1 CLINICAL NUTRITION Nutritional inadequacies of the gluten-free diet in both recently-diagnosed and long-term patients with coeliac disease S. J. Shepherd & P. R. Gibson Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics Department of Gastroenterology and Central Clinical School, Monash University, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Keywords coeliac disease, dietary assessment, gluten-free diet, nutritional adequacy. Correspondence S. J. Shepherd, Department of Gastroenterology and Central Clinical School, Monash University, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria 3181, Australia. Tel.: Fax: How to cite this article Shepherd S.J. & Gibson P.R. (2013) Nutritional inadequacies of the gluten-free diet in both recently-diagnosed and long-term patients with coeliac disease. J Hum Nutr Diet. 26, doi: /jhn Abstract Background: Life-long gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only recognised treatment for coeliac disease (CD). The present study aimed to determine the nutritional adequacy of the no detectable gluten diet. Methods: Seven-day prospective food intake was assessed in 55 patients who were adherent to a GFD for more than 2 years and in 50 newly-diagnosed age- and sex-matched patients (18 71 years, 24% male) studied prospectively over 12 months on GFD. Historical precoeliac intake was also assessed in the latter group. Intake was compared with Australian Nutritional Recommendations and the Australian population data. Results: Nutritional intake was similar between groups. Of macronutrients, only starch intake fell over 12 months (26% to 23%, P = 0.04). Fibre intake was inadequate for all except in diet-experienced men. More than one in 10 of both newly-diagnosed and experienced women had inadequate thiamin, folate, vitamin A, magnesium, calcium and iron intakes. More than one in 10 newly-diagnosed men had inadequate thiamin, folate, magnesium, calcium and zinc intakes. Inadequate intake did not relate to nutrient density of the GFD. Inadequacies of folate, calcium, iron and zinc occurred more frequently than in the Australian population. The frequency of inadequacies was similar pre- and post-diagnosis, except for thiamin and vitamin A, where inadequacies were more common after GFD implementation. Conclusions: Dietary intake patterns at 12 months on a GFD are similar to longer-term intake. Dietary inadequacies are common and may relate to habitual poor food choices in addition to inherent deficiencies in the GFD. Dietary education should also address the achievement of adequate micronutrient intake. Fortification of GF foods also need to be considered. Introduction Coeliac disease (CD) is unique amongst chronic disorders in that diet is the only recognised treatment. It is expected that, after the initiation of a gluten-free diet (GFD), the enteropathy will improve (Fasano & Catassi, 2001; Williamson & Marsh, 2002; Pietzak, 2005) and the restoration of absorptive surface area will enable the normal absorption of nutrients to occur. Strict compliance to a GFD is considered to be an essential part of patient management and is advocated in all patients with CD (Hill et al., 2005). The GFD taught in Australia is a no detectable gluten standard (Shepherd & Gibson, 2006), comprising of foods that have a gluten content of <3 p.p.m. (i.e. gluten not detectable in currently available assays; The Coeliac Society of Australia, 2011). Any restrictive diet is inherently at risk of nutritional inadequacy (Thompson et al., 2005). Although nutritional targets from the foods consumed by the Australian population have been set by governmental bodies [Commonwealth Department of Health & Ageing, 2006; National Health & Medical Research Council (NHMRC), 1991], no assessment has been made regarding the adequacy of the GFD, apart from a preliminary report of Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics ª 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd. 349
2 Nutritional inadequacies of the gluten-free diet S. J. Shepherd and P. R. Gibson fibre intake in 40 patients (Tatnell et al., 1985). Previous studies in other countries have generally (Bode et al., 1991; McFarlane et al., 1995; Thompson, 1999, 2000; Ciclitira et al., 2001; Grehn et al., 2001; Hallert et al., 2002; Thompson, 2005; Zarkadas & Case, 2005; Hopman et al., 2006; Kinsey, 2008; Niewinski, 2008; Lee et al., 2009; Wild et al., 2010) but not always (Robins et al., 2008) found the GFD to be nutritionally inadequate. For health professionals educating patients with CD on the GFD, it is vital to know whether people can meet nutritional targets with a GFD, how that ability compares with the general population, and what implication any inadequacies may have on the health of people with CD. The present study aimed to examine the nutritional adequacy of the no detectable gluten diet in people with CD. Accordingly, three strategies were employed. First, the intake of nutrients by patients with at least 2 years experience of the GFD was examined. Second, the nutrient intake of a cohort of patients recently educated in the GFD by a dietitian with expertise in CD was assessed and compared with that of experienced patients. Finally, the effect of a diagnosis of CD and change to a GFD on nutritional adequacy of the diet was examined. Materials and methods Patients Two groups of patients were recruited: (i) 57 newly-diagnosed, untreated patients who were consecutively referred to a single dietetic service, from gastroenterologists and general practitioners, or the Coeliac Clinic at Box Hill Hospital; and (ii) 60 patients with long-term treated CD who were recruited from private practice, public hospital clinics and advertisements at the Coeliac Society of Victoria. They had all been apparently compliant with the GFD for a median of 6 (range 2 33) years based on dietary history and this was supported by the absence of coeliac antibodies (if present at diagnosis), or having a healed duodenal biopsy if previous coeliac serology was unavailable. These patients were age- and sex-matched to the newly-diagnosed cohort. The diagnosis of CD was made in all patients according to European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition (ESPGAN) criteria (ESPGAN, 1990). In addition, two patients with the combination of Marsh I lesions (Marsh, 1992) and positive tissue transglutaminase antibodies were included. All had human leukocyte antigen DQ2 and/or DQ8 haplotypes. No patients had comorbidities such as inflammatory bowel disease or diabetes, or a psychiatric disorder or intellectual disability that would make it unlikely that they could complete the study requirements. Protocol All patients were assessed by an experienced Accredited Practising Dietitian. Patients underwent a structured interview in which their symptoms, demographic information, data regarding anthropometry, previous dietary patterns, and details of the referring and other relevant medical practitioners were recorded. For newly-diagnosed patients, a complete dietary history was taken in which the typical daily food intake before the diagnosis of CD was quantified by direct questioning during interview (Biro et al., 2002). Patients were then educated in a nutritionally adequate no detectable gluten diet, which was recommended to be followed for life. Education included description of the fivefood-group healthy-eating model, including recommended servings and attention to fibre and variety in the diet. At the first interview, all patients were asked to keep a 7- day food record. Patients were provided with a recording diary card and instructions for its completion. They were asked to record the type and brand of food and how much was eaten or drunk using household measures on each day for the 7-day period