Ancient Rome: The Late Republic Notes**

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1 Name Period Ancient Rome: The Late Republic Notes** Rome continued to grow throughout the Republic Era Rome conquered people because they were threats to Rome o Gauls (French) conquered Rome in 387BCE Romans paid a lot of gold to get them to leave o Other people attacked when Gauls left o Rome defeated them and took their land Right around 200BCE Rome controlled most of Italy o Roman trade was expanding as well The Roman Army was very organized o Soldiers were organized in legions o Legion A group of 6,000 soldiers o Each legion was divided into Centuries Century 100 soldiers o Very flexible and effective army The army could fight as one large group or several small groups There were large farms throughout the countryside in Italy o The farms were actually run by slaves o The actual owners of the farm lived in the city They visited their farm occasionally to check up on it Roman trade expanded a lot as Rome conquered more people o Problem too many people, not enough food o Merchants traded for food from around the Mediterranean Sea o Roman coins soon became widely used throughout the Mediterranean region Other groups continue to declare war on Rome o Rome generally won these wars and continued to add land to their Republic The toughest wars that Rome fought were the Punic Wars o Punic Wars Wars between Rome and Carthage o Punic = Phoenician in Latin o Carthage was a city built by the Phoenicians Rome and Carthage went to war three different times o Between 264BCE and 146BCE 264BCE Carthage invaded Sicily o Rome sent an army in response = WAR After 20 years of fighting, Rome captured Palermo and kicked Carthage out of Sicily 218BCE Hannibal goes after Rome itself o He traveled with his army and elephants through Europe and into Rome o Hannibal attacked many Roman cities, but could not defeat Rome itself Rome attacked Carthage and Hannibal left to defend his city o The Romans defeated Hannibal and Carthage 140sBCE Carthage grows powerful again

2 o Roman Senate convinces Consuls to declare war on Carthage o Rome sends an army to Carthage o Destroys city, enslaves people, plows salt in land This ends the threat of Carthage Rome becomes the major power in North Africa 130sBCE Rome controls: o Italy o Spain o Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily (islands off Italy) o North Africa The Romans then took over the Greeks and adopted their culture In Rome, the rich people were getting richer, and the poor were getting poorer o Threat of violence between rich and poor existed Two Roman officials, Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus, tried to help o Tried to help poor people with land and food o Tiberius wanted to give poor people farmland o Gaius wanted to give poor people food Tiberius and Gaius were both killed by the rich Romans Gaius Marius (a consul) got poor people to join the army o The army was loyal to Marius, not Rome o Marius had a lot of political power because of army Lucius Cornelius Sulla wanted political power too o He started a civil war with Marius and defeated him Sulla became dictator of Rome o Changed the Roman government forever Another problem arises in Rome: Spartacus was a gladiator who became a slave o He demanded his freedom Along with many followers Spartacus and his group defeated an army sent to capture them o They took over much of Southern Italy o Spartacus is eventually killed by the Romans His revolt falls apart The Romans executed 6,000 of his followers The Republic s problems were not over

3 Name Period Ancient Rome: The Late Republic Notes* Rome continued to grow throughout the Era o Gauls ( ) conquered Rome in o Other people attacked when left o Rome defeated them and took their Right around Rome controlled most of The Roman was very organized o Very and effective army The army could fight as one group or several groups o The were actually run by slaves o The actual owners of the farm lived in the Roman expanded a lot as conquered more people o Merchants traded for food from around the o Roman soon became widely throughout the Mediterranean region Other continue to declare on Rome o Rome generally won these and continued to add land to their The toughest wars that Rome fought were the o Wars between Rome and Carthage Rome and went to war different times Carthage invaded Sicily After of fighting, Rome captured Palermo and kicked out of Sicily Hannibal goes after Rome itself o Hannibal attacked many cities, but could not defeat itself Rome attacked and left to defend his city o The Romans defeated and Carthage

4 Carthage grows powerful again o Rome sends an to Carthage o Destroys, enslaves people, plows in land Rome becomes the major power in The Romans then took over the and adopted their culture In Rome, the people were getting richer, and the were getting poorer Two Roman officials, and, tried to help o Tried to help poor people with and Tiberius and Gaius were both by the Romans Gaius Marius (a consul) got people to join the o Marius had a lot of power because of wanted political power too o He started a with Marius and defeated him Sulla became of Rome o Changed the Roman forever Another arises in Rome: was a gladiator who became a o He demanded his Spartacus and his group an sent to capture them o Spartacus is eventually by the His falls apart The Romans 6,000 of his followers The Republic s were not

5 Name Period Ancient Rome: The Late Republic Notes continued to throughout the Era o ( ) conquered Rome in o Other people when left o Rome them and took their Right around Rome controlled most of The Roman was very o Very and army The could fight as one group or several groups o The were actually run by o The actual of the lived in the Roman expanded a lot as conquered more o Merchants traded for from around the o Roman soon became widely throughout the region Other continue to declare on Rome o Rome generally these and continued to add land to their The toughest that Rome fought were the o Punic Wars Rome and went to war different times Carthage invaded After of fighting, Rome captured and kicked out of goes after Rome itself o attacked many cities, but could not defeat itself Rome attacked and left to defend his city o The defeated and

6 grows powerful again o sends an to Carthage o Destroys, enslaves, plows in land Rome becomes the major in The then took over the and adopted their In Rome, the people were getting, and the were getting Two Roman officials, and, tried to help o Tried to help people with and Tiberius and Gaius were both by the Romans Gaius Marius (a consul) got people to join the o Marius had a lot of power because of wanted political power too o He started a with and defeated him Sulla became of Rome o Changed the forever Another arises in Rome: was a who became a o He demanded his and his group an sent to capture them o is eventually by the His falls apart The Romans 6,000 of his followers The Republic s were not

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