CP Chapter 12 Stoichiometry

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1 CP Chapter 12 Stoichiometry What is Stoichiometry? ( STOY-KEE-AHM-EH-TREE) Stoichiometry is the part of chemistry that studies amounts of reactants and products that are involved in reactions. Chemists use a chemical as a basis to calculate how much reactant is or product is in a reaction. A balanced chemical equation can be interpreted in terms of different quantities, including number of,, or. In a balanced chemical equation, the in an equation represents not only numbers of individual but also numbers of. The basis for stoichiometry is the law of conservation of mass, which states the mass of the reactants will the mass of the products. What Do the Coefficients Mean? Balance the equation. N 2 + H 2 à NH 3 This equation can be looked at with molecule of N 2 reacts with molecules of H 2 to produce two of NH 3. Or This equation can be looked at as one mole of N 2 reacts with three of H 2 to produce moles of NH 3. Mole Ratio A mole ratio is a factor derived from the of a balanced chemical equation interpreted in terms of. Balance the equation and write all six mole ratios. Fe + O 2 à Fe 2 O 3 Balance the equation and write all six mole ratios. Al + Br 2 à AlBr 3 1

2 Mole to Mole How many moles of CO 2 will be produced by the complete reaction of 2.00 mol of glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 )? C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 à CO 2 + H 2 O How many moles of ammonia (NH 3 ) can be produced from 8.50 mol of hydrogen reacting with nitrogen? H 2(g) + N 2(g) à NH 3(g) How many moles of aluminum are needed to form 4.73 mol of Al 2 O 3? Al(s) + O 2 (g) à Al 2 O 3 (s) 2

3 Mole to Mass What mass of hydrogen can be produced by reacting mol of Al with HCl? Al + HCl à AlCl 3 + H 2 What mass of AlCl 3 can be produced by the reaction of 4.00 mol of HCl with Al? Mass to Mole How many moles of water can be produced by burning 325 g of octane (C 8 H 18 )? C 8 H 18 + O 2 à > CO 2 + H 2 O How many moles of CO 2 can be produced by using up 145 g of oxygen? 3

4 Mass to Mass What mass of carbon dioxide is produced by the complete combustion of g of pentane (C 5 H 12 )? C 5 H 12 + O 2 à CO 2 + H 2 O How many grams of HNO 3 are required to produce 8.75 g of dinitrogen monoxide (N 2 O) according to the following equation? Zn + HNO 3 à Zn(NO 3 ) 2 + N 2 O + H 2 O How many grams of NH 3 are produced by the reaction of 5.40 g of hydrogen with excess nitrogen? N 2(g) + H 2(g) à NH 3(g) 4

5 Limiting Reactant (Limiting Reagent) Limiting reactant or reagent - The that is totally used up during the chemical reaction, the amount of produced. Excess reactant or reagent The present in a quantity that is - than what is needed to react with the reactant. The excess reactant after the limiting reactant has been used up. Note: The limiting reactant is not necessarily the substance that has the lower amount of reactant. The limiting reactant is the one that will produce the least amount of product. What is the limiting reactant? What are the excess reactants? 5

6 How many grams of silver bromide (AgBr) can be formed when solutions containing 50.0 g of MgBr 2 and 100.0g of AgNO 3 are mixed together? What is the limiting reactant? What is in excess? MgBr 2 + AgNO 3 à AgBr + Mg(NO 3 ) 2 How many grams of hydrogen chloride can be produced from 1.00 g of hydrogen and 55.0 g of chlorine? What is the limiting reactant? What is in excess? H 2 + Cl 2 à HCl 6

7 How many grams of barium sulfate (BaSO 4 ) will be formed from g of barium nitrate (Ba(NO 3 ) 2 ) and g of sodium sulfate (Na 2 SO 4 )? What is the limiting reactant? What is in excess? Ba(NO 3 ) 2 + Na 2 SO 4 à BaSO 4 + NaNO 3 Percent Yield Theoretical yield is the amount of product that can be produced from a given amount of. Theoretical yield is calculated using stoichiometry. Actual yield is the amount of product actually produced when the chemical reaction is carried out in an. Percent yield is a comparison of the actual and percent yield. In general, the higher the percent yield, the better the results are for the experiment. Percent Yield = 7

8 Determine the theoretical yield of Ag 2 CrO 4 if g of AgNO 3 is used to react with K 2 CrO 4. Also, if g of Ag 2 CrO 4 is obtained from an experiment, calculate the percent yield. AgNO 3(aq) + K 2 CrO 4(aq) à Ag 2 CrO 4(s) + KNO 3(aq) CCl 4 was prepared by reacting g of CS 2 and g Cl 2. Calculate the theoretical yield and percent yield if 65.0 g of CCl 4 was obtained from the reaction. CS 2 + Cl 2 à CCl 4 + S 2 Cl 2 8

9 Silver bromide (AgBr) was prepared by reacting 200.0g of magnesium bromide and g of silver nitrate. Calculate the theoretical and percent yield if g of silver bromide was obtained from the reaction MgBr 2 + AgNO 3 à Mg(NO 3 ) 2 + AgBr CP Chapter 12 Study Guide (WRITE YOUR ANSWERS ON A SEPARATE SHEET OF PAPER OR YOU WILL NOT BE GIVEN CREDIT.) 1. What is conserved in a chemical reaction moles, liters, mass, atoms, or molecules? (The answer could be more than one thing). 2. In a chemical reaction what can you say about the mass of the products in relation to the mass of the reactants? 3. What is the ratio of CO to CO 2 in 2CO + O 2 à 2CO 2? 4. How many moles of Al are needed to react completely with 2.4 mol of FeO? 2Al + 3FeO à 3Fe + Al 2 O 3 5. How many moles of oxygen react with 3.4 mol of Fe in the rusting reaction? 4Fe + 3O 2 à 2Fe 2 O 3 6. How many grams of Fe 2 O 3 are formed when 17.6 g of Fe reacts completely with oxygen? 4Fe + 3O 2 à 2Fe 2 O 3 7. How many moles of H 3 PO 4 are produced when 67.0 g of P 4 O 10 reacts completely to form H 3 PO 4? P 4 O 10 +6H 2 O à 4H 3 PO 4 8. How many grams of H 3 PO 4 are produced when 15.0 moles of water react with an excess of P 4 O 10? Use the equation in #7. 9. What is the maximum number of grams of PH 3 that can be formed when 7.5 g of P 4 reacts with 5.8 g of H 2 to form PH 3? P 4 + 6H 2 à 4PH How many moles of Cu can be obtained from 3.5 mol of Al and 15 mol of CuSO 4? What is the limiting reactant? Al + 3CuSO 4 à Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 3Cu 11. What is the percent yield of the decomposition reaction if 19.9 g Pb(NO 3 ) 2 are heated to give 7.5 g of PbO? 2Pb(NO 3 ) 2 à 2PbO + 4NO 2 + O In a particular reaction between copper metal and silver nitrate, the theoretical yield was 40.0 g Ag. The experiment produced 38.1 g Ag. What is the percent yield of silver in this reaction? Cu + 2AgNO 3 à Cu(NO 3 ) 2 + 2Ag 9

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