Languages in WEB. E-Business Technologies. Prof. Dr. Eduard Heindl. Jenisha Kshatriya (Mat no )

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1 Languages in WEB E-Business Technologies S u m m e r S e m e s t e r S u b m i t t e d t o Prof. Dr. Eduard Heindl P r e p a r e d b y Jenisha Kshatriya (Mat no ) Fakultät Wirtschaftsinformatik H o c h s h u l e F u r t w a n g e n U n i v e r s i t y 1

2 Table of Contents Introduction to Web designing languages HTML What is HTML? How does HTML work? HTML Tags Limitations of HTML JavaScript What is JavaScript? How JavaScript works? What can a JavaScript do? How to JavaScript? PHP What is PHP? What is a PHP File? PHP + MySQL Why PHP? How PHP works? Where to Start? Basic PHP Syntax XML What is XML? The Difference Between XML and HTML Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) AJAX uses the XMLHttpRequest object The XMLHttpRequest object Summary References

3 Introduction to Web designing languages Web design is the skill of designing presentations of content that is delivered to an end-user through the World Wide Web, by the way of a browser Languages that are used for the purpose of web designing are called Web Designing Languages Some of the technologies used for web designing are: Markup languages- HTML and XML Style sheet languages- CSS and XSL Client-side scripting- JavaScript and VBScript Server-side scripting- PHP and ASP Multimedia technologies- Flash and Silverlight 1. HTML 1.1 What is HTML? HTML is a language for describing web pages. HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language HTML is not a programming language, it is a markup language A markup language is a set of markup tags HTML uses markup tags to describe web pages 1.2 How does HTML work? HTML files live on a Web server. Typically the Web server belongs to your Internet Service Provider (ISP) or your company whoever is hosting your pages. The Web server is hooked into the Internet and when people type in the URL of your page, they are actually calling the file from that Web server. When someone requests an HTML page, the Web server sends one long unbroken string of ASCII text across the Internet to the reader's computer. The reader's browser turns the long string of text into a viewable page. The browser displays only your text and the tags that it can understand. Any formatting, extra spaces, or unrecognizable characters that you put into your HTML file will be completely ignored by the browser. It turns anything it doesn't understand into a single spaceband. It is important to know that HTML is evolving. New additions to HTML are addressing some of the layout control issues and adding new features. For example: 3

4 Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) allow you to set specific presentation styles for your page. JavaScript is a scripting language that lets you add additional interactivity to your page. Dynamic HTML (DHTML) is a way of displaying the page dynamically, based on the reader's actions. The browser manufacturers, however, are not completely consistent in their support of the newer standards such as CSS, JavaScript, and DHTML, so once you go beyond basic HTML you'll need to remember that your pages might not look exactly the same in all browsers. The browser manufacturers, however, are not completely consistent in their support of the newer standards such as CSS, JavaScript, and DHTML, so once you go beyond basic HTML you'll need to remember that your pages might not look exactly the same in all browsers. Plug-ins are another way of adding additional functions to your pages. These applications let you incorporate additional features from other programs seamlessly within your HTML pages. Adobe's Acrobat, Macromedia's Shockware and Flash, Apple's QuickTime and QuickTime VR, and Real Audio's streaming audio player are all examples of ways you can extend your site beyond straight HTML to add graphic control, sound, video and other features but remember, not everyone on the Web has or can use these plug-ins. Before you starting worrying about CSS and plug-ins and any of the other newer features, get a good handle on the basic HTML tags. If you understand them well, it will be much easier to understand the potential of the Web and all of its technologies. 1.3 HTML Tags HTML markup tags are usually called HTML tags HTML tags are keywords surrounded by angle brackets like <html> HTML tags normally come in pairs like <b> and </b> The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag Start and end tags are also called opening tags and closing tags. HTML tags are not case sensitive. HTML Documents = Web Pages HTML documents describe web pages HTML documents contain HTML tags and plain text HTML documents are also called web pages 4

