Learning Objectives. Solubility and Complex-ion Equilibria. Contents and Concepts. 3. Precipitation Calculations. 4. Effect of ph on Solubility

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Learning Objectives. Solubility and Complex-ion Equilibria. Contents and Concepts. 3. Precipitation Calculations. 4. Effect of ph on Solubility"

Transcription

1 Solubility and Complex-ion Equilibria. Solubility and the Common-Ion Effect a. Explain how the solubility of a salt is affected by another salt that has the same cation or anion. (common ion) b. Calculate the solubility of a slightly soluble salt in a solution of a common ion. 1 Contents and Concepts Solubility Equilibria 1. The Solubility Product Constant. Solubility and the Common-Ion Effect 3. Precipitation Calculations. Effect of ph on Solubility Complex-Ion Equilibria 5. Complex-Ion Formation 6. Complex Ions and Solubility An Application of Solubility Equilibria 7. Qualitative Analysis of Metal Ions 3. Precipitation Calculations a. Define ion product. b. State the criterion for precipitation. c. Predict whether precipitation will occur, given ion concentrations. d. Predict whether precipitation will occur, given solution volumes and concentrations. e. Define fractional precipitation. f. Explain how two ions can be separated using fractional precipitation. 5 Learning Objectives Solubility Equilibria 1. The Solubility Product Constant a. Define the solubility product constant, sp. b. Write solubility product expressions. c. Define molar solubility. d. Calculate sp from the solubility (simple example). e. Calculate sp from the solubility (more complicated example). f. Calculate the solubility from sp. 3. Effect of ph on Solubility a. Explain the qualitative effect of ph on solubility of a slightly soluble salt. b. Determine the qualitative effect of ph on solubility. c. Explain the basis for the sulfide scheme to separate a mixture of metal ions. 6 1

2 Solubility Equilibria Complex-Ion Equilibria 5. Complex-Ion Formation a. Define complex ion and ligand. b. Define formation constant or stability constant, f, and dissociation constant, d. c. Calculate the concentration of a metal ion in equilibrium with a complex ion. d. Define amphoteric hydroxide. 7 Many natural processes depend on the precipitation or dissolving of a slightly soluble salt. In the next section, we look at the equilibria of slightly soluble, or nearly insoluble, ionic compounds. Their equilibrium constants can be used to answer questions regarding solubility and precipitation. 6. Complex Ions and Solubility a. Predict whether a precipitate will form in the presence of the complex ion. b. Calculate the solubility of a slightly soluble ionic compound in a solution of the complex ion. An Application of Solubility Equilibria 7. Qualitative Analysis of Metal Ions a. Define qualitative analysis. b. Describe the main outline of the sulfide scheme for qualitative analysis. 8 When an ionic compound is insoluble or slightly soluble, an equilibrium is established: MX(s) M X - The equilibrium constant for this type of reaction is called the solubility-product constant, sp. For the above reaction, sp [M ][X - ] 11 To deal quantitatively with an equilibrium, you must know the equilibrium constant. We will look at the equilibria of slightly soluble (or nearly insoluble) ionic compounds and show how you can determine their equilibrium constants. Once you find these values for various ionic compounds, you can use them to answer questions about solubility or precipitation. 9 The Solubility Product Constant In general, the solubility product constant is the equilibrium constant for the solubility equilibrium of a slightly soluble (or nearly insoluble) ionic compound. It equals the product of the equilibrium concentrations of the ions in the compound. Each concentration is raised to a power equal to the number of such ions in the formula of the compound. For example, lead iodide, PbI, is another slightly soluble salt. Its equilibrium is: PbI (s) H O Pb I 1

3 The expression for the solubility product constant is: sp [Pb ][I ] Exactly mg of AgBr will dissolve in 1.00 L of water. What is the value of sp for AgBr? AgCl (s) Ag Cl - sp [Ag ][Cl - ] Solubility equilibrium: AgBr(s) Ag Br - Solubility-product constant expression: sp [Ag ][Br - ] When an excess of a slightly soluble ionic compound is mixed with water, an equilibrium is established between the solid and the ions in the saturated solution. For the salt calcium oxalate, CaC O, you have the following equilibrium. CaC O (s) H O Ca C O The equilibrium constant for this process is called the solubility product constant. sp [Ca ][C O ] 1 The solubility is given as mg/1.00 L, but sp uses molarity: g 1mol M 1.00 L g AgBr(s) Ag Br - Initial 0 0 Change x x Equilibrium x x 17 Write the solubility-product expression for the following salts: a. Hg Cl b. HgCl a. Hg Cl Hg Cl (s) Hg Cl - sp [Hg ][Cl - ] [Ag ] [Br - ] x M sp ( ) sp b. HgCl HgCl (s) Hg Cl - [Hg ][Cl - ] sp

4 Calculating sp from the Solubility A 1.0-L sample of a saturated calcium oxalate solution, CaC O, contains g of the salt at 5 C. Calculate the sp for this salt at 5 C. We must first convert the solubility of calcium oxalate from g/liter to moles per liter. 1mol CaCO M CaCO (0.0061g CaCO / L) 18g CaC O 5.8 mol CaCO / L Calculating sp from the Solubility By experiment, it is found that 1. x -3 mol of lead(ii) iodide, PbI, dissolves in 1.0 L of water at 5 C. What is the sp at this temperature? Note that in this example, you find that 1. x -3 mol of the solid dissolves to give 1. x - 3 mol Pb and x (1. x -3 ) mol of I -. PbI (s) H O Pb I Starting 0 0 Change 1. x -3 x (1. x -3) Equilibrium 1. x -3 x (1. x -3) Calculating sp from the Solubility A 1.0-L sample of a saturated calcium oxalate solution, CaC O, contains g of the salt at 5 C. Calculate the sp for this salt at 5 C. When.8 x -5 mol of solid dissolve it forms.8 x -5 mol of each ion. Substituting into the equilibrium-constant expression: sp [Pb ][I ] 3 3 sp (1. )( (1. )) 9 sp 6.9 Starting Change Equilibrium CaC O (s) H O Ca CO x -5.8 x -5.8 x -5.8 x -5 Table 17.1 lists the solubility product constants for various ionic compounds. If the solubility product constant is known, the solubility of the compound can be calculated. 0 3 You can now substitute into the equilibriumconstant expression. sp sp [Ca (.8 ][C O 5 9 sp.3 ] )(.8 5 ) What is the solubility of Ca(OH)? 1

