Soil Nutrient Sources and NutrientUptake

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1 Soil Nutrient Sources and NutrientUptake

2 Photosynthesis Plants use light energy and chlorophyll to make sugars for plant growth from water and carbon dioxide. Light and Chlorophyll 6 CO H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 + 6H 2 O Carbon dioxide Water Glucose Oxygen Water

3 Functions of Nutrients in Plants Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen make up 95% of the dry matter weight of plants. Carbon dioxide from air is converted in the plant to sugars, starches, proteins, enzymes, and a multitude of other organic compounds. Oxygen is a component of most organic compounds, must be present for plant roots to function. Hydrogen and oxygen form water which makes up most of the weight of living plants. Hydrogen is a constituent of most organic compounds and is involved in many of the chemical reactions in the plant.

4 17 Essential Plant Nutrients Source of Plant Nutrients From Air Carbon (C) Oxygen (O) From Soil From Water Hydrogen (H) Oxygen (O) Nitrogen (N) Calcium (Ca) Boron (B) Phosphorus (P) Magnesium (Mg) Chlorine (Cl) Potassium (K) Sulfur (S) Copper (Cu) Iron (Fe) Manganese (Mn) Molybdenum (Mo) Zinc (Zn) Nickel (Ni)

5 SOIL ORGANIC MATTER Partially decomposed residue of plants, animals, etc. Humus is the more stable residue 1-3% decomposes annually Soil Organic Matter - Improves soil structure, water holding capacity, etc. Provides for good soil tilth Provides CEC Source of essential plant nutrients 90-98% of N abd S 30-50% of P; Micronutrients

6 Soil Microbes Mineralize and Immobilize Plant Nutrients. Organic nutrients Plant Unavailable Form Mineralization Immobilization Inorganic nutrients Plant Available Form

7 Factors Affecting Organic Matter Levels Temperature Precipitation Drainage Vegetation Tillage Erosion

8 Effect of Temp and Moisture on Soil Organic Matter

9 Soil Organic Matter Content Changes Since Cultivation

10 Estimated Residue Production by Various Crops?? lb per bu yield Wheat 100 Corn 60 Sorghum 60 Soybean 45 Sunflower 36 NRCS calculation factor

11 Crop Residue Decomposition Assumptions Weight of Plow Layer (6-7 ) of Soil Equals 2,000,000 lb/acre Crop Residues are about 43% Carbon (C) About 67% of residue carbon is lost as microbial CO 2 If Adequate N Available. May be 75-80% loss if N is limiting. Assume SOM is 59% carbon About 1-3 % of SOM is decomposed each year

12 Increasing SOM Content Assume 45 bu/a wheat provides 4,500 lbs residue 4,500 lb residue x 43% C = 1,935 lbs Total C/A 1,935 lbs C x 67% = 1,300 Lbs C Respired By Microbes 1,935-1, 295 = 640 lbs Carbon Remaining 640 / 59% = 1,085 lbs SOM Formed Assume A Soil With 2% SOM and 2% Is Mineralized Per Year = 800 lbs SOM Mineralized Per Year Net SOM addition = 1, = 284 lbs SOM per year

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15 Effect Of 20 Years Residue Management (KSU, Ottawa) 20 Year Yield Residue Treatment Grain Bu/a Residue Ton/a Soil ph Organic Matter Removed Normal Doubled

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17 Effect Of 20 Years Wheat Residue Management (KSU, Holcomb) Residue Treatment Soil ph Bray P (ppm) Exch. K (ppm) Org. Matter Burned Removed Normal Double LSD (0.05) 0.1 NS

18 Effect of N Rate and Tillage Method on Soil Organic Matter Content Depth,N Soil Organic Matter in. Rate No-Till Conventional Lb/Acre % %

19 No-till promotes fungal activity 2 in Fonte: Juca Sá

20 Cation Exchange Capacity CEC

21 Ions are Electrically Charged Molecules Cation: Positively Charged Ion + Anion: Negatively Charged Ion - Cations in Soil Potassium Ammonium Magnesium Calcium Manganese Zinc Hydrogen Sodium Aluminum Nutrient Nonnutrients Anions in Soil Nitrate Sulfate Phosphate Chloride Borate Molybdate Hydroxyl Bicarbonate Carbonate

22 Microscopic View of Clay Layered much like mica or a deck of cards Expand and contract with moisture Ions like K + can be trapped between the layers. K +

23 WITH A MAGNET IN THE SOIL Unlikes Attract Likes Repel Unlikes Attract Likes Repel CLAY CLAY NO 3 - NITRATE NH4 + AMMONIUM CLAY CLAY PO 4 - PHOSPHATE Ca++ CALCIUM

24 Surface Charges of Soil Colloids The Tremendous surface area of soil colloids has a net negative electrical charge. Clay Likes Repel Unlikes attract Clay - NH 4 + Ammonium NO3 - Nitrate

25 Cations Are Not Stuck To CEC Sites They Exchange With Cations In Soil Solution Soil Solution Cl - SO = 4 K + Mg ++ Ca ++ Ca ++ Soil Colloid Na + Na + H 2 PO - 4 NH + 4 NO - 3 CEC Sites

