Reactions in Aqueous Solutions. Chapter 4

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1 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Chapter 4

2 Practice Write the balanced molecular and net ionic equations for each of the following reactions: 1) Aqueous acetic acid is neutralized by aqueous barium hydroxide 2) Solid chromium(iii) hydroxide reacts with nitrous acid 3) Aqueous nitric acid and aqueous ammonia react

3

4 Gas-Forming Reaction When a carbonate or bicarbonate reacts with an acid, the products are a salt, carbon dioxide, and water CaCO 3 (s) + 2 HCl(aq) CaCl 2 (aq) + CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) When a metal sulfide reacts with an acid, hydrogen sulfide gas (H 2 S) forms and salt

5 Practice Write balanced molecular and net ionic equations for the following reactions and identify the gas formed in each: 1) Solid cadmium (II) sulfide reacts with an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid 2) Solid magnesium carbonate reacts with an aqueous solution of perchloric acid

6 Before you continue did you try the two practice problems? The answers are coming up next!

7 Practice Write balanced molecular and net ionic equations for the following reactions and identify the gas formed in each: 1) Solid cadmium (II) sulfide reacts with an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid CdS (s) + H 2 SO 4(aq) H 2 S (g) + CdSO 4(s) (Nothing aq on both sides to cancel out) 2) Solid magnesium carbonate reacts with an aqueous solution of perchloric acid MgCO 3(s) + 2HClO 4(aq) Mg(ClO 4 ) 2(aq) + CO 2(g) + H 2 O (l) MgCO 3(s) + 2H + + 2ClO 4 - Mg ClO CO 2(g) + H 2 O (l) MgCO 3(s) + 2H + Mg 2+ + CO 2(g) + H 2 O (l)

8 Do problems 9 and 10 on your practice before continuing!

9 Precipitation Reaction Two solutions containing soluble salts are mixed forming an insoluble product (precipitate=solid) Oppositely charged ions strongly attract each other creating the precipitate

10 Solubility: The amount of substance that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent at a given temperature Solubility Rules You MUST Know: All sodium, potassium, ammonium, and nitrate salts are soluble in water

11 Steps to Writing Net Ionic Equations 1. Write a balanced molecular equation. 2. Dissociate all strong electrolytes. 3. Cross out anything that remains unchanged from the left side to the right side of the equation. 4. Write the net ionic equation with the species that remain.

12 Molecular Equation Lists the reactants and products without indicating the ionic nature of the compounds AgNO 3 (aq) + KCl(aq) AgCl(s) + KNO 3 (aq)

13 Complete Ionic Equation All strong electrolytes (strong acids, strong bases, and soluble ionic salts) are dissociated into their ions Ag + (aq) + NO 3 (aq) + K + (aq) + Cl (aq) AgCl(s) + K + (aq) + NO 3 (aq)

14 Net Ionic Equation Cross out anything that does not change from the left side of the equation to the right (spectator ions) The remaining ions are the reactants that form the product Ag + (aq) + NO 3 (aq) + K + (aq) + Cl (aq) AgCl(s) + K + (aq) + NO 3 (aq) Ag + (aq) + Cl - (aq) AgCl(s)

15 Practice Write the net ionic equation for the precipitation reaction that occurs when aqueous solutions of calcium chloride and sodium carbonate are mixed. Write the net ionic equation for the precipitation reaction that occurs when aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and potassium phosphate are mixed.

16 Before you continue did you try the two practice problems? The answers are coming up next!

17 Check your answers CaCl 2(aq) + Na 2 CO 3(aq) 2NaCl (aq) + CaCO 3(s) Final NIE: Ca 2+ (aq) + CO 3 2- (aq) CaCO 3(s) Spectator Ions: Na + and Cl - 3AgNO 3(aq) + K 3 PO 4(aq) Ag 3 PO 4(s) + 3KNO 3(aq) Final NIE: 3Ag + (aq) + PO 4 3- (aq) Ag 3 PO 4(s) Spectator Ions: K + and NO 3 -

18 Do problems 1 and 2 on your practice before continuing!

19 Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions LEO goes GER Loss of electrons is oxidation (charge increases ) Gain of electrons is reduction (charge decreases ) One cannot occur without the other (always occurs as a pair) OIL RIG Oxidation is loss Reduction is Gain

20 Determining Oxidation Numbers- 7 RULES 1. Pure elements=0 Examples: Fe O 2 Cl 2 2. Oxidation numbers of a monatomic ion is the same as its charge. Examples: O 2- Na Sum of all oxidation numbers in a neutral compound is zero. Example: Fe 2 O 3 Fe 3+ and O 2-

21 4. Alkali Metals +1 Alkaline Earth Metals Oxide is usually -2 unless it is in a peroxide, with sodium, hydrogen, or lithium then it is -1 H 2 O vs. H 2 O 2 6. Hydrogen is usually +1 unless it is with a metal then it s -1 CH 4 vs. LiH 7. Fluoride always is -1 and Chloride, Bromide, and Iodide are usually a -1

22 PRACTICE Determine the oxidation numbers in each of the following: 1) BaSO 4 2) H 2 SO 3 3) SrS 4) H 2 S

23 Before you continue did you try the practice problems? The answers are coming up next!

24 PRACTICE Determine the oxidation numbers in each of the following: 1) BaSO ) H 2 SO ) SrS ) H 2 S 1+ 2-

25 Identify which element is oxidized and which is reduced 1) P 4(s) + HClO (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 PO 4(aq) + HCl (aq) 2) Liquid bromine reacts with solid potassium to form solid potassium bromide

26 Before you continue did you try the practice problems? The answers are coming up next!

27 Identify which element is oxidized and which is reduced 1) P 4(s) + HClO (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 PO 4(aq) + HCl (aq) Phosphorus = oxidation (0 > 5+) Chlorine=reduction (1+ > 1-) 2) Liquid bromine reacts with solid potassium to form solid potassium bromide Br 2(l) + K (s) 2KBr (s) Potassium = oxidation (0>1+) Bromine=reduction (0>1-)

28 Do problems 3-7 on your practice! You did it!

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