before the review appointment. Measuring cups, spoons and reference diagrams were provided. Recorded information was checked at the consultation. The newly-diagnosed cohort of patients was reviewed approximately 3-monthly and, at the end of 12 months, was asked to fill out another prospective 7-day food diary. Adherence to the GFD diet was evaluated in detail at every interview by direct questions about any gluten consumed, either accidentally or intentionally in the time since their last review, by specific questioning and, if available, by the 7-day food diary entries. Biochemical and haematological indices were measured in peripheral blood samples taken from all patients at entry to the studies and, additionally, at 3, 6 and 12 months for the newly-diagnosed cohort. These included a complete blood count, electrolytes, renal function, liver function tests and iron studies, as well as serum folate, vitamin B 12, zinc, vitamin D, magnesium, calcium and phosphate, using routine methodologies. Patients also had a repeat and histopathological examination of duodenal biopsies or close to 12 months after the initial assessment. The protocol was approved by Eastern Health Research and Ethics Committee and Monash University Standing Committee on Ethics in Research Involving Humans. All participants provided theri written, informed consent form before entering the study. Analysis of food intake Results from the 7-day food record were analysed using FOODWORKS TM food analysis software (Xyris Software, Highgate Hill, Queensland, Australia), incorporating 350 Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics ª 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
3 S. J. Shepherd and P. R. Gibson Nutritional inadequacies of the gluten-free diet nutrient tables for use in Australia [The authors/owners of Nuttab 95 and Ausnut are Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ)]. The nutritional profile of specialist gluten-free foods that were not listed within the FOODWORKS software was constructed from ingredient information from the food manufacturer. Dry packaged mixes (such as bread and mixes) were prepared by a qualified chef, employed by an educational institution, and made in accordance with standard packet instructions in a registered industrial kitchen. Nutritional compositional data of constructed foods were entered for their consumed edible state (i.e. as edible portions such as cooked pasta). The nutritional profile of freshly prepared foods and beverages consumed by patients were constructed from ingredient information provided by the patient. Adequate intake of micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) was established by comparison of measured intake against nutrient reference values (NRVs) (Commonwealth Department of Health & Ageing, 2006), comprising the estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI) where appropriate. Macro-nutritional adequacy (including fibre) was established by comparison against the NRVs. Comparison of intake with the general healthy population (control group) was made using results from the National Nutrition Survey (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1999). The intake of nutrients from supplements was not included in the analyses. Estimated energy expenditure for patients was calculated using the FOODWORKS TM software formed from the basal metabolic rate using the Schofield equation (Schofield, 1985), from height and weight information entered, and with an activity factor applied. Activity levels were based on self-reported energy expenditure recorded at the time of recruitment into the study for diet-experienced patients and at the 12-month review for the newlydiagnosed group. Total estimated energy intake from the 7-day food diary was compared against estimated energy requirement (EER) (as described above). Nutrient density of individual diets was determined by dividing the recommended daily intake (RDI) for each nutrient by the estimated energy requirement. Statistical analysis Statistical analysis was performed using GRAPHPAD PRISM, version 4.00 (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA, USA) and STATA, version 8.2 (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA). Comparison between groups was made with unpaired t-tests and Welch s correction. Comparison with the population was conducted using McNemar s test. Proportions were compared using Fisher s exact or chisquared tests. Pearson s or Spearman s correlations were used for parametric or nonparametric data, respectively. Normally distributed data were expressed as the mean (SD). P 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Patients Only patients with complete data sets were included in the analysis. Fifty of 57 newly-diagnosed patients were assessed. All patients were considered adherent with their GFDs. Median age was 44 (range 18 71) years and 33 (71%) were female. Median body mass index (BMI) of women was 22.9 ( ) kg m 2 initially and 24.4 ( ) kg m 2 at 12 months. Median BMI of men was 23.4 ( ) kg m 2 initially and 25.5 ( ) kg m 2 at 12 months. Fifty-five of 60 patients experienced in the GFD were studied and were aged 43 (19 71) years with 44 (80%) being female. The age of diagnosis was 33 (1 61) years with the median time since diagnosis being 6(2 33) years. Median BMI was 24.2 ( ) kg m 2 for women and 25.0 ( ) kg m 2 for men. There were no statistically significant differences in BMI between the newly-diagnosed patients at either diagnosis or 12 months and those of experienced patients. Comparison of nutritonal intake of newly-diagnosed and diet-experienced patients Under- and over-reporting was not evident in the patient group, as determined by a threshold ±20% of estimated individual energy requirement (Mela & Aaron, 1997). The intake of a wide range of nutrients by both cohorts, as calculated from prospective 7-day food diaries, is shown in Table 1 according to sex. The only differences were that men experienced with the GFD had lower intakes of saturated fat and carbohydrates than those who were newly-diagnosed (P = and 0.001, respectively, unpaired t-test). All nutrients were consumed in greater quantities than the mean intake of the Australian population for both sexes (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1995), except for thiamin in women (P < 0.001, one-sample t-test) with recently-diagnosed CD (Table 2). Mean intakes also exceeded population nutritional targets compared to EAR or AI for all nutrients except fibre in women in both cohorts and fibre for men and folate in women in those with newly-diagnosed CD (Table 1). The proportions that individual macronutrients contributed to total energy intake were similar in both groups (Table 2) and for the Australian population (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1999). The mean energy distributions for both groups fell within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) (Commonwealth Department of Health & Ageing, 2006) except for saturated fat, which was in excess of the recommendations in all groups. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics ª 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd. 351
