Teacher Guide: Treatment, Enhancement, or Both? ACTIVITY OVERVIEW.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Teacher Guide: Treatment, Enhancement, or Both? ACTIVITY OVERVIEW. http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu"

Transcription

1 Teacher Guide: Treatment, Enhancement, or Both? ACTIVITY OVERVIEW Abstract: Students consider potential gene therapy applications and categorize them as enhancements or treatments on a Venn diagram. The class then discusses each application and the difference between enhancement and therapy. Module: Gene Therapy: Molecular Bandage? Key Concepts: What qualifi es as a treatment? What qualifi es as an enhancement? Is there a case where a particular therapy could be considered as both? Some treatments could be applied as enhancements. Prior Knowledge Needed: A basic understanding of genetics; how mutations in genes may cause disease; a basic understanding of gene therapy. Materials: Student pages Appropriate For: Ages: USA grades: 7-14 Prep Time: 30 minutes Class Time: minutes Activity Overview Web Address: /teachers/tindex/ overview.cfm?id=gtvenn Other activities in the Gene Therapy: Molecular Bandage? module can be found at: /teachers/tindex/ Genetic Science Learning Center, 15 North 2030 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112

2 Teacher Guide: Treatment, Enhancement, or Both? TABLE OF CONTENTS Pedagogy A. Learning Objectives B. Background Information C. Teaching Strategies Additional Resources A. Activity Resources Materials A. Detailed Materials List B. Materials Preparation Guide Standards A. U.S. National Science Education Standards B. AAAS Benchmarks for Science Literacy C. Utah Secondary Science Core Curriculum Student Pages Directions and Venn Diagram Case Studies Questions Page S-1 S-2 - S-8 S-9 Genetic Science Learning Center, 15 North 2030 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112

3 Teacher Guide: Treatment, Enhancement, or Both? I. PEDAGOGY A. Learning Objectives Students will think critically about potential applications of gene therapy. Students will distinguish between the use of gene therapy to cure disease and the use of gene therapy for enhancement. Students will construct their own defi nitions of enhancement and treatment. Students will consider bioethical issues related to gene therapy. B. Background Information Note: It is important to remind students throughout this activity that the gene therapy applications discussed do not, as of yet, exist. This activity is meant to encourage critical thought about what additional applications might arise from successful gene therapy techniques and the bioethical issues those applications may entail. Many medical conditions result from mutations in one or more of a person s genes. Such mutations cause the protein encoded by that gene to malfunction. When this happens, cells that rely on the protein s function cannot behave normally, causing problems for whole tissues or organs. Medical conditions related to gene mutations are also called genetic disorders. If successful, gene therapy provides a way to fi x a problem at its source. Adding a corrected copy of the gene may help the affected cells, tissues or organs work properly. In this way, gene therapy differs from traditional drugbased approaches which may effectively treat the problem but do not repair the underlying genetic fl aw. However, gene therapy is far from being a simple solution that will automatically fi x a disorder. While scientists and physicians have made progress in gene therapy research, much work remains before its full potential is realized. Success in gene therapy depends on the effi cient delivery of the correct gene to the correct cells in the correct tissue. Scientists refer to DNA delivery vehicles as vectors. These vectors are designed to target specifi c cells. Traditionally, vectors have been derived from modifi ed viruses, including retroviruses, adenoviruses, adeno-associated viruses, and herpes simplex viruses. Other gene delivery approaches being examined include the use of liposomes, (lipidbased pockets that can carry plasmid DNA) or simply naked DNA with no carrier. Each vector and method of delivery varies depending on the specifi c disorder the therapy aims to treat. Genetic Science Learning Center, 15 North 2030 East, Salt Lake City, UT of 6

4 Teacher Guide: Treatment, Enhancement, or Both? The only possible way to alter a gene in every cell in a human would be at the earliest stages of development, through germline or embryonic gene delivery. Germline gene delivery refers to the transfer of a gene into the cells that make sperm or egg cells. Embryonic gene delivery refers to the transfer of a gene into the cells of an early embryo, just after the sperm and egg unite. In both cases, the delivered gene would become a permanent part of all cells in the resulting adult. Scientists are looking to gene therapy as a way to treat genetic disorders. But what if the same gene delivery techniques, once established, could be used to change other traits, such as physical or behavioral traits? In the future, these techniques may open the door to genetic enhancement and the creation of socalled designer babies. In theory, scientists could someday alter any physical or behavioral trait that is controlled by genes. The reality of genetic enhancement is far less likely, however. To date, scientists know very little about the specifi c genes that contribute to any given trait. In fact, most human traits are controlled by multiple genes. Secondly, no human trait is determined solely by genes. Environmental factors play a large role in determining how traits develop in a person. So, even if the genes to alter were known, the outcome could not be reliably predicted. In sum, most traits are so complex that the concept of enhancement will likely remain in the science fi ction realm for all time. C. Teaching Strategies 1. Timeline 1 day before activity: - Copy student pages (S-1 to S-9) Day of activity: - Discuss the basic idea behind gene therapy - Hand out student pages - Have students consider whether each potential gene therapy application is a treatment, enhancement, or both - As a class, discuss the students decisions Genetic Science Learning Center, 15 North 2030 East, Salt Lake City, UT of 6

5 Teacher Guide: Treatment, Enhancement, or Both? 2. Classroom Implementation Begin class by discussing that gene therapy is a way to treat genetic diseases by adding a normally functioning gene to take over for a defective one. Vectors designed to target specifi c cells are used to deliver the normal genes. Each vector and method of delivery varies depending on the specifi c disorder the therapy aims to treat. You may also want to discuss with students the challenges to gene therapy such as targeting enough cells to make a collective difference, incorporation of the new, desired gene, and the difference between treating adult cells, embryonic cells, or germ-line cells. Discuss with students the fact that gene therapy is still very much in the experimental phase with minimal success. Tell students that for the purpose of this activity, you are going to move into the future and assume that gene therapy techniques have been developed and are successful. What might be some gene therapy applications? Would gene therapies developed to treat disease have any other applications? Hand out a copy of student pages S-1 to S-9 to each student. Instruct students to read through each potential application and place it in the area of the Venn diagram they feel is most appropriate (therapy, enhancement, or both). Students should write the title of the case study on the diagram. When students are fi nished placing each application on the diagram, instruct them to complete the questions on page S- 9. Begin a class discussion: Summarize the fi rst case study aloud and ask the students who consider it a treatment to raise their hands. Next, ask students who consider it an enhancement, then both to raise their hands. Discuss where necessary. Repeat these steps with all of the gene therapy case studies. Discuss the following: What is the difference between a treatment and an enhancement? What applications did you place in both and why? Does the ability to do something mean we should? Genetic Science Learning Center, 15 North 2030 East, Salt Lake City, UT of 6

