# Solubility. Our start in adventures in Aqueous Equilibria

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1 Solubility Our start in adventures in Aqueous Equilibria

2 Sea Shells are essentially Calcium Carbonate crystals held together by proteins Given this information what do you think equilibrium constant will be for this reaction? CaCO3 (s) Ca 2+ (aq) + CO3 2- (aq) A. a number much much less than 1 B. a number approximately equal to 1 C. a number much much larger than 1

3 We will be mostly dividing substances up Strong Electrolyte Weak Electrolyte

4 Rock Demo

5 Rock Demo [Ca 2+ ] = [Ca 2+ ] = How much of the rock dissolved?

6 How much is very small? Solubility Equilibria CaCO3 (s) Ca 2+ (aq) + CO3 2- (aq) Ksp =

7 Solubility is given in practical units Molar Solubility Moles of solute that will dissolve in 1 L of sovlent (water)

8 Solubility is given in practical units Molar Solubility Moles of solute that will dissolve in 1 L of sovlent (water) Solubility grams of solute that will dissolve in 1 L of sovlent (water)

9 What is the solubility of AgCl? AgCl (s) Ag + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Ksp = [Ag + ][Cl - ] = 1.8 x Reaction AgCl (s) Ag + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Initial Change Equilibrium

10 What is the solubility of AgCl? Ksp = [Ag + ][Cl - ] = 6 x 10-9 Reaction Initial Change Equilibrium AgCl (s) Ag + (aq) + Cl - (aq) 0 0 +x +x +x +x Ksp = [Ag + ][Cl - ] =

11 What is the solubility of AgCl? Ksp = [Ag + ][Cl - ] = 1.8x AgCl (s) Ag + (aq) + Cl - (aq) [Ag + ]= 1.3 x 10-5 M M.W. of AgCl is g mol -1

12 Which of the following compounds has the lowest molar solubility? A. AgCl Ksp = 1.8 x B. FeS Ksp = 8 x C. LiF Ksp = 1.8 x 10-3 D. ZnSe Ksp = 2 x 10-25

13 Which of the following compounds has the lowest molar solubility? A. AgCl Ksp = 1.8 x B. Cd3(PO4)2 Ksp = 2.5 x C. Zn(OH)2 Ksp = 3 x D. ZnSe Ksp = 2 x 10-25

14 What is the concentration of Sr 2+ in a saturated solution of SrF2? Ksp = [Sr 2+ ][F - ] = 4.3 x 10-9 Reaction Initial Change Equilibrium SrF2 (s) Sr 2+ (aq) + 2F - (aq) 1 x 10-3

15 Decent estimate of the molar solubility count the ions take that root of the Ksp A. AgCl Ksp = 1.8 x B. Cd3(PO4)2 Ksp = 2.5 x C. Zn(OH)2 Ksp = 3 x D. ZnSe Ksp = 2 x 10-25

16 Given that Ksp for AgCl is 1.8 x 10-10, and the NaCl is strong electrolyte What do you predict for solubility of AgCl in a 1 M NaCl solution? Ksp= A. more soluble than in pure water B. same solubility as pure water C. lower solubility than pure water

17 Given that Ksp for AgCl is 1.8 x 10-10, and the NaCl is strong electrolyte What is the concentration of Ag + in a 1 M NaCl solution that contains solid AgCl? Ksp= A. 1.8 x M B. 1.8 x 10-6 M C. 1.3 x 10-5 M D. 1 M

18 What is the solubility of AgCl? Ksp = [Ag + ][Cl - ] = 6 x 10-9 Reaction Initial Change Equilibrium Ksp = [Ag + ][Cl - ] = AgCl (s) Ag + (aq) + Cl - (aq) 0 1 +x +x +x 1+x

19 Silver Nitrate (AgNO3) and Sodium Chloride (NaCl) are both soluble salts. What will happen if I mix 200 ml of 1 M AgNO3 solution with 100 ml of 1 M NaCl solution given that Ksp for AgCl is 1.8 x A. I'll have a solution with Ag +, Cl -, Na +, and NO3 - ions B. some solid AgCl will form C. both B & C

20 A few useful definitions and ideas Precipitation Insoluble solid that forms and drops out of solution Spectator Ions Ions that don t participate in the chemistry What is soluble? Many solubility rules Typically Ksp is given for insoluble compounds All Na +, K +, and NO3 - salts are soluble

21 NaCl(aq) + AgNO3 (aq) Ionic Equations Net ionic equation

22 Precipitation Calculations First take the reaction to completion then calculate back to the equilibrium Ksp is generally small. First assume as much solid as possible forms Then look at what "re-dissolves" into solution

23 If I mix a 100 ml of 1 M NaCl solution with a 200 ml of 1 M AgNO3 solution how much solid AgCl will form (Ksp= 1.8 x )? NaCl(aq) + AgNO3 (aq) AgCl(s) + NaNO3 (aq) Ag + (aq) + Cl - (aq) AgCl(s) Assume all the maximum amount of AgCl forms Need to convert from concentration to moles!

24 We assumed as much solid as possible formed How much redissolves to get to equilibrium? Ksp = [Ag + ][Cl - ] = 1.8 x Reaction AgCl (s) Ag + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Initial Change Equilibrium +x +x.333+x +x Ksp = [Ag + ][Cl - ] =

25 Selective precipitation I have a solution which contains 0.1 M AgNO3 and 0.1 M PbNO3. How can I get out the silver and leave the lead behind?

26 Selective precipitation I have a solution which contains 0.1 M AgNO3 and 0.1 M PbNO3. How can I get out the silver and leave the lead behind? Add an anion for an insoluble salt for silver such as Cl - Ksp is 1.6 x for AgCl

27 Selective precipitation I have a solution which contains 0.1 M AgNO3 and 0.1 M PbNO3. How can I get out the silver and leave the lead behind? Add an anion for an insoluble salt for silver such as Cl - Ksp is 1.6 x for AgCl But PbCl2 is also insoluble so it will precipitate out as well Ksp is 2.4 x 10-4 for PbCl2

28 Selective precipitation I have a solution which contains 0.1 M AgNO3 and 0.1 M PbNO3. How can I get out the silver and leave the lead behind? Add an anion for an insoluble salt for silver such as Cl - Ksp is 1.6 x for AgCl But PbCl2 is also insoluble so it will precipitate out as well Ksp is 2.4 x 10-4 for PbCl2 The Ksp for AgCl is much smaller so we can selectively precipitate the AgCl

29 I have a solution which contains 0.1 M AgNO3 and 0.1 M PbNO3. How can I get out the silver and leave the lead behind? what is the maximum concentration of Cl - we can have and still have the PbCl2 dissolved Ksp = 2.4 x 10-4 A. 4.9 x 10-2 M B. 1.2 x 10-4 M C. 2.4 x 10-4 M D. 2.4 x 10-3 M

30 I have a solution which contains 0.1 M AgNO3 and 0.1 M PbNO3. How can I get out the silver and leave the lead behind? If the Cl - concentration is 4.9 x 10-2 M, what is the Ag + concentration? Ksp = 1.6 x for AgCl A. 4.9 x M B. 3.2 x 10-9 M C. 1.6 x M D. 2.4 x 10-3 M

31 I have all of these ions in solution, do I get a precipitate? This is just equilibrium, compare Q to K Ksp= 1.7 x 10-5 for PbCl2 I have a solution in which [Pb 2+ ] = 10-2 M and [Cl - ] = 10-2 M A. some PbCl2 will precipitate B. all the PbCl2 will be solution

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