4 Nutritional inadequacies of the gluten-free diet S. J. Shepherd and P. R. Gibson The nutritional adequacy of the GFD was also compared with individual nutritional targets, according to Recommended Dietary Intakes (Commonwealth Department of Health & Ageing, 2006; Table 3). The proportions of patients and type of nutrients that were observed as inadequate were similar for both groups of patients at 12 months. The only Table 1 Nutrient intakes of (i) patients with newly-diagnosed coeliac disease before commencing a gluten-free diet, as determined by detailed dietary history, and 12 months after the initiation of a gluten-free diet and (ii) diet-experienced patients, as determined by prospective 7-day food diary Nutrient Newly-diagnosed prediagnosis Newly-diagnosed at 12 months Diet-experienced Australian population (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1999) EAR or AI for ages years (Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing et al., 2006) Women Energy (kj) 8443 (1400) 7978 (1630) 8540 (1352) 7481 f NA Protein (g) 95.8 (16.9) 83.3 (18.8) c 89.2 (15.6) 73.9 f 0.6 g kg 1 body weight Total fat (g) 66.8 (20.2) 69.7 (19.6) 72.7 (17.2) 67.6 NA Saturated fat (g) 26.9 (10.5) 27.9 (9.6) 27.9 (8.1) 26.7 NA Carbohydrate (g) 238 (47) 219 (50) a 236 (47.9) 211 NA Dietary fibre (g) 23.6 (6.1) 21.0 (6.4) b 22.0 (6.5) Thiamin (mg) 1.58 (0.57) 1.17 (0.50) c 1.25 (0.43) 1.4 g 0.9 Riboflavin (mg) 2.42 (0.79) 2.00 (0.61) b 1.25 (.0.43) Niacin equivalents (mg) 42.9 (12.8) 37.5 (0.6) b 41.1 (7.6) Vitamin C (mg) 152 (60) 146 (±63) 132 (55.3) 113 g 30 Total folate (lg) 337 (72) 299 (120) a 316 (97.5) 233 g 320 Total vitamin A 1362 (1306) 1284 (1180) 1013 (371) equivalents (lg) Sodium (mg) 2821 (787) 2660 (1130) 2723 (1206) NA 460 Potassium (mg) 3037 (739) 3513 (924) 3634 (795) 2805 h 2800 Magnesium (mg) 333 (76) 345 (111) 378 (95.1) 283 g 265 Calcium (mg) 996 (347) 920 (297) 987 (282.2) 749 f 840 Phosphate (mg) 1479 (314) 1716 (492) 1633 (314) 1272 h 580 Iron (mg) 13.1 (10.8) 11.2 (4.0) b 11.7 (3.37) Zinc (mg) 11.6 (42.9) 11.2 (2.7) (2.8) 9.7 g 6.5 Men Energy (kj) (2615) (2675) (1863) 9238 g NA Protein (g) (15.7) (19.6) 98.8 (22.83) 91.2 h 0.68 g kg 1 body weight Total fat (g) (27.2) (33.5) 67.9 (50.58) 82.8 g NA Saturated fat (g) 42.4 (17.9) 48.7 (±12.3) 34.7 (7.7) d 32.7 g NA Carbohydrate (g) 244 (64) 328 (75) 294 (72.3) e 255 g NA Dietary fibre (g) 31.2 (11.4) 28.1 (9.9) 30.2 (7.7) Thiamin (mg) 2.33 (0.87) 1.62 (0.61) 1.72 (0.55) Riboflavin (mg) 2.99 (0.87) 2.46 (0.66) 1.72 (0.55) Niacin equivalents (mg) 54.4 (8.1) 57.3 (11.8) 63.6 (13.8) Vitamin C (mg) 177 (84) 199 (113) 180 (72.7) 124 f 30 Total folate (lg) 460 (137) 410 (166) 403 (177.5) 269 g 320 Total vitamin A 1512 (532) 1251 (451) 1154 (430) equivalents (lg) Sodium (mg) 3818 (1104) 3464 (723) 3239 (987) NA 460 Potassium (mg) 4088 (694) 4640 (991) 4812 (1092) 3258 g 3800 Magnesium (mg) 405 (86) 439 (128) 480 (125.7) 331 f 350 Calcium (mg) 1084 (329) 1153 (397) 909 (231.6) 846 f 840 Phosphate (mg) 1930 (210) 2127 (475) 2075 (372) 1520 h 580 Iron (mg) 17.1 (4.5) 14.4 (2.6) a 15.8 (2.7) Zinc (mg) 15.2 (2.2) 16.9 (2.7) 17.4 (3.83) 12.1 h 12 Mean data from the Australian adult population and the estimated adult requirement or adequate intake are included for comparison. a P < 0.05, b P < 0.001, c P < ; comparison between pre- and post-diets; unpaired t-test (Welch s correction). d P < 0.001, e P < ; comparison between newly-diagnosed at 12 months and diet-experienced patients; unpaired t-test (Welch s correction). f P < 0.05, g P < 0.001, h P < ; comparison 12 month diet versus Australian population mean (one-sample t-test). AI, adequate intake; EAR, estimated adult requirement; NA, not available. 352 Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics ª 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
5 S. J. Shepherd and P. R. Gibson Nutritional inadequacies of the gluten-free diet Table 2 Mean (SEM) contribution of macronutrients to energy intake of patients with newly-diagnosed coeliac disease before diagnosis and after 12 months on a gluten-free diet Nutrient Study population Prediagnosis (%) 12 months (%) Diet-experienced (%) Australian population (%) AMDR (%) Protein (g) 19.7 (0.5) 18.3 (0.4) 18.5 (0.4) Total fat (g) 30.1 (0.8) 34.2 (0.8) 32.5 (0.6) Saturated fat (g) 12.1 (0.7) 13.9 (0.8) 12.5 (0.7) Carbohydrates Total (g) 47.1 (0.7) 44.8 (0.8) 45.8 (0.7) Sugars (g) 21.4 (0.8) 21.5 (0.6) 21.0 (0.7) 19.4 NA Starch (g) 25.7* (0.7) 23.2 (0.8)* 24.8 (0.7) 25.7 NA Alcohol (g) 3.1 (0.5) 2.6 (0.5) 3.3 (0.6) 4.8 NA Data from the Australian population and the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range are shown for comparison. *P = 0.04, compared between pre- and post-diets; Mann Whitney U-test. Data were obtained from diet history. Data were obtained from 7-day food diaries. Data were obtained from the National Nutrition Survey 1995 (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1999). AMDR, Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range; NA, not available. statistically significant difference observed between the two cohorts was inadequate magnesium (P = 0.03, Fisher s exact test) intake in women, and riboflavin (P < 0.05) and vitamin A(P < 0.05) in men with recently-diagnosed CD. As shown in Table 3, inadequate intake of micronutrients that affected more than one in 10 patients were observed for fibre, thiamin, folate, magnesium and calcium in both sexes in both groups, for vitamin A and iron in women for both groups, for zinc in men in both groups, and for riboflavin and vitamin A in diet-experienced patients only. In the newly-diagnosed patients, inadequate nutrient intake was associated with inadequate overall food intake (in relation to EER) for fibre, thiamin, calcium, magnesium and folate (P < 0.05 Fisher s exact test). Only for iron (P = 0.23) and vitamin A (P = 1.0) was inadequate intake independent of volume of food eaten. In the dietexperienced patients, inadequate intake of iron (P = 0.39, Fisher s exact test), folate (P = 1.0), vitamin A (P = 0.57), thiamin (P = 1.0) and fibre (P = 1.0) were all unrelated to inadequate food intake. The majority of newly-diagnosed patients ate nutrientdense diets, with comparative analysis between actual nutrient/mj eaten and target nutrient/eer MJ showing that only five of 50 (10%) patients did not meet target nutrient density. This applied to four nutrients (fibre, vitamin A, calcium, zinc; and fibre, folate, calcium, iron) in two patients, two nutrients (fibre, folate; and thiamin, folate) in two patients, and one nutrient (fibre) in one. Comparison of nutrient intake before and after institution of the gluten-free diet Nutrient intakes before diagnosis (on a gluten-containing diet) in the newly-diagnosed cohort were evaluated by dietary history taken at the initial assessment and compared with those assessed by prospective food intake diaries. The results are shown in Table 1. In women, mean intakes post-diagnosis were statistically significantly lower for protein (83 g versus 96 g), carbohydrate (219 g versus 238 g), fibre (21.0 g versus 23.6 g), thiamin (1.2 mg versus 1.6 mg), riboflavin (2.0 mg versus 2.4 mg), niacin (37.5 mg versus 42.9 mg), folate (299 lg versus 337 lg) and iron (11.2 mg versus 13.1 mg) after 12 months on the GFD (all P < 0.05, paired t-test). There was also a tendency for fat consumption to increase. In men, lower mean thiamin (1.6 mg versus 2.3 mg) and iron (14.4 mg versus 17.1 mg) intakes were observed at 12 months (P < 0.05) in contrast to the nonsignificant trend towards an increase in zinc intake (16.7 mg versus 15.2 mg). Changing to a GFD did not significantly increase the proportion who had inadequate fibre intake in both men, from 7/13 (54%) to 8/13 (62%), and women, from 21/33 (64%) to 25/33 (76%), (P = 0.99 and 0.42, respectively; Fisher s exact test). There were statistically significant increases in the proportions of inadequacies for the intake of vitamin A in women and thiamin for men and women (Table 3). Discussion The present study identified that a complex relationship existed between the dietary habits of the individual, the characteristics of the GFD and the nutritional adequacy of what is being consumed. Many of the inadequacies of dietary intake, such as a deficient intake of fibre and folate, may originate in the food choice of the individual, whereas some deficiencies of intake, such as thiamin, appear to be coeliac-specific. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics ª 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd. 353