6 Teacher Guide: Treatment, Enhancement, or Both? Note: See Additional Resources for links to helpful background information about genetic disorders. 3. Extensions Create class defi nitions of enhancement and treatment. Individually, or as a whole class, have students decide whether in vivo or ex vivo gene therapy techniques would be most appropriate for each case study. 4. Adaptations Students may work in small discussion groups to complete the activity. Rather than a whole-group discussion, create smaller discussion groups. Divide the class in half or into small groups; assign each group or half different case studies to work with. 5. Assessment Suggestions Use the questions at the end of the activity as an assessment. 6. Common Misconceptions A misconception may be that scientists currently have the ability to alter the genome to enhance traits or produce desired characteristics. This in fact is not the case. Students sometimes think that gene therapy replaces a faulty gene with a functional copy. It is important that they understand this is not the case. Gene therapy endeavors to add a functional copy of the gene of interest in the hope that its function will counteract the effect of the faulty gene. II. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES A. Activity Resources linked from the online Activity Overview: /teachers/tindex/overview.cfm?id=gtvenn Website: Gene Therapy: Molecular Bandage? - information about the idea behind gene therapy, techniques, current status of trials and other related issues. Website: MEDLINEplus Health Information - a searchable health encyclopedia and informational tutorials. A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health. Website: Genetics Home Reference - a consumer-friendly resource for information about genetic conditions and the genes responsible. From the National Library of Medicine. Genetic Science Learning Center, 15 North 2030 East, Salt Lake City, UT of 6

7 Teacher Guide: Treatment, Enhancement, or Both? Website: News releases and information about Alba, the GFP bunny, and transgenic art. III. MATERIALS A. Detailed Materials List Student pages S-1 through S-9 one copy per student. IV. STANDARDS A. U.S. National Science Education Standards Grades 5-8: Content Standard C: Life Science - Reproduction and Heredity; hereditary information is contained in genes, located in the chromosomes of each cell; an inherited trait of an individual can be determined by one or by many genes; a single gene can infl uence more than one trait. Grades 9-12: Content Standard C: Life Science - The Molecular Basis of Heredity; in all organisms, the instructions for specifying the characteristics of the organism are carried in DNA. B. AAAS Benchmarks for Science Literacy Grades 9-12: The Living Environment: Heredity - genes are segments of DNA molecules; inserting, deleting, or substituting DNA segments can alter genes; an altered gene may be passed on to every cell that develops from it; the resulting features may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offspring s success in its environment. The Human Organism: Physical Health - faulty genes can cause body parts or systems to work poorly. The Designed World: Health Technology - knowledge of genetics is opening whole new fi elds of health care. C. Utah Secondary Science Core Curriculum Intended Learning Outcomes for Seventh and Eighth Grade Science Students will: 1. Use Science Process and Thinking Skills c. Develop and use categories to classify subjects studied. Genetic Science Learning Center, 15 North 2030 East, Salt Lake City, UT of 6

8 Teacher Guide: Treatment, Enhancement, or Both? Intended Learning Outcomes for for Ninth to Twelfth Grade Science Students will: 5. Demonstrate Awareness of Social and Historical Aspects of Science a. Cite examples of how science affects human life. 6. Demonstrate Understanding of the Nature of Science i. Understand that science and technology may raise ethical issues for which science, by itself, does not provide solutions. Biology (9-12) Standard 4: Students will understand that genetic information coded in DNA is passed from parents to offspring by sexual and asexual reproduction. The basic structure of DNA is the same in all living things. Changes in DNA may alter genetic expression. Objective 3: Explain how the structure and replication of DNA are essential to heredity and protein synthesis. - Research, report, and debate genetic technologies that may improve the quality of life (e.g., genetic engineering, cloning, gene splicing). V. CREDITS Activity created by: Andee Bouwhuis, South Hills Middle School, Riverton, Utah Jane Bridge, Taylorsville High School, Salt Lake City, Utah Mary Bucklew, Orem Junior High School, Orem, Utah Donna Capasso, Adele C. Young Intermediate School, North Logan, Utah Jonathon Tuttle, Hunter High School, West Valley City, Utah Molly Malone, Genetic Science Learning Center Louisa Stark, Genetic Science Learning Center Steven Kiger, Genetic Science Learning Center (illustrations) Funding: Funding for this module was provided by a Science Education Partnership Award (No. 1 R25 RR16291) from the National Center for Research Resources, a component of the National Institutes of Health. Genetic Science Learning Center, 15 North 2030 East, Salt Lake City, UT of 6

9 INSTRUCTIONS 1. Read the following case studies. 2. Decide if the gene therapy described would be a treatment, enhancement or both. 3. Write the title of the case study in the place you choose on the diagram below. Enhancement Treatment Both Permission granted for classroom use. 1

10 6'7" Case Study: A couple who are fans of professional basketball are planning on having a baby. They would like for the child to be at least 6 feet 7 inches tall and extremely muscular by the time he is 16 years old. This, according to the couple, will guarantee him a spot in the NBA. Height is a polygenic trait (a trait influenced by several genes) that can be influenced by human growth hormone. Gene therapy could be used to add multiple genes that control height to the embryo. Case Study: A couple s newborn son has just been diagnosed with achondroplasia, the most common form of dwarfism. Achondroplasia is caused by a mutation in the FGFR3 gene, which controls bone growth. This mutation causes a decrease in the rate at which cartilage turns to bone during development and particularly affects long bones in the body. Characteristics of this disorder include an average sized torso with disproportionately short limbs and a slightly enlarged head with a prominent forehead. In more than 80% of cases, achondroplasia is the result of a new mutation, not inheritance. In cases where it is not caused by a new mutation, achondroplasia is an autosomal dominant disorder. Prenatal screening for achondroplasia is available. Gene therapy could be used to add a normally-functioning copy of the FGFR3 gene to the child s bone cells. Permission granted for classroom use. 2

