Document: 11-COM.P-6-rev.10 Update: 12/03/2012. Turboden Solar Thermal Power Applications

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1 Document: 11-COM.P-6-rev.10 Update: 12/03/2012 Turboden Solar Thermal Power Applications

2 About us Turboden is a leading European company in development and production of ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) turbogenerators. This state of the art equipment generates heat and power from renewable sources and heat recovery in industrial processes. The company was founded in 1980 in Milan by Eng. Mario Gaia, former Professor of Energy at the Polytechnic of Milan, and today the Managing Director of Turboden. His close connection with the university has always ensured the recruitment of highly qualified R&D personnel. Turboden has always had a single mission: design ORC turbogenerators for the production of heat and electrical power from renewable sources, while constantly striving to implement ORC technical solutions. In 2009, Turboden became part of Pratt & Whitney (UTC Corp.), a worldwide leader in development, production and service for aero engines, aerospace drive systems and heavy duty gas turbines. Today Turboden is part of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), to develop ORC solutions from renewable sources and waste heat worldwide. 2

3 Fortune 50 corporation 16th largest US manufacturer $54.3B in 2010 sales 195 countries 210,000 employees United Technologies Corporation UTC Power UTC Hamilton Carrier Research Sikorsky Otis Fire & Security Sundstrand Center EPC Service Large Engines After market Marine Mobile Power Wind Power ORC Technology 3

4 What we do Biomass Geothermal electricity Solar heat Waste-heat Turboden designs and develops turbogenerators based on the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), a technology for the combined generation of heat and electrical power from various renewable sources, particularly suitable for distributed generation. standard units from 600 kw to 6 MW customized solutions up to 15 MW 4

5 over 30 Years of Experience kwel ORC turbogenerator for a solar plant in Australia kwel ORC turbo- generato r for a biomass plant in Italy kwel ORC geothermal plant in Zambia MWel ORC turbo-generator for heat recovery on a waste incinirator in Belgium 2009 First 100 plants and first installed 100 MWel 2010 First plant overseas 2011 Over 200 ORC plants in the world 5

6 The Thermodynamic Principle: The ORC Cycle The turbogenerator uses the hot temperature thermal oil to pre-heat and vaporize a suitable organic working fluid in the evaporator (8 3 4). The organic fluid vapor powers the turbine (4 5), which is directly coupled to the electric generator through an elastic coupling. The exhaust vapor flows through the regenerator (5 9) where it heats the organic liquid (2 8). The vapor is then condensed in the condenser (cooled by the water flow) (9 6 1). The organic fluid liquid is finally pumped (1 2) to the regenerator and then to the evaporator, thus completing the sequence of operations in the closed-loop circuit. 6

7 Why High Molecular Mass Working Fluid Instead of Water? WATER HIGH MOLECULAR MASS FLUID Water Small, fast moving molecules Metal parts and blade erosion Multistage turbine and high mechanical stress Organic Fluid Very large flow rate Larger diameter turbine No wear of blades and metal parts 7

8 Advantages of Turboden ORC Turbogenerators Technical advantages High cycle efficiency Very high turbine efficiency (up to 90%) Low mechanical stress of the turbine due to the low peripheral speed Low RPM of the turbine allowing the direct drive of the electric generator without reduction gear No erosion of blades, thanks to the absence of moisture in the vapor nozzles Operational advantages / results Simple start-stop procedures Automatic and continuous operation No operator attendance needed Quiet operation High Availability (Admont over 50,000 hours of operation, availability > 98%) Partial load operation down to 10% of nominal power High efficiency even at partial load Low O&M requirements: about 3-5 hours / week Long life 8

9 Layout Some Examples TURBODEN 7 layout TURBODEN 10 layout TURBODEN 18 layout 9

10 10

11 ORC Applications - Biomass Biomass Heat Recovery Geothermal Solar Thermal Power Biomass Cogeneration plants with Turboden ORC can produce heat and electrical power from biomass with high efficiency and user friendly operation. The generated power usually ranges between 600 kw and 6 MW electric. 11

12 ORC Plant in a Process of Co-generation from Biomass 12

13 ORC Applications - Heat Recovery Biomass Heat Recovery Geothermal Solar Thermal Power Heat Recovery Turboden ORCs can produce electricity by recovering heat from industrial processes and combined cycles. The power of Turboden units in this application generally ranges between 600 kw and 10 MW electric. 13

14 HR Applications / Energy Sources Gaseous sources Internal combustion engines exhaust gas (ORC as bottom cycle to Diesel and gas reciprocating engines, gas turbines) Steel furnaces exhaust gas Cement, Glass and other non ferrous materials furnaces exhaust gas Exhaust Gas from waste incineration (civil/industrial) Liquid sources Condensing sources Refineries hot streams Cooling water (or other fluids) loops in industrial processes Jacket cooling water of reciprocating engines Refineries organic vapours to be condensed Surplus steam from production process (i.e. paper production process) Steam from cooling loops in industrial processes (i.e. steel) 14