5 An experimenter finds that the solubility of barium fluoride is 1.1 g in 1.00 L of water at 5 C. What is the value of sp for barium fluoride, BaF, at this temperature? Calomel, whose chemical name is mercury(i) chloride, Hg Cl, was once used in medicine (as a laxative and diuretic). It has a sp equal to What is the solubility of Hg Cl in grams per liter? Solubility equilibrium: BaF (s) Ba F - Solubility-product constant expression: sp [Ba ][F - ] Solubility equilibrium: Hg Cl (s) Hg Cl - Solubility-product constant expression: sp [Hg ][Cl - ] 5 8 The solubility is given as 1.1 g/1.00 L, but sp uses molarity: x BaF (s) Ba F - Initial 0 0 Change x x Equilibriu m 1.1 g 1.00 L 1mol g 6.7 x 3 M x 6 Hg Cl (s) Hg Cl - Initial 0 0 Change x x Equilibrium x x sp x(x) sp x(x ) sp x x 3 x x M 9 [Ba ] x M [F - ] x (6.7-3 ) M sp (6.7-3 )(1.5 - ) sp When sp is known, we can find the molar solubility. The molar solubility is M, but we also need the solubility in g/l: mol g 3. g/l L 1mol 0.3 mg/l

6 Calculating the Solubility from sp The mineral fluorite is calcium fluoride, CaF. Calculate the solubility (in grams per liter) of calcium fluoride in water from the sp (3. x -11 ) Let x be the molar solubility of CaF. Starting Change Equilibrium CaF (s) H O Ca F 0 0 x x x x Quick Quiz 1. The solubility product constant for CaCO 3 is 3.8 x -9. Calculate the mass of calcium carbonate that will dissolve in 1 liter of water.. The solubility product constant for Fe(OH) 3 is.5 x -39. Calculate the moles of iron that will dissolve in 1 liter of water You substitute into the equilibrium-constant equation [Ca ][F ] You now solve for x. x sp (x)(x) 3. 3 x We can begin by identifying the value of sp for each compound: PbCrO PbSO PbS.5-7 Each salt produces two ions, so each has the same expression for the solubility-product constant: sp x. The solubility will be largest for PbSO Convert to g/l (CaF 78.1 g/mol). solubility.0 mol / L 1.6 g CaF / L 78.1g CaF 1mol CaF Solubility and the Common-Ion Effect In this section we will look at calculating solubilities in the presence of other ions. The importance of the sp becomes apparent when you consider the solubility of one salt in the solution of another having the same cation. For example, suppose you wish to know the solubility of calcium oxalate in a solution of calcium chloride. Each salt contributes the same cation (Ca ) The effect is to make calcium oxalate less soluble than it would be in pure water

7 What effect does the presence of a common ion have on solubility? Given: MX(s) M X - Qualitatively, we can use Le Châtelier s principle to predict that the reaction will shift in the reverse direction when M or X - is added, reducing the solubility. The molar solubility is given by x: x M Let s compare this result to the solubility of AgCl in water: sp x 1.8 x x M In the next problem, we will explore this situation quantitatively. 37 The solubility was reduced by a factor of about 100! 0 What is the molar solubility of silver chloride in 1.0 L of solution that contains.0 mol of HCl? First, using Table 17.1, we find that the sp for AgCl at 5 C is A Problem To Consider What is the molar solubility of calcium oxalate in 0.15 M calcium chloride? The sp for calcium oxalate is.3 x -9. Note that before the calcium oxalate dissolves, there is already 0.15 M Ca in the solution. Next, we construct the ICE chart with the initial [Cl - ] 0.00 M. We then solve for x, the molar solubility. Starting Change Equilibrium CaC O (s) H O Ca C O x x 0.15x x 38 1 AgCl(s) Ag Cl - Initial Change x x Equilibrium x 0.00 x sp [Ag ][Cl - ] x(0.00 x) We make the following simplifying assumption: 0.00 x x 39 You substitute into the equilibrium-constant equation [Ca ][CO ] sp (0.15 x)(x).3 Now rearrange this equation to give.3 x 0.15 x We expect x to be negligible compared to

8 Now rearrange this equation to give.3 x 0.15 x x Therefore, the molar solubility of calcium oxalate in 0.15 M CaCl is 1.5 x -8 M. In pure water, the molarity was.8 x -5 M, which is over 3000 times greater. 9 When a problem gives the amounts and concentrations of two samples that are then mixed, the first step in solving the problem is to calculate the new initial concentrations. Exactly 0.00 L of 0.50 M Pb and 1.60 L of.50 M Cl are mixed together to form.00 L of solution. Calculate Q c and predict whether PbCl will precipitate. sp for PbCl is Precipitation Calculations Precipitation is merely another way of looking at solubility equilibrium. Rather than considering how much of a substance will dissolve, we ask: Will precipitation occur for a given starting ion concentration? (0.500 M) (0.00 L) [Pb ] 0.0 M (.00 L) - (.50 M) (1.60 L) [Cl ] M (.00 L) PbCl (s) Pb Cl - sp [Pb ] [Cl - ] Q c (0.0)(0.000).00-5 sp < Q c A precipitate will form. 7 Criteria for Precipitation To determine whether an equilibrium system will go in the forward or reverse direction requires that we evaluate the reaction quotient, Q c. To predict the direction of reaction, you compare Q c with c (Chapter and 1) The reaction quotient has the same form as the sp expression, but the concentrations of products are starting values. Consider the following equilibrium. PbCl (s) H O Pb Cl 5 We can use the reaction quotient, Q, to determine whether precipitation will occur. One form of kidney stones is calcium phosphate, Ca 3 (PO ), which has a sp of A sample of urine contains M Ca and M PO 3 ion. Calculate Q c and predict whether Ca 3 (PO ) will precipitate. 8 8

9 Ca 3 (PO ) (s) 3Ca PO 3- sp [Ca ] 3 [PO 3- ] sp Q c (1.0-3 ) 3 (1.0-8 ) Q c sp < Q c A precipitate will form. 9 This value is smaller than the sp, so you do not expect precipitation to occur. - Q c.5 < sp Fractional Precipitation Fractional precipitation is the technique of separating two or more ions from a solution by adding a reactant that precipitates first one ion, then another, and so forth. (page 7) For example, when you slowly add potassium chromate, CrO, to a solution containing Ba and Sr, barium chromate precipitates first. 5 The Q c expression is Q c [Pb ] i[cl ] i where initial concentration is denoted by i. If Q c exceeds the sp, precipitation occurs. If Q c is less than sp, more solute can dissolve. If Q c equals the sp, the solution is saturated. Fractional Precipitation Fractional precipitation is the technique of separating two or more ions from a solution by adding a reactant that precipitates first one ion, then another ion, and so forth. The solubility of an insoluble salt can be manipulated by adding a species that reacts with either the cation or the anion. Effect of ph on Solubility When a salt contains the conjugate base of a weak acid, the ph will affect the solubility of the salt Predicting Whether Precipitation Will Occur The concentration of calcium ion in blood plasma is M. If the concentration of oxalate ion is 1.0 x -7 M, do you expect calcium oxalate to precipitate? sp for calcium oxalate is.3 x -9. The ion product quotient, Q c, is: c [Ca ] i [CO ] i c (0.005) (1.0 - Q Q Q c.5-7 ) 51 Fractional Precipitation 0.1 M Ba and 0.1 M Sr [Ba ][CrO - ] sp 1. x - [CrO - ] 1. x -9 [Sr ][CrO - ] sp 3.5 x -5 [CrO - ] 3.5 x - Calculate the percent Ba remaining when Sr begins to Ppt 5 9