6 Nutritional inadequacies of the gluten-free diet S. J. Shepherd and P. R. Gibson Table 3 Proportion of patients who had inadequate mean dietary intakes in relation to recommended daily intakes Female Male Nutrient Prediagnosis (%) 12 months (%) Diet-experienced Australian population (%) Prediagnosis 12 months (%) Diet-experienced (%) Australian population (%) Number Thiamin (mg) 7 (21) 19 (58)** 19 (43) (38)* 3 (27) 0 Riboflavin (mg) 0 2 (6) 1 (6) (18)*** 0 Niacin equiv (mg) (0) (0) 0 Vitamin C (mg) 0 1 (3) 2 (5) (9) 0 Folate (lg) 28 (85) 31 (94) 34 (77) 42 5 (38) 7 (54) 8 (73) 23 Vitamin A equivalents (lg) 1 (3) 8 (24)* 8 (33) 0 1 (8) 0 3 (27)*** 0 Magnesium (mg) 13 (39) 17 (52) 11 (25) 33 9 (69) 6 (46) 4 (36) Calcium (mg) 21 (64) 21 (64) 27 (61) 25 6 (46) 7 (54) 9 (82) 5 Phosphate (mg) 0 2 (6) 1 (2) (0) 0 Iron (mg) 28 (85) 25 (76) 31 (70) (0) 0 Zinc (mg) 0 2 (6) 4 (9) 31 3 (23) 3 (23) 2 (18) 0 Fibre (g) 21 (64) 25 (76) 31 (70) 19 7 (54) 8 (62) 7 (64) 14 Nutrients in which more than one in 10 patients had inadequate micronutrient intake are shown in bold. The proportion of the Australian population with inadequate intakes is also shown. *Comparison between pre- and post-diets; P < 0.05; Fisher s exact test. **Comparison between pre- and post-diets; P < 0.001; Fisher s exact test. ***Comparison between 12 months and diet-experienced patients; P < 0.05; unpaired t-test (Welch s correction). Newly-diagnosed coeliac disease patients before diagnosis and after 12 months on a gluten-free diet. Data from the National Nutrition Survey 1995 (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1999). RDI, recommended daily intakes. 354 Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics ª 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
7 S. J. Shepherd and P. R. Gibson Nutritional inadequacies of the gluten-free diet Best-practice methods were applied to obtain and analyse dietary data; however, they do have limitations. First, potential recording errors including inaccurate estimates of portions consumed and omission of foods (deliberate or unintentional) can result in an underestimation of nutritional intake. Behavioural changes altering intake have also been reported in patients who are keeping food records (Mela & Aaron, 1997). However, there is no assessment tool that is without limitation or specifically designed for the adult population with CD. Second, comparing the results from two different methods for the quantification of dietary intake introduces potential inaccuracies. The use of prospective food diary entries (after 12 months of GFD) and comprehensive dietary history (used to obtain prediagnosis data) was unavoidable because it would be unethical to request patients to continue on a gluten-containing diet and record intake in a prospective food diary after the diagnosis of CD. However, the accuracy of comprehensive dietary history has been validated (Van Staveren & Ocke, 1990). Third, it is possible that data entered for new products were associated with error because these relied upon information provided by food manufacturers. Finally, patient characteristics might introduce bias to the results. For the newly-diagnosed group, selection bias was minimised by recruiting patients who were consecutively referred; however, follow-up was more intense than usual as a result of their involvement in a prospective clinical study. Indeed, all patients were adherent to the diet. For the diet-experienced patients, the act of volunteering for the study and the prerequisite strict adherence to the GFD might be indicative of more motivated patients who may be more likely to adopt a more nutritious GFD than people not in the study. Data from both patient groups probably represent best-case scenarios. The observation that few differences in nutrient intake were observed between those experienced in the GFD, in whom gluten-free food habits have been formed over median 6 years of unsupervised free choice, and those who were taught the diet within a prospective study was reassuring with respect to these potentially confounding factors not having a significant impact upon the findings. With such limitations in mind, the results gave clear indications of excesses and inadequacies. Nutritional adequacy data can be accurately and validly extrapolated from the data obtained in the present study because under- and over-reporting were not evident. Reported energy intake exceeded estimated energy expenditure for most patient groups. This is consistent with the weight gain observed in newly-diagnosed patients during the prospective follow-up as reported in the World Health Organization (2003); for example, the mean weight gain over 12 months was 2.7 kg in women and 3.6 kg in men, equating to an excess energy consumed per day of 250 kj and 335 kj, respectively. Saturated fat consumption was also well above the AMDR recommendation for patients in both cohorts. This is not a coeliac-specific phenomenon; it was similar to the intake of the Australian population and has been associated with chronic disease (Gross et al., 2004). Because the dietary intake data were not analysed according to the actual foods consumed, sources of saturated fat were not identified. Summary data did suggest that people eating a GFD in Australia generally achieve population (EAR) nutritional targets (Table 1). The exceptions are fibre and folate for women, although this is not different from the general Australian population. Interestingly, the majority met nutritional targets for nutrient density. By contrast, the major proportion of patients did not meet their RDI or AI requirements (Table 3). Therefore, it is questionable that nutrient density equates to sufficient daily intakes of RDI or AI. The findings in both cohorts were highly consistent. Inadequacies could be classified into three groups. First, the inadequate intake of magnesium was the only nutrient that appeared to reflect that of the population in general. Although whole grain wheat is a good source of magnesium, the amount is minimal in refined wheat products commonly consumed in the community (Gross et al., 2004). Other good sources of magnesium, such as leafy green vegetables, legumes, meat and seafood, are available to both gluten-free and gluten containing diets. This may explain why the trends are similar in both groups. Second, inadequacies in fibre, folate, calcium, iron (women) and zinc (men) were frequently present before diagnosis by as much as 12 months on the GFD. The frequency of poor intake with untreated CD might be a manifestation of being unwell per se, although almost identical prevalence of such deficiencies were observed in patients who had been well on the GFD for at least 2 years. Such inadequacies may reflect the effect of deficiencies specific to gluten-free foods. There are reasons why the GFD might additionally compromise the adequate intake of some nutrients, such as folate, for example, because very few gluten-free breakfast cereals are fortified with folate compared to the common practice of fortification in wheat-based cereals [Food Standards Australia & New Zealand (FSANZ), 2008]. Third, inadequacies of the intake of thiamin and of vitamin A in women only were observed more commonly with the GFD than in the diet before diagnosis. The lack of availability of gluten-free foods fortified with thiamin may account for the reduced intake because, in Australia, only fortification of thiamin in wheat flour for bread making is mandatory [Food Standards Australia & New Zealand (FSANZ), 2008]. The intake of vitamin A may Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics ª 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd. 355