11 Case Study: A 36-year-old mother of three has been diagnosed with malignant melanoma. Although malignant melanoma only accounts for approximately 4% of all skin cancers, it is the most deadly. Melanoma begins in the cells of the epidermis that are responsible for making pigment (melanocytes). It shuts down the process that regulates normal cell division, causing cells to divide and reproduce at a higher rate and form tumors. The DNA of genes involved in the cell division cycle is often damaged in melanoma cells, probably caused by ultraviolet radiation. Gene therapy could be used to insert an antigen-producing gene into the woman s melanoma cells, triggering an immune response that would destroy the cancer cells. Case Study: A couple in Kansas is very concerned about the high incidence of skin cancer and skin cancer-related deaths in their family. It has been known for some time now that ultraviolet radiation from sunlight is a major contributing factor to developing skin cancer. Working the fields of the family farm means spending a lot of time outdoors constantly exposed to this type of radiation. A family history of skin cancer is also considered a risk factor for developing such cancers. Through pre-natal genetic screening, the couple has discovered that the child they are expecting carries the forms of genes that have been linked to skin cancer. Specifically, the child is carrying mutated forms of genes thought to be responsible for maintaining the normal cell division cycle. They wish to pursue pre-natal gene therapy to reduce the risk of skin cancer in their child. Permission granted for classroom use. 3

12 Case Study: The gene that codes for a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) found in jellyfish has been isolated, copied and used by scientists to mark gene expression in a wide variety of studies. The protein glows when exposed to the proper light source. By tacking the GFP gene onto genes of interest, scientists can easily see where these genes are expressed in an organism. In April of 2000, artist Eduardo Kac commissioned a French lab to inject the GFP gene into rabbit eggs. This produced an animal named Alba the GFP Bunny. Alba appears normal but glows green from every cell when placed under blue light. Alba is an example of what is known as transgenic art. Case Study: A six-month old girl has been diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. This disease is characterized by a buildup of very thick mucus in the lungs, making it difficult to breathe and causing frequent infections. Additionally, a buildup of mucus in the digestive tract blocks necessary digestive enzymes, leading to malnutrition. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by a defect in the gene that codes for the protein that is responsible for chloride ion transport across cell membranes. The life span of people with this autosomal recessive disorder is shorter than average - approximately 30 years. Gene therapy could be used to add a normal copy of the CF gene to the girl s affected tissues. Permission granted for classroom use. 4

13 Case Study: Firemen, emergency medical technicians, policemen, doctors, nurses, dentists, and other health care workers are constantly exposed to infectious diseases while transporting and caring for people who have been hurt or fallen ill. These diseases range from minor to life threatening and are an obvious concern for all involved. Gene therapy could be used to enhance these people s immune systems. Case Study: A two-month old boy is brought into the emergency room with a severe respiratory infection. The infant s blood work reveals few B and T lymphocytes, the white blood cells responsible for fighting infection. Further tests reveal that the infant has Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (SCID), a genetic disorder that affects B and T lymphocyte production in the body. SCID, commonly referred to as bubble boy disease, is usually an X-linked recessive disorder, but can also be autosomal recessive in some cases. Common infectious diseases such as a cold, flu and chicken pox are life threatening to patients with SCID. Because people with SCID lack the necessary immune response, many die within the first year of life as a result of complications from these illnesses. Current treatment for SCID includes bone marrow transplants and monthly injections of antibodies collected from human blood. Gene therapy could be used to add the gene responsible for producing T and B lymphocytes to the boy s white blood cells. Permission granted for classroom use. 5

14 Case Study: A seven-year old girl feels fatigued most of the time and even the mildest forms of exercise, such as walking up a flight of stairs, leave her breathless. She periodically complains about bone, joint and abdominal pain. After conducting tests, her doctors have determined that she has sickle cell disorder. In this disorder, red blood cells contain a mutated form of hemoglobin that causes them to collapse into a sickle shape under low oxygen conditions, such as exercise. The sickled cells can clog blood vessels and do not do a proper job of delivering oxygen to tissues. This is an autosomal recessive disorder. Gene therapy could be used to add a normal copy of the gene that codes for hemoglobin to the girl s bone marrow, where blood cells are made. Case Study: Your neighbor has been complaining that he is having difficulty seeing at night and that his peripheral (side) vision is beginning to blur. Thinking that he needs a different eyeglass or contact lens prescription, he visits his opthamologist. He is diagnosed with retinitis pigmentosa, a disorder that will cause him to lose his vision until he becomes blind. Retinitis pigmentosa causes cells in the retina to degenerate. It may be inherited through a variety of ways, including autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked. Gene therapy could be used to add genes to cells in the man s retina so that the cells will produce substances that have been shown to slow the loss of vision. Permission granted for classroom use. 6

15 Case Study: A girl in your class usually comes to school completely bandaged from the neck down. You have been instructed to be very careful about pushing or bumping into her and you notice that she moves very carefully and deliberately. You learn that this student suffers from a severe blistering disorder called epidermolysis bullosa. People with this disorder have very fragile skin and mucous membranes that blister after the slightest amount of pressure or friction. The blisters fill with fluid and then scar when they heal, reducing the ability to move. People with epidermolysis bullosa lack a particular type of collagen fibril that anchors skin in place. The disorder is inherited; some forms are autosomal dominant while others are autosomal recessive. Occasionally, the disorder may also arise as a new mutation. Gene therapy could be used to insert a normal copy of the collagen-producing gene into the girl s skin cells. Case Study: A toddler you baby sit after school is having trouble walking and seems to fall more than other children his age. After extensive medical tests, the toddler is diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Muscular dystrophy causes a slow degeneration of the voluntary muscles until the muscles have little to no function. This degeneration is caused by the lack of a protein called dystrophin that aids in proper muscle function. Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the most common form is an X-linked disorder and begins to affect children at a very early age. Gene therapy could be used to add a normal copy of the dystrophin-producing gene to the boy s muscle cells. Permission granted for classroom use. 7

16 Case Study: A world-champion body builder notices that he must work harder and harder to keep his physique as he ages. His muscles just are not retaining mass and bulk like they used to. He also feels a very slight weakening of muscle performance as he is lifting weights. Body building competitions are a way of life for him and he hopes to compete for at least another 5 years before retiring. He would like to use gene therapy to add an additional dystrophin-producing gene to his muscle cells, which would improve and maintain muscle mass and performance. Permission granted for classroom use. 8

17 Answer the questions below: 1. Look at the treatment portion of your diagram. For you, what are the characteristics of the conditions for which gene therapy qualified as a treatment? 2. Look at the enhancement portion of your diagram. For you, what are the characteristics of the conditions for which gene therapy qualified as an enhancement? 3. Agree or Disagree: Most conceivable gene therapy treatments could potentially have an application as an enhancement. Explain your answer using an example. 4. What other categories (such as preventative measure) could you add to your diagram? List them and describe the characteristics of the conditions that they would contain. Permission granted for classroom use. 9

Teacher Guide: Have Your DNA and Eat It Too ACTIVITY OVERVIEW. http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu

Teacher Guide: Have Your DNA and Eat It Too ACTIVITY OVERVIEW. http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu ACTIVITY OVERVIEW Abstract: Students build an edible model of DNA while learning basic DNA structure and the rules of base pairing. Module: The Basics and Beyond Prior Knowledge Needed: DNA contains heritable

More information

Genetic Mutations. Indicator 4.8: Compare the consequences of mutations in body cells with those in gametes.

