STOICHIOMETRY II UNIT

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1 STOICHIOMETRY II UNIT Assignment #1 (Conversions with compounds) 1. Convert x molecules of Cl2 to moles. 2. Convert 1000 molecules of P4O10 to moles. 3. Convert 360 grams of NH3 (ammonia gas) to moles. 4. How many grams are there in 4.50 moles of NaCl? 5. What is the mass of moles of Na2SO4? 6. What is the mass of 1.81 x molecules of CO2? 7. How many molecules are there in 72.0 grams of HCl? 8. How many molecules are there in 1.00 grams of CCl4? 9. Convert 44.8 L of H2 gas at STP to moles. 10. Convert 32.0 O2 gas to a volume at STP. 11. What is the volume of grams of H2 gas at STP? 12. What is the mass of 6.72 L of O2 gas at STP? 13. How many molecules are there in 1000 L of C3H8 at STP?

2 Assignment #2 ( Converting moles within a balanced equation) Balance the following equations and then answer the questions that follow: CaO + P2O > Ca3 (PO4)2 1. How many moles of calcium oxide will produce one mole of calcium phosphate? 2. How many moles of diphosphorous pentaoxide will produce one mole of calcium phosphate? H2 + N > NH3 3. How many moles of ammonia gas will be produced in this reaction (based on the balanced equation)? 4. How many moles of hydrogen gas are needed to produce the number of moles found in #3? 5. How many moles of nitrogen gas are need in the balanced reaction above? 6. How many moles of hydrogen gas are needed to produce only one mole of ammonia? 7. How many moles of nitrogen gas are needed to produce only 0.5 moles of ammonia? CH4 + O > CO2 + H2O 8. How many moles of carbon dioxide are formed when 40 moles of oxygen are consumed? 9. How many moles of methane are needed for 200 moles of water to be formed? 10. How many moles of oxygen gas combine with moles of methane? H2 + N > NH3 11. How many moles of ammonia are formed from moles of hydrogen gas? 12. How many moles of nitrogen gas are needed to combine with 4.0 x moles of H2 gas? 13. How many moles of hydrogen gas are needed to produce 3.75 moles of ammonia gas? Assignment #3 (Converting molecules to molecules and volumes to volumes in balanced equations) Balance the following equations and then answer the questions that follow: H2 + O > H2O 1. Find the number of molecules of oxygen gas that combine with 10 molecules of hydrogen gas. 2. Find the number of molecules of water that are formed from 2000 molecules of oxygen gas? Assignment #3 Continued>>>>>>

3 3. Find the number of molecules of hydrogen gas that combine with 3 x molecules of oxygen gas. 4. Find the number of molecules of water that are produced from 1. 7 x molecules of hydrogen gas? 5. Find the number of molecules of hydrogen gas that combine with x molecules of oxygen gas. C3H8 + O > CO2 + H2O 6. How many liters of oxygen gas are needed to produce 600 liters of carbon dioxide at STP? 7. How many milliliters of propane will react with 200 milliliters of oxygen gas? 8. How many liters of propane are need to produce liters of water? 9. How many milliliters of oxygen gas are need to produce 742 liters of carbon dioxide? 10. If this chemical reaction produces 200 liters of water vapor at 500 degrees C and 760 mm Hg, how many milliliters of carbon dioxide would be produced at the same conditions? Using the Expanded Mole Diagram Balance the equation, then answer the questions The fermentation of sucrose produces carbon dioxide and ethanol according to the following equation: C12H22O11 (s) + H2O (l) > CO2 (g) + C2H5OH (l) 1. How many moles of sucrose produce two moles of carbon dioxide? 2. How many grams of sucrose are needed to produce 250g of ethanol? 3. What volume of carbon dioxide at ATP will be produced from 5.00 kg of sucrose? 4. How may molecules of carbon dioxide are produced when 1.00 g of sucrose ferments? Balance the equation, answer the questions:

4 Magnesium reacts with carbon dioxide to form magnesium oxide and carbon according to the following equation: Mg (s) + CO2 (g) > MgO (s) + C (s) 5. How many moles of Mg react with 1.4 mol of CO2 gas in the reaction above? 6. How many liters of CO2 at STP would react with 5 g of Mg? 7. How many atoms of C are produced from 2 L of CO2 at STP with sufficient Mg? 8. If 5.00 x 10 9 atoms of Mg reacted with CO2, what volume of CO2 at STP would this be? More Mole Coversions using Balanced Equations In the Haber process for the manufacturing of ammonia, hydrogen gas combines with nitrogen gas to produce ammonia gas. How many moles of hydrogen gas, will react with 285 moles of nitrogen gas? 1. Methane gas is burned in a camp stove for a source of heat. a. How many moles of carbon dioxide are formed when 40 moles of oxygen is consumed? b. How many moles of methane are needed to form 200 moles of water? c. How many moles of oxygen combine with 0.05 mole of methane? 2. Carbon monoxide combines with ferric oxide to produce iron and carbon dioxide. a. How many moles of carbon monoxide are needed to react completely with 12 moles of ferric oxide? b. How many moles of iron can be produced by reacting 6 moles of ferric oxide with excess carbon monoxide? c. How many moles of iron will be produced if 0.85 moles of carbon dioxide is produced by this reaction? Mass-Mass Conversions Using a Balanced Equation 1. Tetraphosphorus decoxide reacts with water to produce phosphoric acid. How many grams of phosphoric acid can be produced from g of tetraphosphorus decoxide reacting with excess water? 2. Barium chloride reacts with silver nitrate to produce barium nitrate and silver chloride. How many grams of silver chloride can be produced from 31.0 g of barium chloride reacting with excess silver nitrate?

5 3. Nitrogen trichloride reacts with water to produce ammonia and hypochlorous acid. How many grams of nitrogen trichloride are needed to prepare 89.3 g of ammonia? 4. Sodium hydroxide reacts with sulfuric acid to produce sodium sulfate and water. How many grams of sodium hydroxide are needed to react completely with 73.5 g of sulfuric acid? 5. Copper reacts with nitric acid to produce copper (II) nitrate, nitrogen monoxide, and water. If 11.3 g of nitrogen monoxide is produced, how many grams of copper reacted? 6. Barium chloride reacts with sodium phosphate to produce barium phosphate and sodium chloride. If 62.9 g of barium chloride reacts with excess sodium phosphate, how many grams of barium phosphate will be produced? 7. Ammonium hydroxide reacts with cupric nitrate to produce ammonium nitrate and cupric hydroxide. If 75.0 g of ammonium nitrate are produced by the reaction, how many grams of cupric hydroxide will also be made? 8. Copper (I) oxide reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce copper (I) chloride and water. How many grams of copper (I) chloride can be produced beginning with 75.0 g of copper (I) oxide? 9. Sulfuric acid and potassium hydroxide react to produce potassium sulfate and water. How much potassium sulfate is produced if g of sulfuric acid reacts with excess potassium hydroxide? 10. Iron reacts with oxygen to make ferric oxide. How many grams of oxygen can react with 84.9 g of iron?