8 Nutritional inadequacies of the gluten-free diet S. J. Shepherd and P. R. Gibson have been overestimated when reporting prediagnosis diet as a result of generalisations about the consumption of vitamin A-rich orange-coloured vegetables. However, this was less likely because it was relevant only to women and was not observed for any other nutrient. An inadequacy of vitamin A intake in association with the GFD has not been reported previously. Because gluten-containing cereals are a major source of dietary fibre, patients with CD may be at higher risk of consuming an inadequate fibre intake, which is consistent with other studies (Thompson, 1999; Thompson et al., 2005; Wild et al., 2010). Compounding this is the potential that gluten-free foods contain less fibre than glutencontaining equivalent foods; many are prepared from refined maize flour and white rice, which are lower in fibre (0.5 g and 0.8 g per 100 g, respectively) than wheat (3.8 g per 100 g) and brown rice (3.2 g per 100 g). The most commonly consumed bread in the present study was the most readily available white loaf containing 3.3 g per 100 g of fibre. Wholegrain wheat-based breads are readily available and typically contain between g per 100 g. Furthermore, it is likely that the volume of breads consumed will be less with the GFD as a result of their inferior texture. By contrast, no similar explanations can be mounted for deficient intake of calcium or of iron in women because the best dietary sources of both are gluten-free. Whether CD specifically reduces meat-seeking eating habits has not been investigated. The no detectable gluten GFD (<3 p.p.m.) adopted in Australia lies between the very strict zero gluten tolerance approach (as adapted by some groups in the USA) and the more liberal Codex Alimentarius Standard (Codex Alimentarus, 2008) adopted by many European countries and Canada. It is likely that the risk of nutritional adequacies will parallel the strictness of the dietary approach in line with variety of food available to individuals, although this notion has not been formally tested. For example, the Australian GFD permits fruit and nut bars that use wheat-derived glucose syrup as an ingredient, and these are good sources of fibre, vitamins and minerals. By contrast, the more liberal guidelines of the Codex Alimentarius Standard permits up to 20 p.p.m. of gluten in a food that is prepared under good manufacturing conditions aimed at achieving the lowest possible levels of gluten resulting from cross contamination (Health Canada, 2012). Coeliac Australia does not recommend consumption of foods that indicate on the package that they are at risk of cross-contamination (e.g. cereals, nuts and dried beans), therefore limiting the availability of such nutrient dense foods. Additionally, the Australian GFD does not permit the consumption of any oats (even pure uncontaminated), which may further impact on ability to achieve nutritional adequacy because oats contain good amounts of fibre, folate and minerals. The prevalence of observed dietary nutritional inadequacy in GFD-compliant patients has three important implications. First, it emphasises a key element of the delivery of dietetic education to patients with CD in that it should not only involve the teachings of how to choose gluten-free foods, but also emphasise the importance of nutritional adequacy over the long-term. The dietitian should encourage intake of nutrient-dense foods including wholegrain foods, enriched where possible, legumes, fruits, vegetables, lean meat, fish, chicken and eggs. The long-term use of micronutrient supplements should not be prioritised over achieving nutritional adequacy from dietary intake alone. Whether special dietary recommendations (nutritional targets) should be set, such as the calcium recommendations set for CD and osteoporosis in the UK (British Society of Gastroenterology, 2007) is not assessable on the basis of the present study because it was not designed to address the relationship between the effect of dietary nutritional adequacy without the impact of supplementation. Second, it highlights the need to promote the nutritional risks of the GFD identified in the present study. The CD-specific nutritional inadequacy of thiamin, particularly, and the high risk of inadequate folate intake should be addressed. Finally, the implications for the food manufacturing industry are clear with regard especially to the development of recommendations for the micronutrient fortification with, for example, thiamin and folate of gluten-free foods in consultation with key stakeholders. Two major studies undertaken in America found that many gluten-free foods contained significantly less thiamin, riboflavin, niacin (Zarkadas & Case, 2005), iron and folate (Thompson, 1999) compared to their fortified gluten-containing comparative products. The Codex Standard indicates that gluten-free foods that are dietary staples (e.g. flour, bread) should supply approximately the same amount of vitamins and minerals as the food they replace (Case, 2005), although there are no regulations governing this in many countries such as Australia. In conclusion, patients consuming a GFD are at risk of nutritional inadequacies and excesses. Some may be a result of general community eating habits, some to preexisting individual eating habits, and some specifically to the GFD, although such attributions require evaluation in further specifically targeted investigations. Nevertheless, it is reasonable that all aspects, and not just how to avoid gluten, should be addressed by those educating patients on the GFD and further attention be paid to the fortification of gluten-free foods, so that they at least match the micronutrient content of the foods they replace. 356 Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics ª 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
9 S. J. Shepherd and P. R. Gibson Nutritional inadequacies of the gluten-free diet Acknowledgments Dr Frank Parker, Monash University Department of Medicine, Box Hill Hospital, is thanked for assistance with the statistical analyses. Conflict of interest, source of funding and authorship SJS has published seven cookbooks directed towards issues of coeliac disease. SJS was supported by a Dora Lush Scholarship from the NHMRC of Australia and received a Grant in Aid from the Australian and New Zealand Coeliac Research Fund. SJS devised the study, performed the study, analysed the results and wrote the paper. PRG assisted in the design of the study, contributed to the analysis and interpretation of the results, as well as the writing of the paper. All authors critically reviewed the manuscript and approved the final version submitted for publication. References Australian Bureau of Statistics. (1999) National Nutrition Survey: Foods Eaten, Australia, Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics. Biro, G., Hulshof, F., Ovesen, L., Amorim Cruz, J. A. & EFCOSUM Group. (2002) Selection of methodology to assess food intake. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 56(Suppl. 2), S25 S32. Bode, S., Hassager, C., Gudmand-Høyer, E. & Christiansen, C. (1991) Body composition and calcium metabolism in adult treated coeliac disease. Gut 32, British Society of Gastroenterology. (2007) Guidelines for Osteoporosis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Coeliac Disease. British Society of Gastroenterology. Available at: (accessed on 22 October 2011). Case, S. (2005) The gluten-free diet: how to provide effective education and resources. Gastroenterology 128, S128 S134. Ciclitira, P.J., King, A.L. & Fraser, J.S. (2001) AGA technical review on Celiac Sprue American Gastroenterological Association. Gastroenterology 120, Codex Alimentarus. (2008) Codex Standard for Foods for Special Dietary Use for Persons Intolerant to Gluten Codex Stan Codex Alimentarus. Available at: cxs_118e.pdf (accessed on 15 April 2012). Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing, National Health and Medical Research Council. (2006) New Zealand Ministry of Health Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand Including Recommended Dietary Intakes. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (ESPGAN). (1990) Revised criteria for diagnosis of coeliac disease. Arch. Dis. Child. 65, Fasano, A. & Catassi, C. (2001) Current approaches to diagnosis and treatment of celiac disease: an evolving spectrum. Gastroenterology 120, Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ). (2008) Fortification of Food with Vitamins and Minerals. Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ). Available at: fortification/ (accessed on 18 October 2011). Grehn, S., Karin, F., Lilliecreutz, M. & Hallert, C. (2001) Dietary habits of Swedish adult coeliac patients treated by a gluten-free diet for 10 years. Scand. J. Nutr. 45, Gross, L.S., Li, L., Ford, E.S. & Liu, S. (2004) Increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in the United States: an ecologic assessment. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 79, Hallert, C., Grant, C., Grehn, S., Grännö, C., Hultén, S., Midhagen, G., Ström, M., Svensson, H. & Valdimarsson, T. (2002) Evidence of poor vitamin status in coeliac patients on a glutenfree diet for 10 years. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 16, Health Canada. (2012) Notice Labelling of Natural Health Products Containing Gluten. Available at: gc.ca/dhp-mps/prodnatur/legislation/docs/notice-avisgluten_label-etiquet-eng.php (accessed on 7 April 2012). Hill, I.D., Dirks, M.H., Liptak, G.S., Colletti, R.B., Fasano, A., Guandalini, S., Hoffenberg, E.J., Horvath, K., Murray, J.A., Pivor, M., Seidman, E.G. & North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. (2005) Guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of celiac disease in children: recommendations of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 40, Hopman, E.G.D., le Cessie, S., von Blomberg, B.M. & Mearin, M.L. (2006) Nutritional management of the gluten-free diet in young people with celiac disease in The Netherlands. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 43, Kinsey, L. (2008) A dietary survey to determine if patients with coeliac disease are meeting current healthy eating guidelines and how their diet compares to that of the British general population. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 62, Lee, A.R., Ng, D.L., Dave, E., Ciaccio, E.J. & Green, P.H. (2009) The effect of substituting alternative grains in the diet on the nutritional profile of the gluten free diet. J. Hum. Nutr. Diet. 22, Marsh, M.N. (1992) Gluten, major histocompatability complex, and the small intestine. A molecular and immunologic approach to the spectrum of gluten sensitivity ( celiac disease ). Gastroenterology 102, Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics ª 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd. 357
10 Nutritional inadequacies of the gluten-free diet S. J. Shepherd and P. R. Gibson McFarlane, X.A., Bhalla, A.K., Reeves, D.E., Morgan, L.M. & Robertson, D.A. (1995) Osteoporosis in treated adult coeliac disease. Gut 36, Mela, D.J. & Aaron, J.I. (1997) Honest but invalid: what subjects say about recording their food intake. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 97, National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). (1991) Recommended Dietary Intakes for Use in Australia. Canberra: Australia Australian Government Publishing Service. Niewinski, M.M. (2008) Advances in celiac disease and glutenfree diet. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 108, Pietzak, M.M. (2005) Follow-up of patients with celiac disease: achieving compliance with treatment. Gastroenterology 128 (Suppl. 1), S135 S141. Robins, G., Akobeng, A., McGough, N., Merrikin, E. & Kirk, E. (2008) Systemic Literature Review on the Nutritional Adequacy of a Typical Gluten-Free Diet with Particular Reference to Iron, Calcium, Folate and B Vitamins. Food Standards Agency Report (Project Code: T07053). Available at: (accessed on 6 December 2011). Schofield, W.N. (1985) Predicting basal metabolic rate, new standards and review of previous work. Hum. Nutr. Clin. Nutr. 39, Shepherd, S. & Gibson, P.R. (2006) Understanding the glutenfree diet for teaching in Australia. Nutr. Diet. 63, Tatnell, J., Beaumont, S. & Inge, K. (1985) Dietary intake of individuals with coeliac disease. Dietitians Association of Australia National Conference. Aust. J. Nutr. Diet. 8, 3. The Coeliac Society of Australia. (2011) The Coeliac Society of Australia Ingredient List, 9th edn. Sydney: The Coeliac Society of Australia. Thompson, T. (1999) Thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin contents of the gluten-free diet: is there cause for concern? J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 99, Thompson, T. (2000) Folate, iron, and dietary fiber contents of the gluten-free diet. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 100, Thompson, T., Dennis, M., Higgins, L.A., Lee, A.R. & Sharrett, M.K. (2005) Gluten-free diet survey: are Americans with coeliac disease consuming recommended amounts of fibre, iron, calcium and grain foods? J. Hum. Nutr. Diet. 18, Van Staveren, W.A. & Ocke, M.C. (1990) Estimation of dietary intake. In Present Knowledge in Nutrition. ed. M. Brown, pp Washington, DC: International Life Sciences Institute. Wild, D., Robins, G.G., Burley, V.J. & Howdle, P.D. (2010) Evidence of high sugar intake, and low fibre and mineral intake, in the gluten-free diet. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 32, Williamson, D. & Marsh, M.N. (2002) Celiac disease. Mol. Biotechnol. 22, World Health Organization, Food and Agricultural Organisation. (2003) Diet, Nutrition and Prevention of Chronic Diseases: Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. Geneva: WHO/FAO. Zarkadas, M. & Case, S. (2005) Celiac disease and the glutenfree diet. Top. Clin. Nutr. 20, Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics ª 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand Questions and Answers 1. What are Nutrient Reference Values? The Nutrient Reference Values outline the levels of intake of essential nutrients considered,
Australian Health Survey Louise Gates Director, ABS Health section firstname.lastname@example.org Paul Atyeo Assistant Director, Health section Susan Shaw Senior Analyst, Health Surveys Section July 2014 Structure
TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY This chapter provides a detailed description of the background information and methodology used in the National Pre-School Nutrition Survey (NPNS).
Nutrition (Pre-3 rd ) was written to educate young people, parents and teachers about where our food comes from. This guide provides nutrition facts, useful definitions, and additional websites for teachers
23 chapter 5 Food Groups To Encourage OVERVIEW Increased intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat free or low fat milk and milk products are likely to have important health benefits for most
session 4 The Five Food Groups and Nutrition Facts (Note to the presenter: Comments in parentheses are instructions to follow while giving the presentation. Do not read the comments to participants. This
Coeliac disease: recognition, assessment and management NICE guideline Published: 2 September 2015 nice.org.uk/guidance/ng20 NICE 2015. All rights reserved. Contents Key priorities for implementation...