Genetic Mutations. Indicator 4.8: Compare the consequences of mutations in body cells with those in gametes. Genetic Mutations Indicator 4.8: Compare the consequences of mutations in body cells with those in gametes. Agenda Warm UP: What is a mutation? Body cell? Gamete? Notes on Mutations Karyotype Web Activity

More information

Class Time: 30 minutes. Other activities in the Stem Cells in the Spotlight module can be found at: http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/teachers/tindex/

Class Time: 30 minutes. Other activities in the Stem Cells in the Spotlight module can be found at: http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/teachers/tindex/ Teacher Guide: Color-Label-Learn: Creating Stem Cells for Research ACTIVITY OVERVIEW Abstract: Students color and label images on a worksheet and answer questions about the on-line content featured in

More information

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) What is Duchenne muscular dystrophy or DMD? Muscular Dystrophy is a group of inherited muscle disorders, in which muscles weaken over time. Duchenne muscular dystrophy

More information

Stem Cell Quick Guide: Stem Cell Basics

Stem Cell Quick Guide: Stem Cell Basics Stem Cell Quick Guide: Stem Cell Basics What is a Stem Cell? Stem cells are the starting point from which the rest of the body grows. The adult human body is made up of hundreds of millions of different

More information

Using Family History to Improve Your Health Web Quest Abstract

Using Family History to Improve Your Health Web Quest Abstract Web Quest Abstract Students explore the Using Family History to Improve Your Health module on the Genetic Science Learning Center website to complete a web quest. Learning Objectives Chronic diseases such

More information

Gene Therapy and Genetic Counseling. Chapter 20

Gene Therapy and Genetic Counseling. Chapter 20 Gene Therapy and Genetic Counseling Chapter 20 What is Gene Therapy? Treating a disease by replacing, manipulating or supplementing a gene The act of changing an individual s DNA sequence to fix a non-functional

More information

Human Mendelian Disorders. Genetic Technology. What is Genetics? Genes are DNA 9/3/2008. Multifactorial Disorders

Human Mendelian Disorders. Genetic Technology. What is Genetics? Genes are DNA 9/3/2008. Multifactorial Disorders Human genetics: Why? Human Genetics Introduction Determine genotypic basis of variant phenotypes to facilitate: Understanding biological basis of human genetic diversity Prenatal diagnosis Predictive testing

More information

Multiple Myeloma. This reference summary will help you understand multiple myeloma and its treatment options.

Multiple Myeloma. This reference summary will help you understand multiple myeloma and its treatment options. Multiple Myeloma Introduction Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that affects white blood cells. Each year, thousands of people find out that they have multiple myeloma. This reference summary will help

More information

Unit 1 Higher Human Biology Summary Notes

Unit 1 Higher Human Biology Summary Notes Unit 1 Higher Human Biology Summary Notes a. Cells tissues organs body systems Division of labour occurs in multicellular organisms (rather than each cell carrying out every function) Most cells become

More information

Cystic Fibrosis Webquest Sarah Follenweider, The English High School 2009 Summer Research Internship Program

Cystic Fibrosis Webquest Sarah Follenweider, The English High School 2009 Summer Research Internship Program Cystic Fibrosis Webquest Sarah Follenweider, The English High School 2009 Summer Research Internship Program Introduction: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited chronic disease that affects the lungs and

More information

Chapter 16 Reproductive Technology, Gene Therapy, and Stem Cells (modified)

Chapter 16 Reproductive Technology, Gene Therapy, and Stem Cells (modified) Chapter 16 Reproductive Technology, Gene Therapy, and Stem Cells (modified) Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) Artificial insemination (AI) In vitro fertilization (IVF) Gamete intrafallopian transfer

More information

Influences on Birth Defects

Influences on Birth Defects Influences on Birth Defects FACTS About 150,000 babies are born each year with birth defects. The parents of one out of every 28 babies receive the frightening news that their baby has a birth defect There

More information

Genetic Testing in Research & Healthcare

Genetic Testing in Research & Healthcare We Innovate Healthcare Genetic Testing in Research & Healthcare We Innovate Healthcare Genetic Testing in Research and Healthcare Human genetic testing is a growing science. It is used to study genes

More information

About The Causes of Hearing Loss

About The Causes of Hearing Loss About 1 in 500 infants is born with or develops hearing loss during early childhood. Hearing loss has many causes: some are genetic (that is, caused by a baby s genes) or non-genetic (such as certain infections

More information

Master Curriculum Topic Study: Human Body Systems

Master Curriculum Topic Study: Human Body Systems Master Curriculum Topic Study: Human Body Systems Session C Section I: Culminating Ideas for Adult Literacy 1. The fundamental building block of organisms is cells. a. Cells combine to form tissues, which

More information

Respiration occurs in the mitochondria in cells.

Respiration occurs in the mitochondria in cells. B3 Question Which process occurs in the mitochondria in cells? Why do the liver and muscle cells have large number of mitochondria? What is the function of the ribosomes? Answer Respiration occurs in the

More information

Bio EOC Topics for Cell Reproduction: Bio EOC Questions for Cell Reproduction:

Bio EOC Topics for Cell Reproduction: Bio EOC Questions for Cell Reproduction: Bio EOC Topics for Cell Reproduction: Asexual vs. sexual reproduction Mitosis steps, diagrams, purpose o Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis Meiosis steps, diagrams, purpose

More information

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis. Evaluation for single gene disorders

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis. Evaluation for single gene disorders Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis Evaluation for single gene disorders What is Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis? Preimplantation genetic diagnosis or PGD is a technology that allows genetic testing of

More information

15 Stem Cell Research

15 Stem Cell Research 15 Stem Cell Research t a l k it o v e r 1 c l a s s se s s i o n Overview Students read about current scientific research on and the social controversy over embryonic stem cells. On a KWL literacy strategy

More information

The Immune System and Disease

The Immune System and Disease Chapter 40 The Immune System and Disease Section 40 1 Infectious Disease (pages 1029 1033) This section describes the causes of disease and explains how infectious diseases are transmitted Introduction