10 [Ba ][CrO - ] 1. x - [Ba ][3.5 x - ] 1. x - [Ba ] [1. x - ] [3.5 x - ] 3. x -7 % Ba [3. x -7 / 0.1] x 0 3. x -6 Consider the two slightly soluble salts barium fluoride and silver bromide. Which of these would have its solubility more affected by the addition of strong acid? Would the solubility of that salt increase or decrease? HF is a weak acid, while HBr is a strong acid. BaF is more soluble in an acidic solution. AgBr is unaffected by an acidic solution Fractional Precipitation Fractional precipitation is the technique of separating two or more ions from a solution by adding a reactant that precipitates first one ion, then another, and so forth. After most of the Ba ion has precipitated, strontium chromate begins to precipitate. It is therefore possible to separate Ba from Sr by fractional precipitation using CrO. sp for MgC O is sp for BaC O is MgC O is more soluble. If a dilute acidic solution is added, it will increase the solubility of both salts. MgC O is still more soluble We will qualitatively explore the situation involving a generic salt, MX, where X is the conjugate base of a weak acid. It is possible to use these differences to separate compounds. MX(s) M X - This is common practice when the goal is to separate sulfides from one another. As the acid concentration increases, X - reacts with the H 3 O, forming HX and reducing the X - concentration. As a result, more MX dissolves, increasing the solubility. The qualitative analysis scheme for the separation of metal ions uses sulfide solubility to separate Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn (Analytical Group III)

11 Effect of ph on Solubility Sometimes it is necessary to account for other reactions aqueous ions might undergo. For example, if the anion is the conjugate base of a weak acid, it will react with H 3 O. You should expect the solubility to be affected by ph. 61 H S H O (l) H 3 O HS - HS - H O (l) H 3 O S - a1 [HS - ] [H 3 O ] [H S] a1 x a [H 3 O ] [HS - ] [H S] [H 3 O ] [S - ] [0.] x [S - ] [H 3 O ] a [HS - ] 1.3 x -0 [H 3 O ] [ S - ] 1.3 x -1 [S - ] [H 3 O ] [HS - ] 6 Consider the following equilibrium. CaC O (s) H O Ca C O Because the oxalate ion is conjugate to a weak acid (HC O - ), it will react with H 3 O. H O C O H3O HCO HO(l) According to Le Chatelier s principle, as C O - ion is removed by the reaction with H 3 O, more calcium oxalate dissolves. Therefore, you expect calcium oxalate to be more soluble in acidic solution (low ph) than in pure water Separation of Metal Ions by Sulfide Precipitation Many metal sulfides are insoluble in water but dissolve in acidic solution. Qualitative analysis uses this change in solubility of the metal sulfides with ph to separate a mixture of metal ions. By adjusting the ph in an aqueous solution of H S, you adjust the sulfide concentration to precipitate the least soluble metal sulfide first. Qualitative analysis is covered in Section

12 Complex-Ion Equilibria Complex-Ion Formation Some cations form soluble complex ions. Their formation increases the solubility of a salt containing those cations. Many metal ions, especially transition metals, form coordinate covalent bonds with molecules or anions having a lone pair of electrons. This type of bond formation is essentially a Lewis acid-base reaction For example, the silver ion, Ag, can react with ammonia to form the Ag(NH 3 ) ion. Ag (: NH 3) (H3N : Ag : NH3) Metal ions that form complex ions include Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe, Fe 3, Ni, and Zn. Complexing agents, called ligands, are Lewis bases. They include CN -, NH 3, S O 3 -, and OH -. In each case, an equilibrium is established, called the complex-ion formation equilibrium. Complex-Ion Equilibria A complex ion is an ion formed from a metal ion with a Lewis base attached to it by a coordinate covalent bond. A complex is defined as a compound containing complex ions. A ligand is a Lewis base (an electron pair donor) that bonds to a metal ion to form a complex ion Ag NH 3 Ag(NH 3 ) 3) ] 3] [Ag(NH f [Ag ] [NH Zn OH - Zn(OH) - - [Zn(OH) ] f - [Zn ] [OH ] Complex-Ion Formation The aqueous silver ion forms a complex ion with ammonia in steps. Ag NH3 Ag(NH3 ) Ag(NH ) 3 NH3 Ag(NH3 ) When you add these equations, you get the overall equation for the formation of Ag(NH 3 ). Ag NH3 Ag(NH3 )

13 Complex-Ion Formation The formation constant, f, is the equilibrium constant for the formation of a complex ion from the aqueous metal ion and the ligands. The formation constant for Ag(NH 3 ) is: [Ag(NH [Ag ][NH f 3) ] 3] The value of f for Ag(NH 3 ) is 1.7 x Complex-Ion Formation The dissociation constant, d, is the reciprocal, or inverse, value of f. The equation for the dissociation of Ag(NH 3 ) is 3 Ag(NH ) Ag NH3 The equilibrium constant equation is 1 [Ag ][NH 3] [Ag(NH ) ] d f 3 76 The large value means that the complex ion is quite stable. When a large amount of NH 3 is added to a solution of Ag, you expect most of the Ag ion to react to form the complex ion. Table 17. lists formation constants of some complex ions. Equilibrium Calculations with f What is the concentration of Ag ion in 0.0 M AgNO 3 that is also 1.00 M NH 3? The f for Ag(NH 3 ) is 1.7 x 7. In 1.0 L of solution, you initially have 0.0 mol Ag from AgNO 3. This reacts to give 0.0 mol Ag(NH 3 ), leaving (1.00- ( x 0.0)) 0.98 mol NH 3. You now look at the dissociation of Ag(NH 3 ) The following table summarizes. Formation constants are shown to the right. Note that all the values are quite large, which means that the equilibrium favors the complex ion. Starting Change Equilibrium Ag(NH ) Ag NH x 0.0-x 3 The dissociation constant equation is: [Ag ][NH [Ag(NH 3] 3) ] d x x x 0.98x 1 f

