CONCENTRATING SOLAR THERMAL POWER TECHNOLOGY CLOSE UP

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1 CONCENTRATING SOLAR THERMAL POWER TECHNOLOGY CLOSE UP Manuel J. Blanco, Ph.D. Director, Solar Thermal Energy Department National Renewable Energy Centre of Spain (CENER)

2 INDEX 1. Solar radiation as an energy source 2. General characteristics of solar thermal power systems 3. Overview of Concentrating Solar Thermal (CST) technologies 4. Suitability of CST technologies for Southern Africa 2

3 1. Solar radiation as an energy source 3

4 1. Solar radiation as an energy source 4

5 1. Solar radiation as an energy source 5

6 1. Solar radiation as an energy source Solar Constant = W/m 2 6

7 2. General characteristics of solar thermal power systems Solar Radiation Characteristics Low surface density Intermittency & randomness High exergy content (ability to produce work) Solar Thermal System Functional Requirement Large collector areas to achieve aarge powers Thermal storage High temperature operation minimizing thermal losses 7

8 2. General characteristics of solar thermal power systems The need for concentration 8

9 2. General characteristics of solar thermal power systems 60% 50% Maun Ghanzi Mahalapye Jwaneng Tsabong 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% jan feb mar apr may jun jul aug sep oct nov dec 9

10 2. General characteristics of solar thermal power systems Direct solar irradiance (DNI) Electric Energy Concentrated radiation Concentrator Receiver Thermal Energy Thermal Storage Power Block G Fosil Fuel/ Biomass Auxiliary Boiler 10

11 2. General characteristics of solar thermal power systems 2D Concentrating technologies 1 Axis Tracking 3D Concentrating technologies 2 Axis Tracking Absorber tube and secondary concentrator Reflector Parabolic Trough Linear Fresnel Central Receiver Parabolic Dishes 11

12 SEGS Plant, California USA CESA 1, PSA, Almería, España CRS, PSA, Almería, España SOLAR 1, California, USA SOLAR 2, California, USA NSTTF, Nuevo Mexico, USA WEIZMMAN, Rehovot, Israel THEMIS, Targassone, France EURELIOS, Adriano, Italy SUNSHINE, Nio, Japan 12

13 13

14 14

15 15

16 SKAL-ET 150 Flagsol EuroTrough Acciona SGX SENER ALBIASA SOLAR Solargenix SENER 16

17 17

18 18

19 19

20 Array mirror surface approximates a very large parabolic surface Reflects light onto central line receiver Array made of many parallel and extended segments (one segment shown here) Direct steam generation Keep It Solar Simple: KISS 20

21 1.1 m 10 m 2.25 m 3 m 77.5 m 31 m 13 m 21

22 22

23 23

24 Receiver Tower Heliostat field Power Conversion System 24

25 25

26 North field Circular field + secondary reflection Beam Down concept 26

27 27

28 Open Air Receiver Water/Steam Receiver Pressurized Air Technology Advanced Sodium Receiver 28

29 Receiver Concentrator Stirling Engine Distributed generation: Up to 25kW Structure 29

30 30

31 STM 31

32 Parabolic-Trough Collectors Applications Advantages Disadvantages Centralized electricity generation plants. Grid-Connected. Maximum demonstrated power up to date: 80MW. Process heat production. Commercially available. Maximum solar to electrical efficiency: 12% -16% Hybridization and heat storage capabilities. Moderate operating temperatures (up to 400ºC) due to thermal oil characteristics and limitations. 32

33 Linear Fresnel Collectors Applications Advantages Disadvantages Centralized electricity generation plants. Grid-Connected. Max. Power up to date: 1 MWe. Process heat production. Relatively low cost of manufacturing. Low maintenance. Simple tracking system. Efficient land use. Direct steam generation. Low operating temperatures (up to 300ºC, lower than parabolictrough). Relatively immature technology for commercial applications. 33

34 Central Receiver (Tower) Applications Advantages Disadvantages Centralized electricity generation plants. Grid-Connected. Max. Power up to date: 20MW. High temperature process heat production. Expected to achieve high efficiencies in the mid-term (42%-%53% solar to thermal conversion efficiencienciy at 565ºC reaching 23% solar to electric peak efficiencies). Hybridization and high temperature heat storage capabilities. Large uncertainty regarding capital cost estimations and other economic parameters. 34

35 Dish-Stirling Applications Advantages Disadvantages Distributed and/or modular electricity generation plants. Grid-connected or standalone. Max. Power up to date: 25 kwe High efficiencies (up to 30% solar to thermal peak efficiency) Modularity and hybridization capabilities. Operational experience. Hybrid systems have low burning efficiency and reliability is not demonstrated. 35

36 Annual Direct Solar Energy at the Input Aperture Optical Thermal 3. Overview of Concentrating Solar Thermal (CST) technologies 100% 100% 100% 100% 82% 42% 58% 48% 62% 53% 62% 34% 11% 16% 18% 22% Linear Fresnel Parabolic Trough Tower System Parabolic Dish 36

37 37

38 781 MW of CSTP plants in advanced state of construction. A total of 2400 MW already authorized and planned for

39 Expected evolution of the Levelized Electricity Cost (LEC) for Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants within Spain (25 years lifetime) in Euro cents per kwh. 39

40 40

41 4. Suitability of CST technologies for Southern Africa DNI Typical Histogram 41

42 4. Suitability of CST technologies for Southern Africa Spain Ghanzi Maun Jwaneng Mahalapye Tsabong 42

43 4. Suitability of CST technologies for Southern Africa Concentrating Solar Thermal Technologies (CST) for electricity production are in the initial stages of commercial deployment. These technologies, because of their technical characteristics, have the potential to make a large contribution to the world energy mix. As the industry develops it is expected that the CST technologies will rapidly evolve to increase performance and reduce cost significantly in the short to mid-term. The speed at which these technical advances and cost reductions are achieve will be critical to the determine the market penetration of CST technologies in the next decade. 43

44

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