More information

The Case of Baby Joe by Kristen L.W. Walton Page 1

The Case of Baby Joe by Kristen L.W. Walton Page 1 The Case of Baby Joe: Chronic Infections in an Infant by Kristen L.W. Walton SPIRE Postdoctoral Fellowship Program University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Part I Background At birth, Baby Joe appeared

More information

Genetics Copyright, 2009, by Dr. Scott Poethig, Dr. Ingrid Waldron, and Jennifer Doherty Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania 1

Genetics Copyright, 2009, by Dr. Scott Poethig, Dr. Ingrid Waldron, and Jennifer Doherty Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania 1 Genetics Copyright, 2009, by Dr. Scott Poethig, Dr. Ingrid Waldron, and Jennifer Doherty Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania 1 We all know that children tend to resemble their parents in

More information

Patient Information. for Childhood

Patient Information. for Childhood Patient Information Genetic Testing for Childhood Hearing Loss Introduction This document describes the most common genetic cause of childhood hearing loss and explains the role of genetic testing. Childhood

More information

Cystic Fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis affects various systems in children and young adults, including the following:

Cystic Fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis affects various systems in children and young adults, including the following: Cystic Fibrosis What is cystic fibrosis? Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease characterized by an abnormality in the glands that produce sweat and mucus. It is chronic, progressive, and is usually

More information

guides BIOLOGY OF AGING STEM CELLS An introduction to aging science brought to you by the American Federation for Aging Research

guides BIOLOGY OF AGING STEM CELLS An introduction to aging science brought to you by the American Federation for Aging Research infoaging guides BIOLOGY OF AGING STEM CELLS An introduction to aging science brought to you by the American Federation for Aging Research WHAT ARE STEM CELLS? Stem cells are cells that, in cell cultures

More information

Chapter 4 Pedigree Analysis in Human Genetics. Chapter 4 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings 2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Chapter 4 Pedigree Analysis in Human Genetics. Chapter 4 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings 2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Chapter 4 Pedigree Analysis in Human Genetics Mendelian Inheritance in Humans Pigmentation Gene and Albinism Fig. 3.14 Two Genes Fig. 3.15 The Inheritance of Human Traits Difficulties Long generation time

More information

12.1 The Role of DNA in Heredity

12.1 The Role of DNA in Heredity 12.1 The Role of DNA in Heredity Only in the last 50 years have scientists understood the role of DNA in heredity. That understanding began with the discovery of DNA s structure. In 1952, Rosalind Franklin

More information

Stem Cells. Part 1: What is a Stem Cell?

Stem Cells. Part 1: What is a Stem Cell? Stem Cells Part 1: What is a Stem Cell? Stem cells differ from other kinds of cells in the body. When a stem cell divides by mitosis, each new cell has the potential to either remain a stem cell or become

More information

Name Date Class. This section explains what kinds of organisms cause infectious disease and how infectious diseases are spread.

Name Date Class. This section explains what kinds of organisms cause infectious disease and how infectious diseases are spread. Fighting Disease Name Date Class Infectious Disease This section explains what kinds of organisms cause infectious disease and how infectious diseases are spread. Use Target Reading Skills Before you read,

More information

Newborn Screening Test

Newborn Screening Test Important Information for Parents about the Newborn Screening Test Newborn Screening Branch Genetic Disease Screening Program http://cdph.ca.gov/nbs California Department of Public Health Publication Date:

More information

Stem Cells and Hope for Patients

Stem Cells and Hope for Patients Stem Cells and Hope for Patients by Maureen Condic, Ph.D. Most Americans know someone afflicted with an incurable medical condition. The possibility of stem cell cures has given hope to many who face such

More information

Muscular Dystrophy: Stem Cell Therapy

Muscular Dystrophy: Stem Cell Therapy by Caitlin Pederson Abstract: Genetic disorders affect many people, and muscular dystrophy is a disorder that can greatly decrease the quality of life. Finding treatment to stop or prevent the loss of

More information

CHAPTER 2: UNDERSTANDING CANCER

CHAPTER 2: UNDERSTANDING CANCER CHAPTER 2: UNDERSTANDING CANCER INTRODUCTION We are witnessing an era of great discovery in the field of cancer research. New insights into the causes and development of cancer are emerging. These discoveries

More information

Hydroxyurea Treatment for Sickle Cell Disease

Hydroxyurea Treatment for Sickle Cell Disease Hydroxyurea Treatment for Sickle Cell Disease Before hydroxyurea After hydroxyurea Hydroxyurea Treatment for Sickle Cell Disease 1 This document is not intended to take the place of the care and attention

More information

MEDICAL BREAKTHROUGHS RESEARCH SUMMARY

MEDICAL BREAKTHROUGHS RESEARCH SUMMARY MEDICAL BREAKTHROUGHS RESEARCH SUMMARY TOPIC: Training the Body to Fight Melanoma REPORT: 3823 BACKGROUND: Melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer that can be hard to treat and fatal if not

More information

What is Cancer? Cancer is a genetic disease: Cancer typically involves a change in gene expression/function:

What is Cancer? Cancer is a genetic disease: Cancer typically involves a change in gene expression/function: Cancer is a genetic disease: Inherited cancer Sporadic cancer What is Cancer? Cancer typically involves a change in gene expression/function: Qualitative change Quantitative change Any cancer causing genetic

More information

Human Blood Types: Codominance and Multiple Alleles. Codominance: both alleles in the heterozygous genotype express themselves fully

Human Blood Types: Codominance and Multiple Alleles. Codominance: both alleles in the heterozygous genotype express themselves fully Human Blood Types: Codominance and Multiple Alleles Codominance: both alleles in the heterozygous genotype express themselves fully Multiple alleles: three or more alleles for a trait are found in the

More information

CHAPTER 15 THE CHROMOSOMAL BASIS OF INHERITANCE. Section B: Sex Chromosomes

CHAPTER 15 THE CHROMOSOMAL BASIS OF INHERITANCE. Section B: Sex Chromosomes CHAPTER 15 THE CHROMOSOMAL BASIS OF INHERITANCE Section B: Sex Chromosomes 1. The chromosomal basis of sex varies with the organism 2. Sex-linked genes have unique patterns of inheritance 1. The chromosomal

More information

1 Mutation and Genetic Change

1 Mutation and Genetic Change CHAPTER 14 1 Mutation and Genetic Change SECTION Genes in Action KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What is the origin of genetic differences among organisms? What kinds

More information

Mutations: 2 general ways to alter DNA. Mutations. What is a mutation? Mutations are rare. Changes in a single DNA base. Change a single DNA base

