Chapter 13 Muscular Analysis of Trunk and Lower Extremity Exercises

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1 Muscular Analysis of & Lower Chapter 13 Muscular Analysis of and Lower Manual of Structural Kinesiology R.T. Floyd, EdD, ATC, CSCS Strength, endurance, & flexibility of the lower extremity, trunk, & muscles are very important in skillful physical performance & body maintenance Whether the muscle is lengthening or shortening during movement determines contraction type Muscles may shorten or lengthen in the absence of a contraction through passive movement caused by other contracting muscles, momentum, gravity, or external forces such as manual assistance machines 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Muscular Analysis of & Lower Concentric contractions shortening contraction of muscles against gravity or resistance Eccentric contraction muscle lengthens under tension to control the joints moving with gravity or resistance Muscular Analysis of & Lower Quadriceps contracts eccentrically when the body slowly lowers in a weightbearing movement through lower extremity action functions as a decelerator to knee joint in weight-bearing movements by contracting eccentrically to prevent too rapid of a downward movement slow descent is eccentric & ascent from the squatted position is concentric 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Muscular Analysis of & Lower Quadriceps function in squatting descent at the same speed as gravity, essentially under no muscular control, the muscle lengthening would be passive movement & change in muscle length would be caused by gravity, not by active muscular contraction Free Weight-Training Exercises Exercise with weights is a commonly used means of developing & maintaining muscular strength in young people & adults When using free weights it is important to ensure that one group of muscles is not overdeveloped and another is underdeveloped Thorough knowledge of muscles being used is essential 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved

2 Sit-up, bent knee Participant lies on back, forearms crossed and lying across chest, with knees flexed 90 degrees & feet about hip-width apart s & knees are flexed in this manner to reduce hip flexor length, thereby reducing their contribution to sit-up & allow more emphasis on s Participant curls up to a sitting position, rotates trunk to right, touches left elbow to right knee Returns to starting position Rotate to left on next repetition 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Cervical spine Sit-up, bent knee Curling phase to sitting-up position Cervical spine flexors flexors Rectus abdominis External oblique Internal oblique flexors Maintenance of cervical Maintenance of hip Rotating to right phase Cervical spine flexors (isometric Right lumbar Right lumbar rotators rotation R) Rectus abdominis L) External oblique R) Internal oblique R) Erector spinae flexors (isometric 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Sit-up, bent knee Return phase to sitting-up position Cervical Maintenance Cervical spine flexors spine of cervical (isometric Left lumbar rotation to neutral position Right lumbar rotators (eccentric R) Rectus abdominis L) External oblique R) Internal oblique R) Erector spinae Maintenance flexors of hip Return phase to starting position Cervical spine flexors (eccentric flexors (eccentric Rectus abdominis External oblique Internal oblique flexors (eccentric 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Alternating Prone s Participant lies prone position, with the shoulders fully flexed in a relaxed position lying in front of the body Participant raises head, upper trunk, & thighs from the floor Knees are kept in full extension Then return to starting position 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Shoulder Shoulder girdle Adduction Alternating Prone s in Lifting Shoulder joint flexors Pectoralis major (clavicular head or upper fibers) Deltoid Coracobrachialis Shoulder girdle adductors Trapezius Rhomboids extensors Erector spinae Splenius Abduction (return to neutral relaxed position) in Lowering Shoulder joint flexors (eccentric Pectoralis major (clavicular head or upper fibers) Deltoid Coracobrachialis Shoulder girdle adductors (eccentric Trapezius Rhomboids & cervical spine extensors (eccentric Erector spinae Splenius extensors extensors (eccentric (return to neutral relaxed position) 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All Biceps rights reserved. femoris Squat Participant places a barbell on the shoulders behind the neck and grasps it with palmsforward position of hands Participant squats down until thighs are parallel to floor, keeping back straight Return to starting position Ensure that the shins remain as vertical 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved

3 Knee Squat in Lowering extensors (eccentric (eccentric Ankle Dorsi Plantar flexors (eccentric Plantar in Lifting extensors Plantar flexors 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Dead Lift Participant begins in hip flexed position, keeping arms, legs, & back straight, and grasps the barbell on the floor Move to standing position is made by extending the hips Lumbar extensors must be utilized as isometric stabilizers of the low back while the hip extensors perform the majority of the lift in this exercise 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Wrist & hand Maintenance of extension Dead Lift Wrist & hand flexors (isometric extensors (isometric Erector spinae (sacrospinalis) extensors in Lifting Knee (quadriceps) 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Wrist & hand Maintenance of extension Dead Lift in Lowering Wrist & hand flexors (isometric extensors (isometric Erector spinae (sacrospinalis) extensors (eccentric Knee (quadriceps) (eccentric 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Isometric Exercises Abdominal Contraction An exercise technique in which there is contraction of muscle groups with no appreciable muscle shortening not as productive in terms of overall strength gains as isotonics an effective way to build & maintain muscular strength in a limited range of motion Contractions should be held approximately 7-10 seconds for a training effect Participant contracts anterior region muscles as strongly as possible without moving the trunk or hips Rectus abdominis External oblique Internal oblique Transversus abdominis 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved

4 Participant sits on a bench or chair with the knees slightly bent & with left leg over right Attempt to raise right leg while resisting it with left leg Leg Lifter 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved flexors Sartorius Tensor fasciae latae Leg Lifter Ankle Dorsi Ankle dorsiflexors Tibialis anterior Extensor hallucis longus Extensor digitorum longus Peroneus tertius Knee in Right Attempting Upward (quadriceps) Plantar in Left Resisting Upward Plantar flexors Gastrocenemius Knee flexors (hamstrings) Semimbranosus extensors Semimbranosus 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Sled Participant lies supine with the knees & hips flexed in a position close to chest Feet are placed on the apparatus plate Knees & hips are extended completely to move the plate upward Return to the starting position 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Ankle Plantar Knee in Pushing Ankle plantar flexors (quadriceps) extensors Sled Dorsi Ankle plantar flexors (eccentric in Lowering (quadriceps) (eccentric extensors (eccentric 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Rowing Exercise Participant sits on a movable seat with knees & hips flexed close to the chest Arms are reaching forward to grasp a horizontal bar Legs are extended forcibly as arms are pulled toward chest Return to starting position 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Foot & ankle Knee Plantar extensors extensors Erector spinae Rowing Exercise in arm pull/leg push Ankle plantarflexors Quadriceps (knee extensors) Dorsi Ankle dorsiflexors Tibialis anterior Extensor hallucis longus Extensor digitorum longus Peroneus tertius in return to starting Knee flexors (hamstrings) flexors flexors Rectus abdominis Internal oblique 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. External oblique

5 Shoulder girdle Elbow joint Wrist & hand Adduction, downward rotation, & depression Shoulder joint Elbow joint flexors Brachialis Brachioradialis Rowing Exercise in arm pull/leg push Shoulder girdle adductors, downward rotators, & depressors Trapezius (lower) Rhomboid Pectoralis minor Shoulder joint extensors Latissimus dorsi Teres major Posterior deltoid Teres minor Infraspinatus Wrist & hand flexors (isometric Abduction, upward rotation, & elevation in return to starting Shoulder girdle adductors, downward rotators, & depressors (eccentric Trapezius (lower) Rhomboid Pectoralis minor Shoulder joint extensors (eccentric Latissimus dorsi Teres major Posterior deltoid Teres minor Infraspinatus Elbow joint flexors (eccentric Brachialis Brachioradialis Wrist & hand flexors (isometric 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved American College of Sports Medicine Scientific research, education, and practical applications of sports medicine and exercise science to maintain and enhance physical performance, fitness, health, and quality of life Concept II Information on the technique of rowing and the muscles used. Fitness World The information at this site is about fitness in general and includes access to Fitness Management magazine McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved National Council of Strength & Fitness Personal Training Certification & Continuing Education for the Fitness Professional National Strength and Conditioning Association Information on the profession of strength and conditioning specialists and personal trainers NSCA Certification Commission The certifying body for the National Strength and Conditioning Association Presidents Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Information and links from the U.S. government on fitness ExRx.net A resource for the exercise professional, coach, or fitness enthusiast consisting of over 1500 pages of exercises and anatomy illustrations National Academy of Sports Medicine Offers specific certifications for health and fitness exercise specialists and a valuable resource for continuing education on exercise techniques, etc. Upper Extremity Conditioning Program Shows strengthening exercises for the upper body 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Rehab Team Site: Passive Stretching Passive Range of Motion Exercises Body Map Describes specific injuries and how to properly rehab with weights Physician and Sports Medicine: Weight Training Injuries Article that is about upper body injuries and how to strengthen the upper body NISMAT Exercise Programs Step by step instructions of strengthening exercises along with diagrams Spine Health.com Information on the spine including core body strengthening exercises #1 Back Pain Site Information on back pain as well as strengthening and stretching exercises for the back 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved

6 Runner Girl.com Strengthening and stretching exercises as well as other health and fitness information for women 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved

Chapter 13 Muscular Analysis of Trunk and Lower Extremity Exercises

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