15 ORC Applications - Geothermal Biomass Heat Recovery Geothermal Solar Thermal Power Geothermal ORC technology is particularly suitable for the exploitation of medium to low enthalpy sources. Cost-effective solution with power output up to 15 MWe and water temperature above 90 C. 15

16 Commercial - Turboden Solutions Hot water resource between 90 C C Size up to 15 MW el Scalable for larger plants High cycle efficiency Enhanced cycle efficiency with two-level cycles Low O&M requirements Option to select non-flammable working fluids 16

17 ORC Applications - Solar Thermodynamic Biomass Heat Recovery Geothermal Solar Thermal Power Solar Thermal Power Turboden units allow to convert the heat collected by solar collectors into electricity through an efficient thermodynamic cycle. Concentrating Solar Power systems with ORC Turboden can be cost-effective starting at 1 MWel. 17

18 specific cost ( /kwh) Solar thermal power technology SOLAR MARKET Residential scale (up to 1 MW) Industrial scale (up to 20 MW) Utility scale (up to 500 MW) 18

19 Solar Thermal Power Plant with ORC unit hot thermal oil electric power output cold thermal oil Simplified schema of an ORC hybrid solar thermal power plant 19

20 Medium temperature solar technologies Small scale parabolic trough system Linear Fresnel reflectors Example: HOLANIKU, Kona (Hawaii) - Keahole Solar Power, Sopogy Example: KIMBERLINA, Bakersfield (California) - Areva 20

21 Medium temperature Turboden solutions Full range Turboden HR units INPUT - Thermal oil TURBODEN 10 HR TURBODEN 14 HR TURBODEN 18 HR TURBODEN 22 HR TURBODEN 27 HR TURBODEN 35 HR TURBODEN 40 HR Nominal temperature (in/out) C 270 / / / / / / / 170 Thermal power input kw OUTPUT - Cooling water Nominal temperature (in/out) C 25 / / / / / 50 25/ / 52 Thermal power to cooling water kw PERFORMANCE Gross electric power kw Gross electric efficiency 19,9% 20,2% 20,3% 20,2% 20.1% 20.5% 20.3% Captive power consumption kw Net active electric power output kw Net electric efficiency * 19,1% 19,2% 19,6% 19,5% 19.2% 19.5% 19.4% (*) Ratio between Net active power output and Thermal power input from thermal oil 21

22 High temperature solar technologies Big scale parabolic trough system Point focal solar power tower Example: ANDASOL 1, Granada (Spain) - ACS Cobra Example : PS 10, Seville (Spain) - Abengoa 22

23 High temperature Turboden solutions Full range Turboden HRS units TD 12 HRS TD 24 HRS TD 32 HRS* INPUT - Thermal oil Expected Guaranteed Expected Guaranteed Expected Guaranteed Thermal oil nominal temperature (in/out) C 305 / / / / / / 215 Thermal power input kw OUTPUT - Cooling water Cooling water temperature (in/out) C 25 / / / / / / 39 Thermal power to the cooling water kw PERFORMANCE Gross electric power kw Gross electric efficiency 25,8 % 24,7 % 25,4% 24,2 % 25,5% 24,5 % Captive power consumption kw Net active electric power output kw Net electric efficiency** 24,8 % 23,6 % 24,4 % 23,1 % 24,5% 23,4 % Electrical generator Asynchronous triphase, Asynchronous triphase, Asynchronous triphase, 50 Hz, L.V. (660 V) 50 Hz, M.V. (6 kv) 50 Hz, M.V. (6 kv) (*) Preliminary - needs verification Engineering (**) Ratio between Net active electric power output and Thermal power input from thermal oil 23

24 Solar collector efficiency [%] Advantages of ORC Turboden Turbogenerators LS-2 collector, vacuum receiver IST collector ORC working temperature range Average receiver solar temperature above ambient air temperaure [ C] Performances calculated with: Direct Solar Radiation = 900 W/m 2, Incident Angle = 0 Solar collector performance equations from SANDIA Reports 24

25 Advantages of ORC Turboden Turbogenerators Operational advantages (medium temperature applications) - Higher solar collectors performance; - Possibility of use medium efficiency/low cost solar collectors; - Use of low cost thermal oils; - Use of non toxic, non harmful thermal oils (according to 67/548/CEE and 1999/45/CE); - Possibility to implement simple plant configuration: thermal oil used both as heat transfer fluid and as thermal storage medium. 25