Mutations: 2 general ways to alter DNA. Mutations. What is a mutation? Mutations are rare. Changes in a single DNA base. Change a single DNA base Mutations Mutations: 2 general ways to alter DNA Change a single DNA base Or entire sections of DNA can move from one place to another What is a mutation? Any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA Here

More information

Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (SCID)

Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (SCID) Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (SCID) ASCIA EDUCATION RESOURCES (AER) PATIENT INFORMATION Severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) is the most serious form of primary immune deficiency and is usually

More information

UNIT 13 (OPTION) Genetic Abnormalities

UNIT 13 (OPTION) Genetic Abnormalities Unit 13 Genetic Abnormailities 1 UNIT 13 (OPTION) Genetic Abnormalities Originally developed by: Hildur Helgedottir RN, MN Revised (2000) by: Marlene Reimer RN, PhD, CCN (C) Associate Professor Faculty

More information

Choosing the sex of babies: Ethical debate

Choosing the sex of babies: Ethical debate Choosing the sex of babies: Ethical debate This activity is designed to get students thinking about the moral and ethical implications of sex selection. The resources will encourage students to form their

More information

Inheritance Patterns and Human Genetics. Chapter 12. Table of Contents. Section 1 Chromosomes and Inheritance Section 2 Human Genetics

Inheritance Patterns and Human Genetics. Chapter 12. Table of Contents. Section 1 Chromosomes and Inheritance Section 2 Human Genetics Inheritance Patterns and Human Genetics Table of Contents Section 1 Chromosomes and Inheritance Section 1 Chromosomes and Inheritance Objectives Distinguish between sex chromosomes and autosomes. Explain

More information

Carrier detection tests and prenatal diagnosis

Carrier detection tests and prenatal diagnosis Carrier detection tests and prenatal diagnosis There are several types of muscular dystrophy and about 50 neuromuscular conditions, all of which fall under the umbrella of the Muscular Dystrophy Campaign.

More information

Heredity and Prenatal Development: Chapter 3

Heredity and Prenatal Development: Chapter 3 Genetics 1 DEP 4053 Christine L. Ruva, Ph.D. Heredity and Prenatal Development: Chapter 3 PRINCIPLES OF HEREDITARY TRANSMISSION Genotype Phenotype Chromosomes: in the nucleus of the cell store and transmit

More information

Yes, I know I have genital herpes:

Yes, I know I have genital herpes: Counseling Messages for Herpes Simplex Type II (HSV-II) Genital herpes Always take the time to attend to the participant s feelings and emotional state; for some people, this is the most devastating news

More information

37 2 Blood and the Lymphatic System Slide 1 of 34

37 2 Blood and the Lymphatic System Slide 1 of 34 1 of 34 Blood is a connective tissue that contains both dissolved substances and specialized cells. 2 of 34 The functions of blood include: collecting oxygen from the lungs, nutrients from the digestive

More information

Genetic Technology. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Genetic Technology. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: Genetic Technology Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. An application of using DNA technology to help environmental scientists

More information

Functions of Blood. Collects O 2 from lungs, nutrients from digestive tract, and waste products from tissues Helps maintain homeostasis

Functions of Blood. Collects O 2 from lungs, nutrients from digestive tract, and waste products from tissues Helps maintain homeostasis Blood Objectives Describe the functions of blood Describe blood plasma Explain the functions of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets Summarize the process of blood clotting What is Blood?

More information

Optional Tests Offered Before and During Pregnancy

Optional Tests Offered Before and During Pregnancy Plano Women s Healthcare Optional Tests Offered Before and During Pregnancy Alpha-Fetoprotein Test (AFP) and Quad Screen These are screening tests that can assess your baby s risk of having such birth

More information

Muscular Dystrophy and Multiple Sclerosis. ultimately lead to the crippling of the muscular system, there are many differences between these

Muscular Dystrophy and Multiple Sclerosis. ultimately lead to the crippling of the muscular system, there are many differences between these Battles 1 Becky Battles Instructor s Name English 1013 21 November 2006 Muscular Dystrophy and Multiple Sclerosis Although muscular dystrophy and multiple sclerosis are both progressive diseases that ultimately

More information

Cell Division. Use Target Reading Skills. This section explains how cells grow and divide.

Cell Division. Use Target Reading Skills. This section explains how cells grow and divide. Cell Processes and Energy Name Date Class Cell Processes and Energy Guided Reading and Study Cell Division This section explains how cells grow and divide. Use Target Reading Skills As you read, make a

More information

Bone Marrow (Stem Cell) Transplant for Sickle Cell Disease

Bone Marrow (Stem Cell) Transplant for Sickle Cell Disease Bone Marrow (Stem Cell) Transplant for Sickle Cell Disease Bone Marrow (Stem Cell) Transplant for Sickle Cell Disease 1 Produced by St. Jude Children s Research Hospital Departments of Hematology, Patient

More information

BioBoot Camp Genetics

BioBoot Camp Genetics BioBoot Camp Genetics BIO.B.1.2.1 Describe how the process of DNA replication results in the transmission and/or conservation of genetic information DNA Replication is the process of DNA being copied before

More information

Stem Cell Research: Adult or Somatic Stem Cells

Stem Cell Research: Adult or Somatic Stem Cells Chiang 1 Stem Cell Research: Adult or Somatic Stem Cells Abstract Kelly Chiang Cluster 7 Dr. LeFebvre 07/26/10 Over the past few decades, stem cells have been a controversial topic in the scientific field.

More information

Bone Marrow or Blood Stem Cell Transplants in Children With Severe Forms of Autoimmune Disorders or Certain Types of Cancer

Bone Marrow or Blood Stem Cell Transplants in Children With Severe Forms of Autoimmune Disorders or Certain Types of Cancer Bone Marrow or Blood Stem Cell Transplants in Children With Severe Forms of Autoimmune Disorders or Certain Types of Cancer A Review of the Research for Parents and Caregivers Is This Information Right

More information

Marrying a relative. Is there an increased chance that a child will have genetic problems if its parents are related to each other?

Marrying a relative. Is there an increased chance that a child will have genetic problems if its parents are related to each other? Marrying a relative Is there an increased chance that a child will have genetic problems if its parents are related to each other? The simple answer to this question is Yes, there is an increased chance.

More information

Name: Understanding Viruses. HIV, Herpes, Influenza, small pox, chicken pox, measles, mumps, bird flu, swine flu.