Food Composition Database Activities Portugal Maria da Graça Dias, Luísa Oliveira Departamento de Alimentação e Nutrição (DAN), Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge, I.P. (INSA) Av. Padre Cruz,
Who is responsible for setting nutrition requirements in the UK? In the UK we have a set of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs). DRVs are a series of estimates of the energy and nutritional requirements of
Nutrition Information from My Plate Guidelines Note: This information was compiled from the website: http://www.choosemyplate.gov/ for participants in the 4-H Food Prep Contest 1/12/16. The information
Nutrition Education Competencies Aligned with the California Health Education Content Standards Center for Nutrition in Schools Department of Nutrition University of California, Davis Project funded by
Carbohydrate Counting Carbohydrate When carbohydrates; sugars & starches are digested, they break down to form glucose in the blood stream. Your quick acting insulin dose can be based on how much carbohydrate
Guidance on Prescribing of Gluten-Free Products within Primary Care on NHS Prescription (for Adults) This guidance applies to all prescribers, both medical and non-medical. NHS Shropshire Clinical Commissioning
Nutrition and Parkinson s Disease: Can food have an impact? Sarah Zangerle, RD, CD Registered Dietitian Froedtert Memorial Lutheran Hospital Importance of Nutrition & Parkinson s Disease Good nutrition
Presentation Prepared By: Jessica Rivers, BASc., PTS Presentation Outline Why should we care about our eating habits? Why is nutrition so important as we age? How do we know if we are eating healthy? What
Eating well involves choosing a variety of foods that are low in saturated and trans fats, low in salt and high in dietary fibre. Food labels carry useful information to help you make choices about the
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTION PAPER Paper number APNU3.0 Please insert this reference number in the appropriate boxes on your candidate answer sheet Title MOCK PAPER Time allocation 50 minutes Level 3 Applying
Plant Based Diet Christina Lichtinger, PharmD Plant based diets do not provide enough protein MYTH Dairy is required in the diet in order to consume enough calcium MYTH Sufficient Vitamin B12 is not available
Gooig ahh ah When you re as cute as I am, you can afford to be fussy. You have to understand toddlers to understand their needs NAN Toddler milks can be used to complement the nutritional needs of toddlers
Teachers Notes The eatwell plate The eatwell plate is a pictorial food guide showing the proportion and types of foods that are needed to make up a healthy, varied and balanced diet. The plate has been
A Quick Guide to the Government s Healthy Eating Recommendations About Public Health England Public Health England exists to protect and improve the nation's health and wellbeing, and reduce health inequalities.
HIGH FIBER DIET (Article - Web Site) August 20, 2003 Dietary fiber, found mainly in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes, is probably best known for its ability to prevent or relieve constipation.
01 Daily Diabetes Management Book This book belongs to Name Address Your Diabetes Health Care Team Telephone Numbers Primary Doctor Diabetes Educator Specialist Dietitian/Nutritionist Pharmacy Insurance
01 Balanced diet The Eatwell Plate What is a balanced diet? Your balanced diet will be specific to you it will depend on your age, your body weight and your gender. It also depends on how active you are.
Prescribing Policy: Gluten free foods Policy Statement: Date of Approval: 10 th December 2009 This policy defines the decision made by the NHS Western Cheshire Clinical Commissioning and Strategy Committee
5 Training Objectives:! Knowledge of the most important function of nutrients! Description of both, mechanism and function of gluconeogenesis! Knowledge of the difference between essential and conditionally
Counting Gluten-Free Carbohydrates: A dietitian resource for counseling individuals with diabetes and celiac disease Copyright 2010 by Tricia Thompson, MS, RD and Suzanne Simpson, RD All Rights Reserved
What you eat and how much you eat has an impact on your blood glucose levels. Your blood glucose level reflects how well your diabetes is controlled. There are many aspects to eating for target BG (Blood
DIABETES & HEALTHY EATING Food gives you the energy you need for healthy living. Your body changes most of the food you eat into a sugar called glucose. (glucose) Insulin helps your cells get the sugar
NUTRIENTS: THEIR INTERACTIONS TEACHER S GUIDE INTRODUCTION This Teacher s Guide provides information to help you get the most out of Nutrients: Their Interactions. The contents in this guide will allow
Development of a Glycemic Index Database for Dietary Assessment Sally F. Schakel, Rebecca Schauer, John H. Himes, Lisa Harnack, Nancy Van Heel What is glycemic index? Applies only to carbohydrate foods.
Canada s Food Guide Jeopardy Drafted: July 2008 Revised: December 2012 Eating Well with Canada s Food Guide Veg & Fruit Grain Products Milk & Alternatives Meat & Alternatives Physical Activity Miscellaneous
Analysis by Pamela Mason Contents Executive Summary 1 Overview 2 Introduction 3 Fruit and Vegetable Intake 4 Wholegrain Consumption 5 Oily Fish Consumption 5 Vitamin and Mineral Intakes 6 The NDNS in Adults
Vitamins & Minerals Chart Vitamins & Minerals Functions Food Sources Water-soluble Vitamin B1-Thiamin Necessary to help the body maximizes the use of carbohydrate, its major source of energy. Essential
National Standards of People s Republic of China GB 28050 2011 National Food Safety Standard Standard for nutrition labelling of prepackaged foods (Nota: traducción no oficial) Issued on: 2011-10-12 Implemented
SS-207-06 For more information, visit the Ohio Department of Aging web site at: http://www.goldenbuckeye.com and Ohio State University Extension s Aging in Ohio web site at: http://www.hec.ohio-state.edu/famlife/aging
GP Guidance: Management of nutrition following bariatric surgery Introduction Patients who are morbidly obese will have struggled with their weight for many years before going forward for bariatric surgery.
Life Style and Nutritional Profile of Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) Patients Kaur, I. P. and Kalra, R. Govt. College for Girls, Patiala-147001, Punjab, India Abstract The present investigation
Cow Milk or Milk Substitute Calories/ 8 ounces Protein grams Fat Grams Ca mg/ Vit D IU Vitamins & Minerals Whole Milk Oat 150 8 8 300/100 Good source of: Riboflavin, Vitamin B12 and Phosphorus Fortified
Dietary Sources of Iron in Uganda Data from the 2009/2010 Uganda National Panel Survey Jack Fiedler, Leanne Dougherty, Celeste Sununtnasuk Uganda National Panel Survey 2009/10 UNPS A national survey representative
Making Healthy Food Choices Section 2: Module 5 1 Nutrition For Health What is healthy Tips on planning meals Making a shopping list/ Bulk orders Using WIC foods Cook and freeze What foods to choose How
Nutrient Intakes Last updated: December 2014 This paper describes how nutrient intakes are calculated from food purchases and how they are compared to nutrient recommendations and other dietary guidelines.
1 Detailed Course Descriptions for the Human Nutrition Program Major Required Courses NUTR221 Principles of Food Science and Nutrition Credit (Contact) Hours 2 CH(2 Theory) Prerequisites Course Description
Steps towards reducing Australia s healthcare burden A collaborative approach to adequate dairy food consumption in children Overview Recent studies indicate adequate dairy food consumption is associated
Nutritional Glossary This glossary provides nutrition information about the nutrients commonly found in fruits, vegetables, and other plant foods Each glossary definition has a long and a short version.