14 Substituting into this equation gives: (x)(0.98 x) (0.0 x) If we assume x is small compared with 0.0 and 0.98, then ( x)(0.98) 8 and (0.0) x 5.9 (0.0) (0.98) The silver ion concentration is 6.1 x - M [Ag(NH 3 ) ] 0.00 M; [NH 3 ] M Ag(NH 3 ) Ag NH 3 Initial Change -x x x Equilibrium x x [Ag ] [NH ] 1 1 d [Ag(NH ) ] f x(0.980 x) ( 0.0 x) 8 8 Silver chloride usually does not precipitate in solutions of 1.00 M NH 3. However, silver bromide has a smaller sp than silver chloride. Will silver bromide precipitate from a solution containing 0.0 M AgNO 3, 0.0 M NaBr, and 1.00 M NH 3? Calculate the Q c value and compare it with silver bromide s sp of We can assume that x and 0.0 x x(0.980) x x 6.1 M The assumptions are valid. [Ag ] M We ll begin with the complex-ion formation, and then find the concentration of Ag in solution. Finally, we ll find the value of Q c for AgBr and compare it to sp L of solution contains 0.0 mol Ag and 1.00 mol NH 3. Ag NH 3 Ag(NH 3 ) (aq ) Initial Change (0.0) 0.0 Equilibrium Next we ll use the solubility equilibrium to find Q c. Q c [Ag ] [Br - ] Q c (6.1 - )(0.0) Q c sp sp < Q c The precipitate forms. 8 1

15 Calculate the molar solubility of AgBr in 1.0 M NH 3 at 5 C. We will first combine the two equilibria and find the combined equilibrium constant. AgBr(s) Ag Br - ; sp Ag NH 3 Ag(NH 3 ) ; f AgBr(s) NH 3 Br - NH 3 sp f ( )(1.7 7 ) The combination of solubility and complex-ion equilibria can be applied to separate metal ions. Cations can be separated into groups according to their precipitation properties. In each major step, one group of cations precipitates out. After separating the precipitate, the remaining solution is treated with the next reagent, precipitating the next group of cations. 88 Now, we ll use the combined equilibrium to find the solubility of AgBr in 1.0 M NH 3. AgBr(s) NH 3 Br - Ag(NH 3 ) )aq) Initial Change -x x x Equilibrium 1.0 x x x - 3 ) 3 ] [Br ][Ag(NH [NH x (1.0 x) ] 86 Amphoteric Hydroxides An amphoteric hydroxide is a metal hydroxide that reacts with both acids and bases. For example, zinc hydroxide, Zn(OH), reacts with a strong acid and the metal hydroxide dissolves. Zn(OH) (s) H O 3 Zn HO(l) With a base however, Zn(OH) reacts to form the complex ion Zn(OH) -. Zn(OH) (s) OH Zn(OH) 89 The right side of the equation is a perfect square. 3 x.9 (1.0 x) x x x x.9 3 The molar solubility of AgBr in 1.0 M NH 3 is.9-3 M. 87 When a strong base is slowly added to a solution of ZnCl, a white precipitate of Zn(OH) first forms. Zn OH Zn(OH) (s) But as more base is added, the white preciptate dissolves, forming the complex ion Zn(OH) -. See Figure 17. Other common amphoteric hydroxides are those of aluminum, chromium(iii), lead(ii), tin(ii), and tin(iv)

16 Qualitative Analysis Qualitative analysis involves the determination of the identity of substances present in a mixture. In the qualitative analysis scheme for metal ions, a cation is usually detected by the presence of a characteristic precipitate. Figure 18.8 summarizes how metal ions in an aqueous solution are separated into five analytical groups Figure 17.8 Do Exercises 18.9,, and 11 Look at Problems Demonstration of the amphoteric behavior of zinc hydroxide CH 3 CSNH H O CH 3 CONH H S Photo by James Scherer. Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16

17 Operational Skills Writing solubility product expressions Calculating sp from the solubility, or vice versa. Calculating the solubility of a slightly soluble salt in a solution of a common ion. Predicting whether precipitation will occur Determining the qualitative effect of ph on solubility Calculating the concentration of a metal ion in equilibrium with a complex ion Predicting whether a precipitate will form in the presence of the complex ion Calculating the solubility of a slightly soluble ionic compound in a solution of the complex ion 97 17

Chemistry 132 NT. Solubility Equilibria. The most difficult thing to understand is the income tax. Solubility and Complex-ion Equilibria

Chemistry 132 NT. Solubility Equilibria. The most difficult thing to understand is the income tax. Solubility and Complex-ion Equilibria Chemistry 13 NT The most difficult thing to understand is the income tax. Albert Einstein 1 Chem 13 NT Solubility and Complex-ion Equilibria Module 1 Solubility Equilibria The Solubility Product Constant

More information

Solubility Product Constant

Solubility Product Constant Solubility Product Constant Page 1 In general, when ionic compounds dissolve in water, they go into solution as ions. When the solution becomes saturated with ions, that is, unable to hold any more, the

More information

Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. Sample Exercise 17.1 Calculating the ph When a Common Ion is Involved What is the ph of a solution made by adding 0.30 mol of acetic acid and 0.30 mol of sodium acetate to enough water to make 1.0 L of

More information

Solubility of Salts - Ksp. Ksp Solubility

Solubility of Salts - Ksp. Ksp Solubility Solubility of Salts - Ksp We now focus on another aqueous equilibrium system, slightly soluble salts. These salts have a Solubility Product Constant, K sp. (We saw this in 1B with the sodium tetraborate

More information

AP Chemistry Unit 7- Homework Problems Equilibrium and K sp

AP Chemistry Unit 7- Homework Problems Equilibrium and K sp AP Chemistry Unit 7- Homework Problems Equilibrium and K sp Nature of the Equilibrium State 1. Draw on this graph where equilibrium has been reached. [X] equilibrium time 2. What are three qualities of

More information

AP*Chemistry Solubility Equilibria

AP*Chemistry Solubility Equilibria AP*Chemistry Solubility Equilibria SOLUBILITY EQUILIBRIA (K sp, THE SOLUBILITY PRODUCT) Saturated solutions of salts are another type of chemical equilibria. Remember those solubility rules? The fine print

More information

General Chemistry II Chapter 20

General Chemistry II Chapter 20 1 General Chemistry II Chapter 0 Ionic Equilibria: Principle There are many compounds that appear to be insoluble in aqueous solution (nonelectrolytes). That is, when we add a certain compound to water

More information

Lecture 6. Classes of Chemical Reactions

Lecture 6. Classes of Chemical Reactions Lecture 6 Classes of Chemical Reactions Lecture 6 Outline 6.1 The Role of Water as a Solvent 6.2 Precipitation Reactions 6.3 Acid-Base Reactions 1 Electron distribution in molecules of H 2 and H 2 O The

More information

V. POLYPROTIC ACID IONIZATION. NOTICE: K a1 > K a2 > K a3 EQUILIBRIUM PART 2. A. Polyprotic acids are acids with two or more acidic hydrogens.