6 CHEMISTRY LAB 8 MASS-MASS NAME CA Calculate the stoichiometric amounts in specific reactions such as weight to weight, weight to volume, volume to weight, volume to volume. PURPOSE Compare the experimental mass of a product of a chemical reaction with the mass predicted for that product by calculation. PROCEDURE 1. Measure out approximately 8.0 grams of cupric sulfate crystals and add these to a small beaker. 2. Add approximately 50.0 ml of deionized water to the beaker. 3. While one lab partner does steps 4 and 5, another lab partner should do Step Heat the cupric sulfate mixture to just below the boiling point. DO NOT ALLOW THE MIXTURE TO BOIL. 5. Heat and stir the mixture until all the cupric sulfate crystals are dissolved. DO NOT ALLOW THE MIXTURE TO BOIL. 6. Measure out precisely 2.24 g of iron filings. 7. Add the iron filings, small amounts at a time, to the hot cupric sulfate solution. Stir continuously. 8. After all the iron has been added and the mixture stirred, allow the beaker to sit for at least 10 minutes while the reaction proceeds. During this 10 minute interval perform step Determine the mass of a piece of filter paper. 10. Filter the contents of the small beaker. 11. With a wash bottle, carefully rinse the solid copper in the filter with about 10 ml of deionized water. 12. Place the filter paper containing the solid copper in a marked beaker. Allow to dry overnight. 13. Determine the mass of the filter paper and solid copper metal. DATA TABLE Mass of iron (g) 2.24 Mass of filter paper (g) Mass of filter paper and solid copper (g) CALCULATIONS Experimental mass of copper (g) 1. Write the balanced chemical equation for this reaction. Iron + Cupric sulfate ---> Copper + Ferrous sulfate 2. Determine the number of moles of iron used.

7 3. Determine the theoretical number of moles of copper that should have been produced. 4. Determine the theoretical number of grams of copper that should have been produced. 5. Determine your percent error.

8 LAB: Molar Volume of a Gas Purpose: to measure the volume of hydrogen gas collected and compare it to the theoretical value that can be calculated from the balanced equation Procedure 1. Obtain a length of Mg ribbon 9 cm long. Record the mass of the Mg. 2. Obtain an Erlenmeyer flask and using a graduated cylinder, place 20 ml of deionized water in it. 3. Carefully pour 20 ml of 6 M HCl into a 50 ml beaker. Then carefully add the acid to the water in the flask. 4. Obtain and set up all materials needed to collect a gas using a pneumatic trough. Remember to fill the trough with water so that it is just over the metal support. 5. Place two gas collection bottles filled with water over the metal support. 6. Have the rubber stopper, glass tube, and rubber hose ready to collect and transfer gas. 7. When the gas collection assembly is completely ready, proceed to step Place the Mg ribbon into the Erlenmeyer flask containing the diluted HCl and quickly stopper to transfer and collect gas. 9. After reaction is completed, mark the amount of gas collected on the side of the gas collection bottle and determine ml of gas collected (In this experiment the pressure of the gas is made equal to atmospheric pressure by equalizing the water levels inside and outside of the collection tube). 10. Measure the temperature of the water. LAB Data: Mass of Magnesium: Volume of H2 collected: Temperature of Water in trough: Temperature of H2: Barometric Reading (pressure of atmosphere): Vapor Pressure of Water at observed Temp.: Questions and Calculations: 1. Convert the volume of hydrogen gas from ml to L. 2. Convert temperature of hydrogen gas from C to K. 3. Write a balanced equation for magnesium reacting with HCl forming hydrogen gas and magnesium chloride. 4. Calculate the number of moles of magnesium consumed.

9 5. Since the hydrogen gas collected was over water, two gases were actually present: hydrogen and water vapor. Calculate the partial pressure of the hydrogen gas. HINT: Patm = P H2 + P H20 (Solve for P H2, use the data table for Patm and the water vapor pressure table for P H2O ) 6. Calculate the volume of the hydrogen gas collected for standard temperature. HINT: V1 x P1 = V2 x P2 T1 T2 V1= volume of hydrogen gas collected in Liters V2= theoretical volume of hydrogen gas P1= pressure of hydrogen gas (see#5 above) P2= standard atm. pressure in mm Hg T1= temp. of hydrogen gas collected in Kelvin T2= standard temp. in Kelvin 7. Using the moles of Mg used as found in question #4, determine the theoretical volume of gas that should have been collected (hydrogen gas). 8. Using your answers in the previous two questions, calculate the percent error in your experiment. HINT: %error= experimental - theoretical x100 theoretical

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