5 The purpose of a web browser (like Internet Explorer or Firefox) is to read HTML documents and display them as web pages. The browser does not display the HTML tags, but uses the tags to interpret the content of the page: The text between <html> and </html> describes the web page The text between <body> and </body> is the visible page content The text between <h1> and </h1> is displayed as a heading The text between <p> and </p> is displayed as a paragraph The HTML tags are nested. For ex. as below <HTML> <BODY> <P>This is my first paragraph</p> </BODY> </HTML> 1.4 Limitations of HTML It does not recognize spaces, tabs or margins It does not translate easily from other types of documents It does not support all font styles. It does not recognize line breaks, or paragraph breaks 2. JavaScript JavaScript's official name is ECMAScript. ECMAScript is developed and maintained by the ECMA organization. 2.1 What is JavaScript? JavaScript was designed to add interactivity to HTML pages JavaScript is a scripting language A scripting language is a lightweight programming language JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) Everyone can use JavaScript without purchasing a license JavaScript is case sensitive. JavaScript is a sequence of statements to be executed by the browser JavaScript in the body section will be executed WHILE the page loads. 5

6 JavaScript in the head section will be executed when CALLED. 2.2 How JavaScript works? JavaScript is what is called a Client-side Scripting Language. That means that it is a computer programming language that runs inside an Internet browser (a browser is also known as a Web client because it connects to a Web server to download pages). The way JavaScript works is interesting. Inside a normal Web page you place some JavaScript. When the browser loads the page, the browser has a built-in interpreter that reads the JavaScript code it finds in the page and runs it. Web page designers use JavaScript in many different ways. One of the most common is to do field validation in a form. Many Web sites gather information from users in online forms, and JavaScript can help validate entries. 2.3 What can a JavaScript do? JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool - HTML authors are normally not programmers, but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page - A JavaScript statement like this: document.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events - A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens, like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements - A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data - A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser - A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser, and - depending on the browser - load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies - A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 2.4 How to JavaScript? The HTML <script>.. </script>tag is used to insert a JavaScript into an HTML page. 6

7 3. PHP PHP is a powerful tool for making dynamic and interactive Web pages. PHP is the widely-used, free, and efficient alternative to competitors such as Microsoft's ASP. 3.1 What is PHP? PHP stands for PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor PHP is a server-side scripting language, like ASP PHP scripts are executed on the server PHP supports many databases (MySQL, Informix, Oracle, Sybase, Solid, PostgreSQL, Generic ODBC, etc.) PHP is an open source software PHP is free to download and use 3.2 What is a PHP File? PHP files can contain text, HTML tags and scripts PHP files are returned to the browser as plain HTML PHP files have a file extension of ".php", ".php3", or ".phtml" 3.3 PHP + MySQL PHP combined with MySQL are cross-platform (you can develop in Windows and serve on a Unix platform) 3.4 Why PHP? PHP runs on different platforms (Windows, Linux, Unix, etc.) PHP is compatible with almost all servers used today (Apache, IIS, etc.) PHP is FREE to download from the official PHP resource: PHP is easy to learn and runs efficiently on the server side 3.5 How PHP works? You click on one of a selection of links or type a URL into your browser's address bar and your browser requests that web page from a server. The web page is then sent to your browser, where you can view it. Most servers have web pages ready to be sent to the browser as is. These are static web pages. Every browser that requests a specific static web page is sent an identical page. Some servers have web pages that can be customized. PHP in the web page source code determines how the customizations shall be done. 7