Name: Understanding Viruses. HIV, Herpes, Influenza, small pox, chicken pox, measles, mumps, bird flu, swine flu. Name: Understanding Viruses Section 1 1. List as many viruses as you can. HIV, Herpes, Influenza, small pox, chicken pox, measles, mumps, bird flu, swine flu. 2. How do viruses reproduce? (aside from the

More information

Muscular Dystrophy. By. Tina Strauss

Muscular Dystrophy. By. Tina Strauss Muscular Dystrophy By. Tina Strauss Story Outline for Presentation on Muscular Dystrophy What is Muscular Dystrophy? Signs & Symptoms Types When to seek medical attention? Screening and Diagnosis Treatment

More information

A Genetic Analysis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

A Genetic Analysis of Rheumatoid Arthritis A Genetic Analysis of Rheumatoid Arthritis Introduction to Rheumatoid Arthritis: Classification and Diagnosis Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that affects mainly synovial joints.

More information

Genetics 1. Defective enzyme that does not make melanin. Very pale skin and hair color (albino)

Genetics 1. Defective enzyme that does not make melanin. Very pale skin and hair color (albino) Genetics 1 We all know that children tend to resemble their parents. Parents and their children tend to have similar appearance because children inherit genes from their parents and these genes influence

More information

INTRODUCTION Thrombophilia deep vein thrombosis DVT pulmonary embolism PE inherited thrombophilia

INTRODUCTION Thrombophilia deep vein thrombosis DVT pulmonary embolism PE inherited thrombophilia INTRODUCTION Thrombophilia (Hypercoagulability) is a condition in which a person forms blood clots more than normal. Blood clots may occur in the arms or legs (e.g., deep vein thrombosis DVT), the lungs

More information

This fact sheet describes how genes affect our health when they follow a well understood pattern of genetic inheritance known as autosomal recessive.

This fact sheet describes how genes affect our health when they follow a well understood pattern of genetic inheritance known as autosomal recessive. 11111 This fact sheet describes how genes affect our health when they follow a well understood pattern of genetic inheritance known as autosomal recessive. In summary Genes contain the instructions for

More information

Cancer Genomics: What Does It Mean for You?

Cancer Genomics: What Does It Mean for You? Cancer Genomics: What Does It Mean for You? The Connection Between Cancer and DNA One person dies from cancer each minute in the United States. That s 1,500 deaths each day. As the population ages, this

More information

Support structure for genetic material

Support structure for genetic material Support structure for genetic material 1 Making proteins in the RER Making copies of humans 2 Making copies of cells Making copies of genetic material 3 Making copies of genetic material Making copies

More information

CCR Biology - Chapter 9 Practice Test - Summer 2012

CCR Biology - Chapter 9 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Name: Class: Date: CCR Biology - Chapter 9 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Genetic engineering is possible

More information

Cord blood for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in young children

Cord blood for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in young children Cord blood for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in young children By Caitlin McGreevy Kiara Paramjothy Pass with Merit RESEARCH PAPER BASED ON PATHOLOGY LECTURES AT MEDLINK 2011 1 Abstract:

More information

STEM CELL FACTS. The ISSCR is an independent, nonproft organization providing a global forum for stem cell research and regenerative medicine.

STEM CELL FACTS. The ISSCR is an independent, nonproft organization providing a global forum for stem cell research and regenerative medicine. STEM CELL FACTS The ISSCR is an independent, nonproft organization providing a global forum for stem cell research and regenerative medicine. WHAT ARE STEM CELLS? Stem cells are the foundation cells for

More information

A trait is a variation of a particular character (e.g. color, height). Traits are passed from parents to offspring through genes.

A trait is a variation of a particular character (e.g. color, height). Traits are passed from parents to offspring through genes. 1 Biology Chapter 10 Study Guide Trait A trait is a variation of a particular character (e.g. color, height). Traits are passed from parents to offspring through genes. Genes Genes are located on chromosomes

More information

Thymus Cancer. This reference summary will help you better understand what thymus cancer is and what treatment options are available.

Thymus Cancer. This reference summary will help you better understand what thymus cancer is and what treatment options are available. Thymus Cancer Introduction Thymus cancer is a rare cancer. It starts in the small organ that lies in the upper chest under the breastbone. The thymus makes white blood cells that protect the body against

More information

Blood & Marrow Transplant Glossary. Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Program Patient Guide

Blood & Marrow Transplant Glossary. Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Program Patient Guide Blood & Marrow Transplant Glossary Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Program Patient Guide Glossary Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) -- Also called "absolute granulocyte count" amount of white blood

More information

Why are some drugs only available on prescription? Depressants. Pain killers. Stimulants. Performance enhancers. Hallucinogens

Why are some drugs only available on prescription? Depressants. Pain killers. Stimulants. Performance enhancers. Hallucinogens Explain the terms Addiction Tolerance How are drugs classified? Class A = Class C= In tobacco smoke what do the following cause? Explain the effect of a depressant on the synapse CO Withdrawal symptoms

More information

Top Ten Things to Know About Stem Cell Treatments

Top Ten Things to Know About Stem Cell Treatments Top Ten Things to Know About Stem Cell Treatments Many clinics that are offering stem cell treatments make claims about what stem cells can and cannot do that are not supported by our understanding of

More information

Becker Muscular Dystrophy

Becker Muscular Dystrophy Muscular Dystrophy A Case Study of Positional Cloning Described by Benjamin Duchenne (1868) X-linked recessive disease causing severe muscular degeneration. 100 % penetrance X d Y affected male Frequency

More information

Basic Concepts Recombinant DNA Use with Chapter 13, Section 13.2

Basic Concepts Recombinant DNA Use with Chapter 13, Section 13.2 Name Date lass Master 19 Basic oncepts Recombinant DN Use with hapter, Section.2 Formation of Recombinant DN ut leavage Splicing opyright lencoe/mcraw-hill, a division of he Mcraw-Hill ompanies, Inc. Bacterial

More information

Differentiation = Making specialized cells

Differentiation = Making specialized cells Differentiation = Making specialized cells What is a stem cell? Screws: JM www.logodesignweb.com/stockphoto Differentiation = Making specialized cells What is a stem cell? What the photo shows A lump of

More information

Introducing stem cells Stem cells in the news

Introducing stem cells Stem cells in the news Introducing stem cells Stem cells in the news Stem cells: Therapeutic Value 16+ year olds February 2010, updated 2012 Objective: Understand the therapeutic value of stem cells About tissue stem cells Stem

More information

Lung Cancer. This reference summary will help you better understand lung cancer and the treatment options that are available.

