Industrial Data Communications Fifth Edition. By Lawrence M. Thompson and Tim Shaw

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1 Industrial Data Communications Fifth Edition By Lawrence M. Thompson and Tim Shaw

2 Contents Prologue xiii Preface to the Fifth Edition xv Chapter 1 Communication Concepts Elements Modes Serial and Parallel Transmission Data Organization: Signals Digital Signals Analog Standard Signals Digital Standard Signals Data Organization: Communications Codes The IBM 4 of 8 Code International Telegraphic Alphabet # Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code Unicode Data Organization: Error Coding Parity Block Parity Error Correction Cyclic Redundancy Checks Checksum ARQ Forward Error Correction Data Organization: Protocol Concepts Terminologies Protocols v

3 vi Industrial Data Communications, Fifth Edition Protocol Summary Summary Bibliography Chapter 2 Communications Models Modeling ISO OSI Model Mail Analogy OSI Model The Internet Model The IEEE 802 Model Application Models One-, Two-, Three-, and N-Tier Models Data Exchange Architectures Producer-Consumer Publisher-Subscriber Summary Bibliography Chapter 3 Serial Communications Standards Basic Concepts Definitions TIA/EIA Standards TIA/EIA-232-F EIA-449: Interface Standard TIA/EIA-422 and TIA/EIA Interface Signal Functions Ensuring Operability Set Up Link Signals Required with Software Flow Control Synchronous Communication Clock Source in a Synchronous System PC Serial Communications Universal Serial Bus IEEE IEEE 1394c-2006 (FireWire S800T) IEEE (FireWire S1600 and S3200) IEEE 1394d Proposed (Future Enhancements) SCSI (Contemporary Use Only) SATA Summary Bibliography

4 Contents vii Chapter 4 Local Area Networks How We Got Here Definitions IEEE 802 LAN Model Layer 1, The Physical Layer Topologies Transmission Media and Industrial LANs Wireless LANS a b g n ac ad af ah WiMAX Wireless Mesh Networks LAN Infrastructure Repeater Hub Layer 1 and Layer 2 Devices Bridge Ethernet Switch Layers 1, 2, and 3 Devices Router Brouter Gateways Layer 2 Functions Media Access IEEE 802.3/Ethernet: A Layer 1 and 2 Standard BASE BASE BASE-T BASE-FL BASE-T BASE-FX BASE-T BASE-CX BASE-SX BASE-LX GbE 10 Gigabit Ethernet Over Fiber GbE 10 Gigabit Ethernet Over Copper

5 viii Industrial Data Communications, Fifth Edition 40GbE and 100GbE (40 Gigabit and 100 Gigabit Ethernet) IEEE 802 Media Access Control Ethernet CSMA/CD Industrial Token Passing Token-Passing Bus Token-Passing Ring Logical Link Control Introduction to Types of Service Information (When Running Networks) Gigabit Ethernet Jumbo Frames q Tagged Ethernet Frames LAN Layer 3 and 4 Software: TCP/IP Summary Bibliography Chapter 5 Network Software Introduction Object-Oriented Programs Commercial Systems Stand-alone Systems Two-Tier Systems N-Tier (Three-Tier and Above) The Internet Network Operating Systems Microsoft Family of Windows Products UNIX Linux Protocols Used by Vendors Microsoft s NetBEUI Common Internet File System Netware s IPX/SPX Suite TCP/IP Suite Directory Services Domain Naming System AD (or any Directory Service) Conclusion An Application Object Model: OPC Conclusions to Chapter Summary Bibliography Chapter 6 Industrial Networks and Fieldbuses Industrial Network Requirements Predictable Throughput Predictable Scheduling Extremely Low Downtime Operation in Hostile Environments

6 Contents ix Scalable from One to Many Operable by Non-specialists Maintainable by Non-specialists Distributed Control Systems Process Automation Controllers Programmable Logic Controllers Selected Industrial Systems: Allen-Bradley and Modicon Selected Industrial Networks HART DeviceNet ControlNet EtherNet/IP LonWorks AS-i P-Net PROFIBUS/PROFINET Foundation Fieldbus ISA a Ethernet-TCP/IP Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems Wide-Area Communications Modbus RTU Protocol DNP3 Protocol Select-Check-Operate Protocols Data Concentrator RTUs Communications Security Modern WANs Taking IP to the Field The Death of Analog Telephone Lines Summary Bibliography Chapter 7 Wide Area Networks Wireline Transmission Carrier Concepts Wireline Effects on a DC Signal Sine Wave as a Carrier Modulation Encoding Data Modulation Summary Wireline Modems Definitions Modem Types WAN Digital Lines Telephone Lines as Media Public Switched Telephone System (Direct Distance Dialing)

7 x Industrial Data Communications, Fifth Edition Packet Switching Integrated Services Digital Network Frame Relay T1 Carrier T3 Carrier Dataphone Digital Service Fractional T Functions of Basic Telco Digital Services Fiber Distributed Data Interface Metropolitan Area Network Asynchronous Transfer Mode Synchronous Optical Network Digital Subscriber Line Cable Modems WANs for Mobile and the Hinterlands Wireless WAN Technologies Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access Wireless Mesh Networks SCADA Applications Digital Microwave Satellite Mobile Telephony Summary Bibliography Chapter 8 Internetworking Layer 2: Internetworking Equipment Switch Definition Bridge Definition Types of Bridges Filtering Spanning Tree Algorithm Spanning Tree Summary Layer 3 Devices Layer 3 Packet Information Router Actions Router Protocols: Exterior Gateway Router Protocols: Interior Gateway How Routers Are Designated Bridges versus Routers Routing Topologies Router Physical Connections VLANs Managed Switches Gateways Encapsulating Bridges/Tunneling Gateways

8 Contents xi Network Operating System Gateways WAN Gateways Application Layer Gateways Virtual Private Network Gateways Summary Bibliography Chapter 9 Cybersecurity Overview Types of Security Risk and Consequences Sources of Threats Security Vulnerabilities Operating Systems Wireless Networks Hardware Methods of Attack Denial of Service Social Engineering in IACS Web-Based Research Other Investigation Tools Password Cracking Vulnerability and Exploitation Tools Internal Threats Risk Analysis IACS Countermeasures Firewalls Firewall Rules Network Address Translation Monitoring Network Traffic Using Data Diodes to Protect Systems Hardening Operating System Hardening Network Hardening: Components Network Hardening: Port Use Network Hardening: Remote Administration Evolution of Threats The Internet and VPN Countermeasures Encryption Internet Engineering Task Force Security Solutions Network Management and Security Integration of IT Practices with Network Management Network Management: Security and Configuration Network Error/Fault Handling Network Accounting Network Performance

9 xii Industrial Data Communications, Fifth Edition IEC/ANSI/ISA Cybersecurity Standards Cyber Security Management System Risk Analysis Summary of Part 2, Annex A, of ISA Cyber Emergency Response Team Impetus ISASecure Certification Program Conclusion Bibliography Appendix A Number Systems Review Appendix B Historical Aspects of Industrial Data Communications Appendix C Media Glossary Index

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