Contents. 1 Introduction 1. 2 Phonology 17

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1 Contents 1 Introduction This grammar Aims Sources Methodology The language Language situation Speakers History Dialects The language family affiliation Overview of the Bantawa language Phonology Consonants Minimal pairs for the clear-cut contrasts Voiced stops vs. voiced aspirated stops The glottal stop Aspirated glides Vowels The syllable Syllable onset Syllable final consonants Allophony Intervocalic consonants Vowel allophony Allophony of the central vowel Weakening of syllable-final /n/ Nepali influence Dentals, retroflexes, alveodentals or alveolars? Vowels Phonological adaptation in borrowing from Nepali Selected morphophonological issues Quantity and tone Vowel harmony v

2 vi Contents Final remarks Nominals Nominal classes Nominal subclasses Noun phrase syntax Noun compounding Noun compounding vs. derivation Typology of noun compounding Nominal morphology Number marking Case suffixes Absolutive and ergative Genitive Vocative prefix and suffix Non-structural cases Locatives Complex postpositions Ablatives, vialative and comparative Allative Comitatives: Cases starting with -e Other markers Pronouns and vertical orientation Pronouns Possessive prefixes and pronouns The third person possessive prefix and definiteness Possessive pronouns Third person pronoun morphology Interrogative pronouns Pronominal morphology: Derived deictic adverbials Locational derivations Stacking of pronominal derivations Reification and slot positions Counting and classifiers Verbs Introduction Verb classes To be Verb classes by syntactic behaviour Morphology of verb stems Introduction Phonological structure of the verb root Bantawa verbs grouped by junction type Predictability of conjugation class Phonological justification for conjugation classes

3 Contents vii Vowel coalescence Tone Accounts for the tonal contrast Finite verb morphology Person and number categories Stem alternation Agreement paradigms Morpheme analysis Prefixes Suffixes Negation A slot analysis of suffixes Prefix order in past tense negative forms Reflexives: morphology Tense, aspect and mood Tense and aspect Explicit aspect marking Mood Optative Imperative Irrealis Subordination Non-finite verb forms Active participles Passive participle Purposive nominaliser Infinitives Supine Simultaneous converb Negative perfect converb Nominalisation Verb nominalisation General nominaliser Perfect and pluperfect Perfect formed by verbal compounding The general nominaliser as subordinator and relativiser Stand-alone nominalisation Transitivity Operations Simple clause syntax Grammatical roles, valence and conjugation Transitivity Impersonal clauses Verb transitivity operations Antipassive and middle verb conjugation

4 viii Contents Antipassive: object demotion or omission Explicit antipassive Middle or zero causative derivation Causative formation Lexical causatives Reflexes of the causativising prefix *s Complex causative predicates Valence decreasing operations Passive Reflexives Reciprocal Complex Verbs Introduction Compound verbs Compound verb typology Morphosyntax Morphology Semantic typology Category-selective compound verbs Category-insensitive compound verbs Verb complements Compound verbs with valency effects Valence decreasing auxiliaries Valence increasing auxiliaries A typological note Verbs with lexical complements Subclassification Subject verb complements Object verb complements Position of complement Semantics of the complement Syntax, morphology or lexicon? Other Word Classes Adjectives Derivation and morphology Lexical adjectives Regular adjective formations Syntax and semantics Adverbs Lexical adverbs Manner adverbs Adverbs of manner Reduplication in adverbs Adverbs of time and location

5 Contents ix 8.3 Particles Topic and focus markers Emphasis and focus markers Epistemic and modal particles Sentence particles Conjunctions Nominal conjunctions Sentence conjunctions Review of some clause linkers Sentential subordinator <lo> Correlative clauses Narrative and direct speech marker <ni> Function Syntax Something k h a Appendices 339 A Texts A.1 Ganya A.2 Bird song A.3 Hengmawa A.4 Death A.5 About Hatuvā and about Kiranti religion A.6 Sumnima B Paradigms B.1 Intransitive agreement B.2 To walk B.3 To walk, progressive B.4 To come B.5 To need B.6 Reflexive agreement B.7 The verb to touch oneself B.8 The verb to kill oneself by hanging B.9 To take B.10 To eat B.11 To forget C Word list D Compound verbs across Kiranti D.1 Kiranti compound verbs: syntax D.2 Kiranti compound verbs: morphology D.3 Kiranti compound verbs: function References 483 Index 488

6 x Contents Nederlandse samenvatting 492 Curriculum vitae 496

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