8 Browsers provide customization information with cookies, or by other means, like providing the URL of the web page where the link was clicked or the identification of the browser itself. The server then customizes each requested web page accordingly and sends it to the browser. PHP code in a web page can customize the contents according to, as examples, time of day, IP address of the browser, PHP can utilize any data and software it can access on the server to custom-build a web page for your site visitors, in the format they find most pleasing. In some cases, the PHP code might also access data and software on other servers. Services that provide personal portal pages are a good example. The blog synopses you prefer to keep up to date with are on the page. 3.6 Where to Start? To get access to a web server with PHP support, you can: Install Apache (or IIS) on your own server, install PHP, and MySQL Or find a web hosting plan with PHP and MySQL support 3.7 Basic PHP Syntax A PHP scripting block always starts with <?php and ends with?>. A PHP scripting block can be placed anywhere in the document. On servers with shorthand support enabled you can start a scripting block with <? and end with?>. For maximum compatibility, we recommend that you use the standard form (<?php) rather than the shorthand form. 4. XML 4.1 What is XML? XML stands for EXtensible Markup Language XML is a markup language much like HTML XML was designed to carry data, not to display data XML tags are not predefined. You must define your own tags XML is designed to be self-descriptive 8

9 XML is the most common tool for data transmissions between all sorts of applications, and is becoming more and more popular in the area of storing and describing information. XML data is stored in plain text format. This provides a software- and hardwareindependent way of storing data. 4.2 The Difference Between XML and HTML XML is not a replacement for HTML. XML and HTML were designed with different goals: XML was designed to transport and store data, with focus on what data is. HTML was designed to display data, with focus on how data looks. 5. Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) AJAX is not a new programming language, but a new technique for creating better, faster, and more interactive web applications. With AJAX, a JavaScript can communicate directly with the server, with the XMLHttpRequest object. With this object, a JavaScript can trade data with a web server, without reloading the page. AJAX uses asynchronous data transfer (HTTP requests) between the browser and the web server, allowing web pages to request small bits of information from the server instead of whole pages. The AJAX technique makes Internet applications smaller, faster and more user-friendly. AJAX is based on the following web standards: JavaScript XML HTML CSS 5.1 AJAX uses the XMLHttpRequest object To get or send information from/to a database or a file on the server with traditional JavaScript, you will have to make an HTML form, and a user will have to click the "Submit" button to send/get the information, wait for the server to respond, then a new page will load with the results. Because the server returns a new page each time the 9

10 user submits input, traditional web applications can run slowly and tend to be less userfriendly. With AJAX, your JavaScript communicates directly with the server, through the JavaScript XMLHttpRequest object. With the XMLHttpRequest object, a web page can make a request to, and get a response from a web server - without reloading the page. The user will stay on the same page, and he or she will not notice that scripts request pages, or send data to a server in the background. 5.2 The XMLHttpRequest object By using the XMLHttpRequest object, a web developer can update a page with data from the server after the page has loaded! AJAX was made popular in 2005 by Google (with Google Suggest). Google Suggest is using the XMLHttpRequest object to create a very dynamic web interface: When you start typing in Google's search box, a JavaScript sends the letters off to a server and the server returns a list of suggestions. The XMLHttpRequest object is supported in all major browsers (Internet Explorer, Firefox, Chrome, Opera, and Safari). All new browsers use the built-in JavaScript XMLHttpRequest object to create an XMLHttpRequest object (IE5 and IE6 uses an ActiveXObject). 10

11 Summary Fast and easy access to website content from one place, the feed reader. Provide fresh and topical information to user, which encourages their return. Pushes the administrator to provide new and changing content, which encourages search engine spiders and robots to visit more frequently. Replaces and newsletters to alert users of updates, new content, and other topical information like press releases and events. Provides another form of content delivery in addition to the website itself. Allows syndication of material from your site to another. User chooses the sites and content they want. User controls what they see and don t see. User sees the most recently updated content without having to prowl around the site. Less time searching and hunting for commonly needed information and resources. Information is presented in excerpts or full articles, free of styling and heavyhanded site designs and layouts content and information is the priority. Feeds can be limited to the full site or only specific categories or topics of information. Access to the site and more information is only a single click away. 11

12 References

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