V. POLYPROTIC ACID IONIZATION. NOTICE: K a1 > K a2 > K a3 EQUILIBRIUM PART 2. A. Polyprotic acids are acids with two or more acidic hydrogens. EQUILIBRIUM PART 2 V. POLYPROTIC ACID IONIZATION A. Polyprotic acids are acids with two or more acidic hydrogens. monoprotic: HC 2 H 3 O 2, HCN, HNO 2, HNO 3 diprotic: H 2 SO 4, H 2 SO 3, H 2 S triprotic:

More information

EXPERIMENT 5: CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND EQUATIONS

EXPERIMENT 5: CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND EQUATIONS PURPOSE EXPERIMENT 5: CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND EQUATIONS To perform and observe simple chemical reactions. To identify the products of chemical reactions and write balanced equations for those reactions.

More information

Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry

Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent A. Structure of water 1. Oxygen's electronegativity is high (3.5) and hydrogen's

More information

Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations

Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations I. Objective: To predict the products of some displacement reactions and write net ionic equations. II. Chemical Principles: A. Reaction Types. Chemical

More information

Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Chem 101 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Lectures 15 and 16 Predicting Whether a Reaction Will Occur Forces that drive a reaction Formation of a solid Formation of water Transfer of electrons Formation

More information

Aqueous Solutions. Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water. A Solute. Types of Chemical Reactions.

Aqueous Solutions. Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water. A Solute. Types of Chemical Reactions. Aqueous Solutions and Solution Stoichiometry Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water Water is bent or V-shaped. The O-H bonds are covalent. Water is a polar molecule. Hydration

More information

Dr. Fus CHEM 1220 CHAPTER 17 PRACTICE EXAM

Dr. Fus CHEM 1220 CHAPTER 17 PRACTICE EXAM CHEMISTRY 1220 CHAPTER 17 PRACTICE EXAM All questions listed below are problems taken from old Chemistry 123 exams given here at The Ohio State University. Read Chapter 17.4 17.7 and complete the following

More information

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq)

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq) Name: Class: Date: Unit 4 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The balanced molecular equation for complete neutralization of

More information

Summer Assignment Coversheet

Summer Assignment Coversheet Summer Assignment Coversheet Course: A.P. Chemistry Teachers Names: Mary Engels Assignment Title: Summer Assignment A Review Assignment Summary/Purpose: To review the Rules for Solubility, Oxidation Numbers,

More information

SECTION 14 CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM

SECTION 14 CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM 1-1 SECTION 1 CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM Many chemical reactions do not go to completion. That is to say when the reactants are mixed and the chemical reaction proceeds it only goes to a certain extent, and

More information

Molarity of Ions in Solution

Molarity of Ions in Solution APPENDIX A Molarity of Ions in Solution ften it is necessary to calculate not only the concentration (in molarity) of a compound in aqueous solution but also the concentration of each ion in aqueous solution.

More information

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Water is by far the most common medium in which chemical reactions occur naturally. It is not hard to see this: 70% of our body mass is water and about 70% of the surface

More information

Experiment 5. Chemical Reactions A + X AX AX A + X A + BX AX + B AZ + BX AX + BZ

Experiment 5. Chemical Reactions A + X AX AX A + X A + BX AX + B AZ + BX AX + BZ Experiment 5 Chemical Reactions OBJECTIVES 1. To observe the various criteria that are used to indicate that a chemical reaction has occurred. 2. To convert word equations into balanced inorganic chemical

More information

Chemistry 51 Chapter 8 TYPES OF SOLUTIONS. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent.

Chemistry 51 Chapter 8 TYPES OF SOLUTIONS. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent. TYPES OF SOLUTIONS A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent. Solute: substance being dissolved; present in lesser amount. Solvent: substance doing the dissolving; present

More information

CHAPTER 4. AQUEOUS REACTION CHEMISTRY

CHAPTER 4. AQUEOUS REACTION CHEMISTRY CAPTER. AQUEOUS REACTION CEMISTRY solution - homogeneous mixture of or more substances; uniform distribution of particles and same properties throughout. A solution is composed of a solute dissolved in

More information

Potassium + Chlorine. K(s) + Cl 2 (g) 2 KCl(s)

Potassium + Chlorine. K(s) + Cl 2 (g) 2 KCl(s) Types of Reactions Consider for a moment the number of possible chemical reactions. Because there are millions of chemical compounds, it is logical to expect that there are millions of possible chemical

More information

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions Chapter 7 Page 1 Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions A chemical reaction: a process in which at least one new substance is formed as the result of a chemical change. A + B C + D Reactants Products Evidence that

More information

NET IONIC EQUATIONS. A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is:

NET IONIC EQUATIONS. A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is: NET IONIC EQUATIONS A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is: NaCl + AgNO 3 AgCl + NaNO 3 In this case, the simple formulas of the various reactants

More information

Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions

Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions A double displacement reaction involves two ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. In a double displacement reaction, it appears as though the ions are

More information

1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11

1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11 SCH3U- R.H.KING ACADEMY SOLUTION & ACID/BASE WORKSHEET Name: The importance of water - MAKING CONNECTION READING 1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436

More information

Steps for balancing a chemical equation

Steps for balancing a chemical equation The Chemical Equation: A Chemical Recipe Dr. Gergens - SD Mesa College A. Learn the meaning of these arrows. B. The chemical equation is the shorthand notation for a chemical reaction. A chemical equation

More information

Decomposition. Composition

Decomposition. Composition Decomposition 1. Solid ammonium carbonate is heated. 2. Solid calcium carbonate is heated. 3. Solid calcium sulfite is heated in a vacuum. Composition 1. Barium oxide is added to distilled water. 2. Phosphorus

More information

Problems you need to KNOW to be successful in the upcoming AP Chemistry exam.