Policy Statement Gluten Free Food on Prescription Statement Summary Coeliac disease is a lifelong autoimmune condition caused by an abnormal immune response to eating gluten. It is one of the most common
Dietary Fiber Introduction Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind of fiber you get from the foods you eat. Fiber is an important part of a healthy diet. Fiber helps get rid of excess
Test Your Label IQ Your Key to Understanding Sugars The Sugar Association, Inc. 1300 L Street NW, Suite 1001 Washington, DC 20005 (202) 785-1122 www.sugar.org This fun quiz will help you learn about Sugars
SWEDEN School food policy (mandatory) Developed by Year of publication 2013 Web link(s) Cost-free and nutritious school meals for all students aged 7-16 are required by Education Act, 2010:800. Voluntary
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics Paediatric Diabetes: Carbohydrate counting Everyone with diabetes need to be careful about the foods they eat to ensure that their blood glucose levels stay as close
Video Podcast Episode 4 Meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-dairy sources of protein and food allergy and intolerance Resources available to support Episode 4: Episode 4 Powerpoint Worksheet 4.1 Seafood
æreport Dietary intake in Swedish medical students Marja Tengvall and Lars Ellegård Department of Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden Abstract Background: A
Healthy Eating You are what you eat! So before you even shop for food, it is important to become a well informed, smart food consumer and have a basic understanding of what a heart healthy diet looks like.
UTI CAT FOOD COMPARISON CHART believes that urinary tract infections, crystals and kidney problems in today s cat are due mainly to excessive minerals consumed by our cats as they age. Once you cat reaches
Nutrition Management After Bariatric Surgery Federal Bureau of Prisons Clinical Practice Guidelines October 2013 Clinical guidelines are made available to the public for informational purposes only. The
Service Skills Australia Fitness Training Package Consultation April 2014 The Dietitians Association of Australia (DAA) is the national association of the dietetic profession with over 5500 members, and
Carbohydrate Counting This booklet is designed to provide information on carbohydrate counting for people managing their diabetes with insulin This booklet was given to you by: Name: Contact Tel No: Introduction
Food Allergy Gluten & Diabetes Dr Gary Deed Mediwell 314 Old Cleveland Road Coorparoo 4151 3421 7488 SUMMARY Type 1 diabetes Onset common in Children Insulin requiring Immune origins with attack on the
Center for Young Women s Health www.youngwomenshealth.org Fad Diets vs Healthy Weight Management: A Guide for Teens Fad diets are marketed as quick ways to lose weight. The most popular fads tend to change
Standard 1.2.7 Nutrition, Health and Related Claims The Board of Food Standards Australia New Zealand gives notice of the making of this Standard under section 92 of the Food Standards Australia New Zealand
POWERBAR PERFORMANCE BAR Helps deliver more sustained energy to muscles* Contain C2 MAX 2:1 glucose to fructose carbohydrate ratio 230mg of sodium - the key electrolyte lost in sweat 41g of Carbohydrates
Nutritional Value of Peas, Lentils & Chickpeas Presented by: Amy Myrdal Miller, MS, RDN Senior Director of Programs and Culinary Nutrition, Strategic Initiatives The Culinary Institute of America Presented
Office of Population Health Genomics Submission to FSANZ Proposal P295 CONSIDERATION OF MANDATORY FORTIFICATION WITH FOLIC ACID Author: Dr Peter O Leary Consultation: Professor Carol Bower, Coeliac Society
Nutritional profile of Quorn mycoprotein July 2009 Contents What is mycoprotein? Nutritional composition Protein Fibre content Sodium content Fat profile Mineral and vitamin profile Health benefits: Cholesterol
Overview Nutritional Aspects of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Tracy Burch, RD, CNSD Kovler Organ Transplant Center Northwestern Memorial Hospital Importance of nutrition therapy in PBC Incidence and pertinence
FIBER IN YOUR DIET WHAT IS FIBER? Fiber is the portion of plant foods that our bodies cannot absorb or digest. Fiber is found primarily in fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains. There is no fiber
Eating Well with Diabetes Cassie Vanderwall UW Health Nutrition Registered Dietitian Certified Personal Trainer Certified Diabetes Educator Outline What is Diabetes? Diabetes Self-Management Eating Well
Celiac Disease Donald Schoch, M.D. Ohio ACP Meeting October 17, 2014 None to disclose Conflicts of Interest Format Present a case Do a pretest about the evaluation Review case Discuss the questions & answers
Getting Your Claims Right A guide to complying with the Nutrition, Health and Related Claims Standard of the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code Disclaimer The information presented here has been
A POWERFUL COMBINATION This educational resource is intended for healthcare professionals. 1 oats dairy= FILLING FOOD GAPS essential NUTRIENTS OATS + DAIRY = BETTER TOGETHER Dairy products and oats contain
Eat Smart! Follow the Healthy Eating Food Pyramid! Food contains various types of nutrients to keep us healthy. For the sake of health, the nutritional value, functions, freshness and hygiene condition
Eating Guidleines Chronic Nutrition Fact Sheets Introduction If you have both diabetes and Chronic (CKD), it may seem that the diabetes and kidney diets don t fit well together. However, with careful planning,
Department of Clinical Sciences and Nutrition Master of Science in Public Health Nutrition Full-Time and Part-Time Taught Modular Masters Programme Module Descriptor Outlines 1 Short Module Descriptors
Food & Nutrition Security: Evidence from the UK Expenditure and Food Survey UK Data Service Living Costs and Food Survey User Meeting Royal Statistical Society Tuesday 20 March 2012 Dr Christopher Deeming,
Teaching Manual for the Dietary Guideline Placemats 1 Lesson #1: The Placemat Description: This lesson will provide an overview of the purpose and message behind the placemats. Things to bring to the lesson:
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. Your use of this material constitutes acceptance of that license and the conditions of use of materials on this
Advanced Carbohydrate Counting Living Well with Your Health Conditions What is Carbohydrate Counting? Carbohydrate counting focuses on the amount of carbohydrate (carbs) in your diet. Carbohydrate is the
Iron and haemoglobin Why iron and haemoglobin are important Meet Kylie Kylie is a blood donor. Kylie knows that having a healthy iron enriched diet will help restore the iron removed with blood donation.
Using the Nutrition Facts Label A How-To Guide for Older Adults Inside Why Nutrition Matters For You...1 At-A-Glance: The Nutrition Facts Label...2 3 Key Areas of Importance...4 Your Guide To a Healthy
Healthy eating for toddlers Toddlerhood is a time where children learn about new foods and where life long eating habits are often established. To help children grow up to be healthy adults, it is important
Adult Name NPO Clear Liquid Full Liquid (Blenderized Liquid ) Regular Vegetarian Vegan Carbohydrate Controlled Cardiac Dysphagia Pureed Dysphagia Ground NPO nil per os or nothing by mouth. No meal trays
Ready, Set, Start Counting! Carbohydrate Counting a Tool to Help Manage Your Blood Glucose When you have diabetes, keeping your blood glucose in a healthy range will help you feel your best today and in
Calcium Introduction Calcium is a mineral found in many foods. The body needs calcium to maintain strong bones and to carry out many important functions. Not having enough calcium can cause many health
A Beginner s Guide to Carbohydrate Counting This slide show explains: What foods contain carbohydrates How much of these foods you can eat Where to look up the carb content of foods Pia has a Bachelors