPE OF RESEARCH DELIMITATION SCOPE OF RESEARCH

12 This reflects on what will be the product of the research: A model A framework Relationships between factors and/or variables Confirmation/ rejection of theory

13 This should cover what exactly will be done to answer the research question. Should be written in terms of SMART principles

14 Action research. This is the type of applied research conducted to find effective ways of bringing about operational changes in organisations. An example would be the improvement of communications in an organisation. The researcher is expected to produce usable knowledge that can be applied and validated in action.

15 Case study research.this method is an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon in its real-life context, especially when the boundaries between the phenomenon and context are not evident. This is used in areas in which there are few theories or a deficient body of knowledge.

16 Field experiments.these are controlled studies which permit causal relationships to be identified, the aim being to manipulate the independent variable in order to observe the effect on the dependent variable.

17 Longitudinal studies. A distinctive feature of this approach is a chain of studies, investigating the same situation over different periods of time. In other words, it involves observing the change of a characteristic of a single group over time. For example, a researcher may study the behaviour of a group of students at a particular university over a four-year period, where the data are collected on a year-to-year basis.

18 This is the process of enriching the researcher s knowledge in the field of the research topic. Plan the review on: What, when, who, where, why, how, Gather information to be tested with respondents Focus group for additional information

19 Peer reviewed journal articles Peer reviewed books. Normally a chapter by a different author Professional Books on the subject Text Books Magazines Newspaper articles www articles

20 Survey questionnaires Interviews personal/telephonic Researcher participation Existing data [secondary] Observations

21 Probability Simple random sampling Stratified sampling Systematic sampling Cluster samples Non Probability Accidental samples Quota samples Purposive samples Snowball samples Self-selection samples Convenience samples

22 Data description: graphs and tables Analyses mean, median, mode, standard deviation, linear regression, variance, factor analyses, cluster analyses, Inference t test, z test, F test, cronbach test, chi test,

23 POPULATION SAMPLE result s

24 Reliability: the extend to which the results are genuine and can be generalised. if two/or more researchers conduct the same research and if the results are similar then it is termed reliable. Validity is the degree to which a piece of research meets what it was intended for. Repeatability : the extend to which the research can be redone using the same method and producing the same results.

25 YYY = invalid and unreliable Y = Reliable and invalid = reliable and valid

26

27 "taking over the ideas, methods, or written words of another, without acknowledgment and with the intention that they be taken as the work of the deceiver. When an investigator s relationship to an organization affects, or gives the appearance of affecting, his/her objectivity in the conduct of scholarly or scientific research, a conflict of interest is said to occur.

28

29 Introduction Literature review Research methodology Data analyses and discussion Conclusions and recommendations

30 Peer reviews Senior reviews Critical readers Language editors Journal editors

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