Problems you need to KNOW to be successful in the upcoming AP Chemistry exam. Problems you need to KNOW to be successful in the upcoming AP Chemistry exam. Problem 1 The formula and the molecular weight of an unknown hydrocarbon compound are to be determined by elemental analysis

More information

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g)

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g) 1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) A) 1 B) 2 C) 4 D) 5 E) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH)

More information

2. Write a balanced chemical equation which corresponds to the following equilibrium constant expression. 1/2 3/ 2

2. Write a balanced chemical equation which corresponds to the following equilibrium constant expression. 1/2 3/ 2 Practice Problems for Chem. 1B Exam 1 F2011 These represent the concepts covered for exam 1. There may be some additional net ionic equations from chem. 1A. This is not the exact exam! Sections 16.1-16.3

More information

Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions

Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions I) Ions in Aqueous Solution many reactions take place in water form ions in solution aq solution = solute + solvent solute: substance being dissolved and present in lesser

More information

MOLARITY = (moles solute) / (vol.solution in liter units)

MOLARITY = (moles solute) / (vol.solution in liter units) CHEM 101/105 Stoichiometry, as applied to Aqueous Solutions containing Ionic Solutes Lect-05 MOLES - a quantity of substance. Quantities of substances can be expressed as masses, as numbers, or as moles.

More information

Tutorial 5 NET IONIC EQUATIONS

Tutorial 5 NET IONIC EQUATIONS T-33 Tutorial 5 NET IONIC EQUATIONS The efficiency and extent of a chemical reaction is very much dependent upon the physical state (solid, liquid, gas, or solution) of reactants and products. Not surprisingly,

More information

CHEM 102: Sample Test 5

CHEM 102: Sample Test 5 CHEM 102: Sample Test 5 CHAPTER 17 1. When H 2 SO 4 is dissolved in water, which species would be found in the water at equilibrium in measurable amounts? a. H 2 SO 4 b. H 3 SO + 4 c. HSO 4 d. SO 2 4 e.

More information

Chapter 17. How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties. Base. Explaining the difference in properties of acids and bases

Chapter 17. How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties. Base. Explaining the difference in properties of acids and bases Chapter 17 Acids and Bases How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties Base Physical properties Tastes sour Tastes bitter Feels slippery or slimy Chemical properties Chemical properties

More information

Chapter 9. Answers to Questions

Chapter 9. Answers to Questions Chapter 9 Answers to Questions 1. Word equation: Silicon Tetrachloride + Water Silicon Dioxide + Hydrogen Chloride Formulas: Next, the chemical formulas are needed. As these are all covalent compounds,

More information

Equilibrium Constants The following equilibrium constants will be useful for some of the problems.

Equilibrium Constants The following equilibrium constants will be useful for some of the problems. 1 CH302 Exam 4 Practice Problems (buffers, titrations, Ksp) Equilibrium Constants The following equilibrium constants will be useful for some of the problems. Substance Constant Substance Constant HCO

More information

The Behavior of Two Families in the Periodic Table

The Behavior of Two Families in the Periodic Table The Behavior of Two Families in the Periodic Table The Periodic Table arranges the elements in order of increasing atomic number in horizontal rows of such length that elements with similar properties

More information

CH302 Exam 4 Practice Problems (buffers, titrations, Ksp)

CH302 Exam 4 Practice Problems (buffers, titrations, Ksp) CH302 Exam 4 Practice Problems (buffers, titrations, Ksp) 1 Equilibrium Constants The following equilibrium constants will be useful for some of the problems. Substance Constant Substance Constant HCO

More information

CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Chemistry 51 Chapter 6

CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Chemistry 51 Chapter 6 CHEMICAL REACTIONS A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms in which some of the original bonds are broken and new bonds are formed to give different chemical structures. In a chemical reaction,

More information

Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions

Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions I. Describing Chemical Reactions A. A chemical reaction is the process by which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances. A chemical

More information

CH 223 Chapter Thirteen Concept Guide

CH 223 Chapter Thirteen Concept Guide CH 223 Chapter Thirteen Concept Guide 1. Writing Equilibrium Constant Expressions Write the equilibrium constant (K c ) expressions for each of the following reactions: (a) Cu(OH) 2 (s) (b) Cu(NH 3 ) 4

More information

W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY

W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY INTRODUCTION W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY These notes and exercises are designed to introduce you to the basic concepts required to understand a chemical formula or equation. Relative atomic masses of

More information

Chemistry Ch 15 (Solutions) Study Guide Introduction

Chemistry Ch 15 (Solutions) Study Guide Introduction Chemistry Ch 15 (Solutions) Study Guide Introduction Name: Note: a word marked (?) is a vocabulary word you should know the meaning of. A homogeneous (?) mixture, or, is a mixture in which the individual

More information

Aqueous Ions and Reactions

Aqueous Ions and Reactions Aqueous Ions and Reactions (ions, acids, and bases) Demo NaCl(aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) AgCl (s) Two clear and colorless solutions turn to a cloudy white when mixed Demo Special Light bulb in water can test for

More information

Chemical Equations. Chemical Equations. Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change

Chemical Equations. Chemical Equations. Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change Chemical Reactions Chemical Equations Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change The chemical change involves rearranging matter Converting one or more pure substances into new pure

More information

One problem often faced in qualitative analysis is to test for one ion in a

One problem often faced in qualitative analysis is to test for one ion in a Chemistry 112 Laboratory: Silver Group Analysis Page 11 ANALYSIS OF THE SILVER GROUP CATIONS Ag + Pb Analysis of a Mixture of Cations One problem often faced in qualitative analysis is to test for one

More information

This experiment involves the separation and identification of ions using

This experiment involves the separation and identification of ions using Chemistry 112: Reactions Involving Complex Ions Page 27 COMPLEX IONS AND AMPHOTERISM This experiment involves the separation and identification of ions using two important reaction types: (i) the formation

More information

APPENDIX B: EXERCISES

APPENDIX B: EXERCISES BUILDING CHEMISTRY LABORATORY SESSIONS APPENDIX B: EXERCISES Molecular mass, the mole, and mass percent Relative atomic and molecular mass Relative atomic mass (A r ) is a constant that expresses the ratio

More information

Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY. Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution.

Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY. Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution. T-27 Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution. Of the various methods of expressing solution concentration the most convenient

More information

UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS

UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS 4.1 Formula Masses Recall that the decimal number written under the symbol of the element in the periodic table is the atomic mass of the element. 1 7 8 12

More information

EXPERIMENT 10: Electrical Conductivity Chem 111

EXPERIMENT 10: Electrical Conductivity Chem 111 EXPERIMENT 10: Electrical Conductivity Chem 111 INTRODUCTION A. Electrical Conductivity A substance can conduct an electrical current if it is made of positively and negatively charged particles that are

More information

Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions

Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions A double displacement reaction involves two ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. In a double displacement reaction, it appears as though the ions are

More information

Answer Key, Problem Set 5 (With explanations)--complete

Answer Key, Problem Set 5 (With explanations)--complete Chemistry 122 Mines, Spring 2016 Answer Key, Problem Set 5 (With explanations)complete 1. NT1; 2. NT2; 3. MP; 4. MP (15.38); 5. MP (15.40); 6. MP (15.42); 7. NT3; 8. NT4; 9. MP; 10. NT5; 11. NT6; 12. MP;

More information

Chapter 17. The best buffer choice for ph 7 is NaH 2 PO 4 /Na 2 HPO 4. 19)

Chapter 17. The best buffer choice for ph 7 is NaH 2 PO 4 /Na 2 HPO 4. 19) Chapter 17 2) a) HCl and CH 3 COOH are both acids. A buffer must have an acid/base conjugate pair. b) NaH 2 PO 4 and Na 2 HPO 4 are an acid/base conjugate pair. They will make an excellent buffer. c) H

More information

CHEMISTRY ATAR COURSE DATA BOOKLET

CHEMISTRY ATAR COURSE DATA BOOKLET CHEMISTRY ATAR COURSE DATA BOOKLET 2016 Copyright School Curriculum and Standards Authority, 2016 This document apart from any third party copyright material contained in it may be freely copied, or communicated

More information

Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent

Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent Water a polar solvent: dissolves most ionic compounds as well as many molecular compounds Aqueous solution:

More information

Stoichiometry Review

Stoichiometry Review Stoichiometry Review There are 20 problems in this review set. Answers, including problem set-up, can be found in the second half of this document. 1. N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) --------> 2NH 3 (g) a. nitrogen

More information

Chapter 4: Reactions in Aqueous Solution (Sections )

Chapter 4: Reactions in Aqueous Solution (Sections ) Chapter 4: Reactions in Aqueous Solution (Sections 4.1-4.12) Chapter Goals Be able to: Classify substances as electrolytes or nonelectrolytes. Write molecular, ionic, and net ionic equations for precipitation,

More information

Name period Unit 9: acid/base equilibrium

Name period Unit 9: acid/base equilibrium Name period Unit 9: acid/base equilibrium 1. What is the difference between the Arrhenius and the BronstedLowry definition of an acid? Arrhenious acids give H + in water BronstedLowry acids are proton

More information

Chemistry. Zumdahl, 7th edition

Chemistry. Zumdahl, 7th edition Chemistry Zumdahl, 7th edition CH4 Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Yellow lead(ii) iodide is produced when lead(ii) nitrate is mixed with potassium iodide. P.126 Contents 4.1 Water,

More information

ionic substances (separate) based on! Liquid Mixtures miscible two liquids that and form a immiscible two liquids that form a e.g.

ionic substances (separate) based on! Liquid Mixtures miscible two liquids that and form a immiscible two liquids that form a e.g. Unit 7 Solutions, Acids & Bases Solution mixture + solvent - substance present in the amount solute - in the solvent solvent molecules solute particles ionic substances (separate) based on! Liquid Mixtures

More information

Chemistry Themed. Types of Reactions

Chemistry Themed. Types of Reactions Chemistry Themed Types of Reactions 1 2 Chemistry in the Community-2015-2016 Types of Reactions Date In-Class Assignment Homework T 10/20 TEST on Reactivity of Metals and Redox None W 10/21 Late Start

More information

stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction.

stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 1 REACTIONS AND YIELD ANSWERS stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 2C 8 H 18 (l) + 25O 2 16CO 2 (g) + 18H 2 O(g) From the equation, 16 moles of CO 2 (a greenhouse

More information

Solutions CHAPTER Specific answers depend on student choices.

Solutions CHAPTER Specific answers depend on student choices. CHAPTER 15 1. Specific answers depend on student choices.. A heterogeneous mixture does not have a uniform composition: the composition varies in different places within the mixture. Examples of non homogeneous

More information

Chapter 16: Tests for ions and gases

Chapter 16: Tests for ions and gases The position of hydrogen in the reactivity series Hydrogen, although not a metal, is included in the reactivity series because it, like metals, can be displaced from aqueous solution, only this time the

More information

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 3 ATOMS AND MOLECULES Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following correctly represents 360 g of water? (i) 2 moles of H 2 0 (ii) 20 moles of water (iii) 6.022 10 23 molecules of water (iv)

More information

Experiment: Ionic Precipitation Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

Experiment: Ionic Precipitation Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Minneapolis Community and Technical College Introductory Chemistry Laboratory Experiment: Ionic Precipitation Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Objectives: Identify the ions present in various aqueous solutions.

More information

Common Ion Effects. CH 3 CO 2 (aq) + Na + (aq)

Common Ion Effects. CH 3 CO 2 (aq) + Na + (aq) Common Ion Effects If two reactions both involve the same ion, then one reaction can effect the equilibrium position of the other reaction. The ion that appears in both reactions is the common ion. Buffers

More information

1. For the equilibrium that exists in an aqueous solution of nitrous acid (HNO 2, a weak acid), the equilibrium constant expression is:

1. For the equilibrium that exists in an aqueous solution of nitrous acid (HNO 2, a weak acid), the equilibrium constant expression is: 1. For the equilibrium that exists in an aqueous solution of nitrous acid (HNO 2, a weak acid), the equilibrium constant expression is: a) K = [H+ ][NO 2 ] [HNO 2 ] b) K = [H+ ][N][O] 2 [HNO 2 ] c) K =

More information

2. DECOMPOSITION REACTION ( A couple have a heated argument and break up )

2. DECOMPOSITION REACTION ( A couple have a heated argument and break up ) TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS Most reactions can be classified into one of five categories by examining the types of reactants and products involved in the reaction. Knowing the types of reactions can help

More information

Chapter 6 Notes Science 10 Name:

Chapter 6 Notes Science 10 Name: 6.1 Types of Chemical Reactions a) Synthesis (A + B AB) Synthesis reactions are also known as reactions. When this occurs two or more reactants (usually elements) join to form a. A + B AB, where A and

More information

AP Chemistry- Acids and Bases General Properties of Acids and Bases. Bases- originally defined as any substance that neutralized an acid

AP Chemistry- Acids and Bases General Properties of Acids and Bases. Bases- originally defined as any substance that neutralized an acid AP Chemistry Acids and Bases General Properties of Acids and Bases Acids Electrolyte Taste Litmus Phenolphthalein React with metals to give off H 2 gas H 2 SO 4 (aq) + Mg (s) MgSO 4 (aq) + H 2 (g) Ionize

More information

CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM B) DR. SIMON NORTH

CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM B) DR. SIMON NORTH 1. Is H 3 O + polar or non-polar? (1 point) a) Polar b) Non-polar CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM B) DR. SIMON NORTH 2. The bond strength is considerably greater in HF than in the other three hydrogen halides