26 Reference plant 5.5 MW solar plant under construction Plant type: Solar thermal power plant with thermal oil storage Developer: Sopogy Location: Honolulu, Hawaii Commissioning expected: beginning 2012 Net solar collector surface: about m 2 Heat transfer fluid: mineral oil at 270 C nominal Cooling device: wet cooling tower Thermal storage: single-tank storage with thermal oil Total gross electric power: 6 MW Gross electric efficiency: 20.5% 26

27 Case Study 1 MW Hybrid Solar Thermal Power Plant Technical Assumptions: 1. Solar collectors: parabolic trough LS-2 (performance equation according to SANDIA report: Test results SEGS LS-2 Solar Collector ) 2. Power Block: ORC turbogenerators Turboden 12 HRS (Nominal Power: 1 MW el ) 3. Solar Field Heat Transfer Fluid: Thermal oil (type Therminol 62 or similars) 4. Thermal Storage: Direct Thermocline Storage with thermal oil 5. Biomass Combustion System: Grate Combustion System with Thermal oil Boiler 6. Plant Location: Sicily (DNI: 1872 kwh/m 2 year) 27

28 Thermal power [kw] Case Study Hybrid Solar Thermal Power Plant Simulation Software: day 1 day 2 day 3 day 4 day 5 day 6 day 7 power input in a one week time Th. Power from SUN Th. Power from BIOMASS Th. Power to ORC Th. Power from STORAGE

29 Case Study Hybrid Solar Thermal Power Plant Plant Design Results: - Solar Field Size: m 2 - Number of solar collectors: 288 units - String Length: ~140 m - Number of solar collectors loop: 8 - Thermal Energy Storage Design Capacity: 17 MWh th (3.6 hrs) - Biomass Boiler Nominal Power: 1.7 MW th (biomass input*= 820 kg/h) (*) Assuming a Low Heat Value of biomass = 2.6 kwh/kg and boiler efficiency =

30 Case Study 1 MW Hybrid Solar Thermal Power Plant Power output: 1 MW el Rendering of an hybrid solar thermal power plant based on Turboden 12 HRS 30

31 Case Study 1 MW Hybrid Solar Thermal Power Plant Plant Performance: - Gross electric energy production: 5320 MWh el /y - Captive consumption: 535 MWh el /y - Net electric energy production (SUN): 2410 MWh el /y (50.4%) - Net electric energy production (BIOMASS): 2375 MWh el /y (49.6%) - Annual capacity factor: 54 % - Solar to Electric Efficiency (Design Point): 15.9 % 31

32 Case Study Hybrid Solar Thermal Power Plant Economic Analysis: Power Block ,7% Biomass System ,2% 14,6% Thermal Energy Storage ,8% 33,8% BOP Solar Field Total investment

33 Case Study Hybrid Solar Thermal Power Plant Economic Analysis: Assumptions: - SOLAR Energy Remuneration: - Feed in Premium: 250 /MWh el (25 years) - Energy Sale: 90 /MWh el - BIOMASS Energy Remuneration: - Feed in Tariff: 280 /MWh el (15 years) Results: Revenues from SOLAR Energy: Revenues from BIOMASS Energy: O&M Costs + Biomass Costs: Net Cash Flow (for the first 15 years): Net Cash Flow (from the 16 th year):

34 Case Study Hybrid Solar Thermal Power Plant Net Present Value PBT: 8.3 years NPV(15 years): IRR(15 years): 12.5% NPV(25 years): IRR(25 years): 13.9% years Hypotesis: Grant = 10% of the Investment; Interest rate = 5% 34

35 Turboden at a Glance 35

36 Turboden strong points R&D Sales/marketing Design Operations & manufacturing Aftermarket service Participation in national & EU research programs Cooperation with EU Universities and Research Centres Thermodynamic cycle optimization Working fluid selection & testing Thermo-fluid-dynamic design and validation Implementation & testing of control/ supervision software Pre-feasibility studies: evaluation of technical & economical feasibility of ORC power plants Customized proposals to maximize economic & environmental targets Complete in-house mechanical design Proprietary design and own manufacturing of ORC optimized turbine Tools - Thermo-fluiddynamic programs - FEA - 3D CAD-CAM - Vibration analysis Outsourced components from highly qualified suppliers Quality assurance & project management In house skid mounting to minimize site activities Start-up and commissioning Maintenance, technical assistance to operation and spare parts service Remote monitoring & optimization of plant operation Many patents obtained 36

37 Turboden facts & figures (Last update: February 2012) 37

38 Notes 38

39 Notes 39

40 Turboden s.r.l. Via Cernaia, Brescia, Italia tel fax C.F./P.I. IT capitale sociale i.v. R.I.: C.C.I.A.A. di Brescia REA

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