3.05 Atomic Structure and Electronic Configuration

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1 .05 Atomic Structure and Electronic Configuration Arranging the electrons in an atom Learning Objectives/Terminology- Pauli Exclusion Principle Aufbau Hund s Rule Diamagnetism/Paramagnetism Ne-Va-S-P Dr. Fred Omega Garces Chemistry 00 Miramar College

2 Electronic Configuration How are the electrons of an atom arranged in the atom? What are shells and orbitals arrange outside the nuclei of an atom? How is the e - arrangement liken to that of a Hotel room (Hotel del Orbital)? What is the importance of the valence electrons and how do these influence chemistry?

3 Shells and Orbitals

4 Relative Energies for Shells and Orbitals 8 s p d f Relative Energies of the orbitals

5 Hotel del Orbitals s p d f Like the hotel del Orbital, the shells of an atom are staggered and are filled based on their relative energies 5 Filling Order (Aufbau Principle)

6 Hotel del Orbitals and a pictorial view of the shell arrangements The filling order can be memorized by the following scheme 6

7 The First 0 elements: H = s He = s Li = s s Be = s s B = s s p C = s s p N = s s p O = s s p F = s s p 5 Ne = s s p 6 s s p 7

8 Electron Configuration Hydrogen and Helium H H = s s s p He He = s s s p Pauli Exclusion Principle 8

9 Electron Configuration: Lithium to Beryllium Li Li = s s = s s p Be = Be = s s s s p Aufbau Process 9

10 Electron Configuration: Boron to Nitrogen B B = s s p = s s p C C = s s p = s s p Hund s Rule N N = s s p = s s p Paramagnetic 0

11 Electron Config: Oxygen to Neon O O = s s p = s s p F F = s s p 5 = s s p Ne Ne = s s p 6 = s s p Diamagnetic

12 Electron Configuration using the Periodic Table When using the Periodic table to determine the electron configuration of an atom, it is important to understand the layout of the periodic table. The row of a periodic table can be used to determine which energy level,,,... the valence electrons are located. The column of the periodic table helps determine how many valence electron an atom possesses. Elements in the A column (family) have one valence electron, in the IIA column, elements have two valence electron, in the IIIA family, elements have three valence electrons, and so on.

13 Electron Configuration using the Periodic Table The elements designated in -block is where the very last electrons are found in the s-orbitals. Therefore the elements in portion of the periodic table is referred to as the s-block elements. The elements designated in -block is where the very last electrons are found in the p-orbitals. The elements found in this portion of the periodic table is referred to as the p-block elements. The same can be said about the -block and -block with the elements found in this portion of the periodic table referred to as the d-block (transition metals) and f-block (man-made) elements.

14 Electron Configuration: ne-va-s-p IA H s Li s Na s K s Rb 5s Cs 6s Fr 7s IIA Be s Mg s Ca s Sr 5s Ba 6s Ra 7s ne - number of electrons; the total number of electrons va - valence electrons; the number of valence electrons s - shell of valence electrons p - previous noble gas IIIB Sc d Y d La 5d Ac 6d IVB Ti d Zr d Hf 5d Db 6d 5 VB V d Nb d Ta 5d Jl 6d 6 VIB 7 VIIB Cr Mn s d 5 d 5 Mo 5s d 5 W 6s 5d 5 Rf 7s 6d 5 Tc d 5 Re 5d 5 Bh 6d VIIIB Fe d 6 Ru d 6 Os 5d 6 Hn 6d 6 Co d 7 Rh d 7 Ir 5d 7 Mt 6d 7 0 IB Ni d 8 Ni d 8 Ni 5d 8 Cu s d 0 Ag 5s d 0 Au 6s 5d 0 IIB Zn d 0 Cd d 0 Hg 5d 0 IIIA B p Al p Ga p In 5p Tl 6p IVA C p Si p Ge p Sn 5p Pb 6p 5 VA N p P p As p Sb 5p Bi 6p 6 VIA O p S p Se p Te 5p Po 6p 7 VIIA F p 5 Cl p 5 Be p 5 I 5p 5 At 6p 5 8 VIIIA e - config. for Sulfur? He s Ne p 6 Ar p 6 Kr p 6 Xe 5p 6 Rn 6p 6

15 s Electron Configuration: Sulfur - shell of valence electrons = va - valence electrons; the number of valence electrons = IA H s Li s Na s K s Rb 5s Cs 6s Fr 7s IIA Be s Mg s Ca s Sr 5s Ba 6s Ra 7s IIIB Sc d Y d La 5d Ac 6d IVB Ti d Zr d Hf 5d Db 6d 5 VB V d Nb d Ta 5d Jl 6d 6 VIB 7 VIIB Cr Mn s d 5 d 5 Mo Tc 5s d 5 d 5 W Re 6s 5d 5 5d 5 Rf 7s 6d 5 Bh 6d VIIIB Fe d 6 Ru d 6 Os 5d 6 Hn 6d 6 e - config for Sulfur S = [Ne]s p Co d 7 Rh d 7 Ir 5d 7 Mt 6d 7 0 IB Ni d 8 Ni d 8 Ni 5d 8 Cu s d 0 Ag 5s d 0 Au 6s 5d 0 IIB Zn d 0 Cd d 0 Hg 5d 0 IIIA B p Al p Ga p In 5p Tl 6p IVA C p Si p Ge p Sn 5p Pb 6p 5 VA N p P p As p Sb 5p Bi 6p 6 VIA O p S p Se p Te 5p Po 6p 7 VIIA F p 5 Cl p 5 Be p 5 I 5p 5 At 6p 5 8 VIIIA He s Ne p 6 Ar p 6 Kr p 6 Xe 5p 6 Rn 6p 6 p - previous noble gas = Ne (0 e - ) ne - number of electrons; the total number of electrons; this equals the number of protons or atomic number = 6 5

16 Electron arrangement for the Sulfur atom The 6 electrons for sulfur occupy the shells & orbitals of sulfur from the lowest energy to the highest s p d f e - config for Sulfur S = [Ne]s p 6 total electrons S Relative Energies of the orbitals and the filling order. 6

17 Electron arrangement for the Scandium atom The 6 electrons for sulfur occupy the shells & orbitals of sulfur from the lowest energy to the highest s p d f e - config for Scandium Sc = [Ar]s d total electrons Sc Relative Energies of the orbitals and the filling order. 7

18 Electron arrangement for the Scandium atom The 6 electrons for sulfur occupy the shells & orbitals of sulfur from the lowest energy to the highest s p d f e - config for Tin Sn = [Kr]5s d 0 5p 50 total electrons Sn Relative Energies of the orbitals and the filling order. 8

19 The First 0 elements: s H = s He = s Li = s s Be = s s B = s s p C = s s p N = s s p O = s s p F = s s p 5 Ne = s s p 6 Na = s s p 6 s Mg = s s p 6 s Al = s s p 6 s p Si = s s p 6 s p P = s s p 6 s p S = s s p 6 s p Cl = s s p 6 s p 5 Ar = s s p 6 s p 6 s p s p 9

20 Assignment: Determine the electron configuration.. Write out the electron configurations for the following atoms and ions. Determine the number of unpaired electrons in the ground state. Al Mg + 50 Sn 5 P - Se - Ge +. Write the electron box diagram for the following elements. Which have identical electron configuration (isoelectronic)? S - Cl Ar Ca +. What does the term: Aufbau, Pauli Exclusion and Hund s Rule mean?. How does atomic radius change as one goes left to right along the periodic table? Explain*. 5. How does the ionization change as one goes down the periodic table? Explain*. * Explain, means explain why. 0

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