More information

CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM A) DR. SIMON NORTH

CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM A) DR. SIMON NORTH CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM A) DR. SIMON NORTH 1. When considering conjugate acids and bases, (2 points) a) Strong acids have strong conjugate bases. b) Strong bases have strong conjugate acids. c) Weak

More information

Chemistry: Chemical Equations

Chemistry: Chemical Equations Chemistry: Chemical Equations Write a balanced chemical equation for each word equation. Include the phase of each substance in the equation. Classify the reaction as synthesis, decomposition, single replacement,

More information

Chapter 3 Calculation with Chemical Formulas and Equations

Chapter 3 Calculation with Chemical Formulas and Equations Chapter 3 Calculation with Chemical Formulas and Equations Practical Applications of Chemistry Determining chemical formula of a substance Predicting the amount of substances consumed during a reaction

More information

Chapter 4 An Introduction to Chemical Reactions. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop

Chapter 4 An Introduction to Chemical Reactions. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter 4 An Introduction to Chemical Reactions An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter Map Chemical Reaction A chemical change or chemical reaction is a process in which one or more pure substances

More information

UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES

UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES 6.1 Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases Definitions for acids and bases were proposed by the Swedish chemist Savante Arrhenius in 1884. Acids were defined as compounds that

More information

PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE (30 multiple choice questions. Each multiple choice question is worth 2 points)

PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE (30 multiple choice questions. Each multiple choice question is worth 2 points) CHEMISTRY 123-07 Midterm #1 Answer key October 14, 2010 Statistics: Average: 74 p (74%); Highest: 97 p (95%); Lowest: 33 p (33%) Number of students performing at or above average: 67 (57%) Number of students

More information

Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions. Chapter 8.1

Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions. Chapter 8.1 Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions Chapter 8.1 Objectives List observations that suggest that a chemical reaction has taken place List the requirements for a correctly written chemical equation.

More information

Stoichiometry and Aqueous Reactions (Chapter 4)

Stoichiometry and Aqueous Reactions (Chapter 4) Stoichiometry and Aqueous Reactions (Chapter 4) Chemical Equations 1. Balancing Chemical Equations (from Chapter 3) Adjust coefficients to get equal numbers of each kind of element on both sides of arrow.

More information

Chemistry 212 EXAM 2 February 17, 2004 KEY

Chemistry 212 EXAM 2 February 17, 2004 KEY 1 Chemistry 212 EXAM 2 February 17, 2004 100_ (of 100) KEY Name Part 1: Multiple Choice. (1 point 4. The equilibrium constant for the each, circle only one answer, reaction 1. For the equilibrium that

More information

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Student Instructions 1. Identify the reactants and products and write a word equation. 2. Write the correct chemical formula for each of the reactants and the products.

More information

Chapter 4: Reaction in Aqueous Solution

Chapter 4: Reaction in Aqueous Solution Chapter 4: Reaction in Aqueous Solution What is a Solution? Solute + substance dissolved typically smaller quantity Solvent! dissolving medium typically larger quantity Solution homogeneous mixture variable

More information

AP Chem Unit 1 Assignment 3 Chemical Equations

AP Chem Unit 1 Assignment 3 Chemical Equations Symbols used in chemical equations: Symbol Meaning + used to separate one reactant or product from another used to separate the reactants from the products - it is pronounced "yields" or "produces" when

More information

Chem 1100 Chapter Three Study Guide Answers Outline I. Molar Mass and Moles A. Calculations of Molar Masses

Chem 1100 Chapter Three Study Guide Answers Outline I. Molar Mass and Moles A. Calculations of Molar Masses Chem 1100 Chapter Three Study Guide Answers Outline I. Molar Mass and Moles A. Calculations of Molar Masses B. Calculations of moles C. Calculations of number of atoms from moles/molar masses 1. Avagadro

More information

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Chapter 16 AcidBase Equilibria Acids and bases are found in many common substances and are important in life processes. Group Work: Make a list of some common acids and bases. How do we know which is which?

More information

Since we will be dealing with aqueous acid and base solution, first we must examine the behavior of water.

Since we will be dealing with aqueous acid and base solution, first we must examine the behavior of water. Acids and Bases Know the definition of Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis acid and base. Autoionization of Water Since we will be dealing with aqueous acid and base solution, first we must examine the

More information

Number of moles of solute = Concentration (mol. L ) x Volume of solution (litres) or n = C x V

Number of moles of solute = Concentration (mol. L ) x Volume of solution (litres) or n = C x V 44 CALCULATIONS INVOLVING SOLUTIONS INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Many chemical reactions take place in aqueous (water) solution. Quantities of such solutions are measured as volumes, while the amounts

More information

HOMEWORK 4A. Definitions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Questions

HOMEWORK 4A. Definitions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Questions HOMEWORK 4A Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 1. Indicate whether a reaction will occur or not in each of following. Wtiring a balcnced equation is not necessary. (a) Magnesium metal is added to hydrochloric

More information

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, Chemistry 11, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 1. A small pin contains 0.0178 mol of iron. How many atoms of iron are in the pin? 2. A sample

More information

Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds

Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds are composed of ions. An ion is an atom or molecule with an electrical charge. Monatomic ions are formed from single atoms that have gained or lost electrons.

More information

Naming Compounds Handout

Naming Compounds Handout Naming Compounds Handout IONIC COMPOUNDS versus MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS ionic compound: consist of cations (positive ions) and anions (negative ions) held together by electrostatic attraction usually metal

More information

Moles. Moles. Moles. Moles. Balancing Eqns. Balancing. Balancing Eqns. Symbols Yields or Produces. Like a recipe:

Moles. Moles. Moles. Moles. Balancing Eqns. Balancing. Balancing Eqns. Symbols Yields or Produces. Like a recipe: Like a recipe: Balancing Eqns Reactants Products 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2H 2 O(l) coefficients subscripts Balancing Eqns Balancing Symbols (s) (l) (aq) (g) or Yields or Produces solid liquid (pure liquid)

More information

Practise Exam Chapter 4

Practise Exam Chapter 4 Practise Exam Chapter 4 1. Which one of the following is a nonelectrolyte? A) aqueous barium nitrate solution B) aqueous calcium chloride solution C) aqueous lithium phosphate solution D) aqueous methyl

More information

Chapter 9: Solutions and Solution Reactions.

Chapter 9: Solutions and Solution Reactions. 151 Chapter 9: Solutions and Solution Reactions. When the exact composition of a mixture is known, it is called a solution. In principle, a solution can be a solid, a liquid, or a gas. However, in the

More information