Lung Cancer. This reference summary will help you better understand lung cancer and the treatment options that are available. Lung Cancer Introduction Lung cancer is the number one cancer killer of men and women. Over 165,000 people die of lung cancer every year in the United States. Most cases of lung cancer are related to cigarette

More information

Skin cancer Patient information

Skin cancer Patient information Skin cancer Patient information What is cancer? The human body is made up of billions of cells. In healthy people, cells grow, divide and die. New cells constantly replace old ones in an orderly way. This

More information

10. T and B cells are types of a. endocrine cells. c. lymphocytes. b. platelets. d. complement cells.

10. T and B cells are types of a. endocrine cells. c. lymphocytes. b. platelets. d. complement cells. Virus and Immune System Review Directions: Write your answers on a separate piece of paper. 1. Why does a cut in the skin threaten the body s nonspecific defenses against disease? a. If a cut bleeds, disease-fighting

More information

Blood, Lymphatic and Immune Systems

Blood, Lymphatic and Immune Systems Component 3-Terminology in Healthcare and Public Health Settings Unit 4-Blood, Lymphatic and Immune Systems This material was developed by The University of Alabama at Birmingham, funded by the Department

More information

Educator s Guide to Sickle Cell Disease

Educator s Guide to Sickle Cell Disease Educator s Guide to Sickle Cell Disease Educator s Guide to Sickle Cell Disease Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder affecting about one out of every 350 African Americans. Most children

More information

What s the Risk? Abstract. Learning Objectives Students will understand that the use of drugs is an important risk factor in addiction.

What s the Risk? Abstract. Learning Objectives Students will understand that the use of drugs is an important risk factor in addiction. Abstract To discover the risk and protective factors involved in substance addiction, students play a game of chance to determine whether a fi ctitious child is likely or unlikely to abuse drugs. Students

More information

Bone Marrow or Blood Stem Cell Transplants in Children With Certain Rare Inherited Metabolic Diseases *

Bone Marrow or Blood Stem Cell Transplants in Children With Certain Rare Inherited Metabolic Diseases * Bone Marrow or Blood Stem Cell Transplants in Children With Certain Rare Inherited Metabolic Diseases * A Review of the Research for Parents and Caregivers * Wolman Disease, Farber Disease, Niemann-Pick

More information

An Introduction to Stem Cells

An Introduction to Stem Cells By Kirstin Matthews, Ph.D. An Introduction to Stem Cells Overview Stem cells are cells that have the potential to replicate themselves for indefinite periods and to divide, producing one of themselves

More information

Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in children

Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in children 1 61.02 Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in children AML can affect children of any age, and girls and boys are equally affected. Leukaemia Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) FAB classification of AML Causes of

More information

MUTATION, DNA REPAIR AND CANCER

MUTATION, DNA REPAIR AND CANCER MUTATION, DNA REPAIR AND CANCER 1 Mutation A heritable change in the genetic material Essential to the continuity of life Source of variation for natural selection New mutations are more likely to be harmful

More information

Gene Therapy. The use of DNA as a drug. Edited by Gavin Brooks. BPharm, PhD, MRPharmS (PP) Pharmaceutical Press

Gene Therapy. The use of DNA as a drug. Edited by Gavin Brooks. BPharm, PhD, MRPharmS (PP) Pharmaceutical Press Gene Therapy The use of DNA as a drug Edited by Gavin Brooks BPharm, PhD, MRPharmS (PP) Pharmaceutical Press Contents Preface xiii Acknowledgements xv About the editor xvi Contributors xvii An introduction

More information

My Sister s s Keeper. Science Background Talk

My Sister s s Keeper. Science Background Talk My Sister s s Keeper Science Background Talk Outline Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) APL Treatment Savior Siblings In vitro fertilization (IVF) Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) Risks of donating

More information

Study Partner/Essential Study Partner (ESP): http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073211877/student_view0/study_partner.html

Study Partner/Essential Study Partner (ESP): http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073211877/student_view0/study_partner.html Course: Anatomy and Physiology Honors Course Number: 2000360 Title: Hole s Human Anatomy and Physiology, 10 th Edition Authors: Shier, Butler, Lewis Publisher: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Copyright: 2004 Online

More information

Mendelian inheritance and the

Mendelian inheritance and the Mendelian inheritance and the most common genetic diseases Cornelia Schubert, MD, University of Goettingen, Dept. Human Genetics EUPRIM-Net course Genetics, Immunology and Breeding Mangement German Primate

More information

Appendix 2 Molecular Biology Core Curriculum. Websites and Other Resources

Appendix 2 Molecular Biology Core Curriculum. Websites and Other Resources Appendix 2 Molecular Biology Core Curriculum Websites and Other Resources Chapter 1 - The Molecular Basis of Cancer 1. Inside Cancer http://www.insidecancer.org/ From the Dolan DNA Learning Center Cold

More information

What Is Genetic Counseling? Helping individuals and families understand how genetics affects their health and lives

What Is Genetic Counseling? Helping individuals and families understand how genetics affects their health and lives What Is Genetic Counseling? Helping individuals and families understand how genetics affects their health and lives What does the career involve? Explore family histories to identify risks Reducing risks

More information

Stem cells possess 2 main characteristics: Sources of pluripotent stem cells: -Long-term self renewal. -The inner cell mass of the blastocyst.

Stem cells possess 2 main characteristics: Sources of pluripotent stem cells: -Long-term self renewal. -The inner cell mass of the blastocyst. Stem cells possess 2 main characteristics: -Long-term self renewal. - They give rise to all types of differentiate cells. Sources of pluripotent stem cells: -The inner cell mass of the blastocyst. - Fetal

More information

The Ethics of Stem Cell Research and Prenatal Genetic Alteration

The Ethics of Stem Cell Research and Prenatal Genetic Alteration The Ethics of Stem Cell Research and Prenatal Genetic Alteration Blake Rodgers, Brandon Peterson Introduction Technological advancements associated with the medical industry create opportunities to conduct

More information

Name Class Date. KEY CONCEPT Mutations are changes in DNA that may or may not affect phenotype. frameshift mutation

Name Class Date. KEY CONCEPT Mutations are changes in DNA that may or may not affect phenotype. frameshift mutation Unit 7 Study Guide Section 8.7: Mutations KEY CONCEPT Mutations are changes in DNA that may or may not affect phenotype. VOCABULARY mutation point mutation frameshift mutation mutagen MAIN IDEA: Some mutations

More information

Heredity. Sarah crosses a homozygous white flower and a homozygous purple flower. The cross results in all purple flowers.

Heredity. Sarah crosses a homozygous white flower and a homozygous purple flower. The cross results in all purple flowers. Heredity 1. Sarah is doing an experiment on pea plants. She is studying the color of the pea plants. Sarah has noticed that many pea plants have purple flowers and many have white flowers. Sarah crosses

More information