26 Effect of Soil-herbicide Bonding on Herbicide Performance Herbicide Herbicide Clay Soil Solution or Vapor Phase Organic Matter Equilibrium reaction, not a permanent bonding to soil

27 How Soil Retains Nutrients Cation exchange capacity is the result of permanent negatively charged sites on soil colloids - clays and soil organic matter Cations can attach to these sites and detach again in exchange for other cations CEC is expressed in mmol per 100 gm soil of soil

28 Soil s CEC indicates several properties CEC (High) High clay and humus More lime needed to correct ph Greater capacity to hold nutrients High water-holding capacity CEC 1-10 (Low) High sand content Less lime needed to correct ph Nitrogen and potassium leaching more likely Low water-holding capacity

29 Cation Exchange Capacity Soil Texture Type CEC meq./100g. Sands 2-5 Sandy Loam 5-12 Loams Silt and Silty Clay Loams Clay and Clay Loams 25-40

30 Cation Exchange Capacity Soil Colloid Exchange Capacity (meq/100 grams soil) Kaolinite 3-15 Illite Montmorillonite Organic Matter

31 Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) What Does Soil CEC Do? How Do We Use? Indicates the soils ability to supply cations Affects the amount of limestone needed to correct soil acidity Provides an estimate of soil texture (% clay)

32 Mobile and Immobile Nutrients Roots absorb nutrients from the water film Immobile nutrients, such as P and K, do not move far NO 3 - H + Ca ++ H + SO 4 = Root Hair Soil Colloid Ca ++ NH + 4 K + H + (clay or humus) K + Mg ++ K + HPO 4 = H + H + Zn ++ Ca-H 2 PO 4 H + NO 3 - Water Film

33 Cation Bonding Strength Cations with greater bonding strengths are held on exchange sites more tightly and are released into the soil water solution less easily than others. Cation Bonding Strength 1. Hydrogen Strongest 2. Aluminum 3. Calcium 4. Magnesium 5. Potassium 6. Ammonium 7. Sodium Weakest

34 The Concept of the Most Limiting Factor Just as the capacity of the wooden bucket to hold water is determined by the height of the shortest stave, crop yields are restricted by the nutrient in shortest supply!

35 Corn Dry Matter Accumulation

36 Corn Nitrogen Uptake

37 Corn Phosphorus Uptake

38 Seed Root System Plant depends on the energy reserves from the seed until permanent roots are developed

39 Corn Potassium Uptake

40 Grain Sorghum Nutrient and Dry Matter Accumulation

41 Relative N Uptake for Wheat Percent N Uptake N D J Tillering Complete Jointing F M A M Weeks after Emergence Boot

42 Mechanisms of Nutrient Uptake Nutrients are absorbed by roots as ions from the soil water or solution. Diffusion - movement of ions from a zone of high concentration to a zone of lower concentration. Short distances: Immobile nutrients Mass Flow - movement of ions in soil solution as water moves. Longer distances: Mobile nutrients Root Interception - root grows to the nutrient Unexplored soil zone

43 Relative Importance of Soil Supply Mechanisms* Nutrient Supply Mechanism, % Interception Mass Flow Diffusion Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Calcium Magnesium Sulfur * 150 bu/a corn crop Barber, 1995

44 Root Competition for Mobile Nutrients Roots compete for mobile nutrients with other plants Roots compete little for immobile nutrients with other plants. What is effect of plant population or weeds on competition for mobile and immobile nutrients?

45 Nutrient Mobility & Plant Competition Mobile nutrients: Suited to surface application. Large root uptake zone Immobile nutrients: Incorporated. Limited root uptake zone

46 Root Patterns For Several Crops 0 Depth in Feet Potato SugarBeet Soybean Small Grains Corn Alfalfa

47 Crop Rooting Patterns Crops having deep roots can absorb water and mobile nutrients from the subsoil. Fertilization generally increases plant root growth. Nutrient mobility and crop rooting patterns affect fertilizer placement. Soil Sampling Recommendations: Sample the surface 0 6 depth for immobile nutrients, such as P and K. Sample 0 24 deep for N, Cl and S since they are soluble, mobile nutrients.

48 Soybean Roots (left) Corn Roots (right) 5

49 Corn Root System Development 36 Days 8 Weeks Source: Weaver, 1926 Mature

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51 Soil Nutrient Sources and NutrientUptake

52 Review Exercise 1. Three essential elements involved in photosynthesis are carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. a. True. b. False. 2. Indicate which groups are primary nutrients, secondary nutrients, and which are micronutrients : a. Boron, copper, iron. b. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium. c. Aluminum, sodium, fluorine. d. Calcium, magnesium, sulfur. 3. Soil colloids (clay and organic matter) have electrical charges on their surfaces. a. Positive. b. Negative. c. Neutral. d. No.

53 5. Which one of the following generally is the largest contributor to CEC in most soils? a. Sand. b. Silt. c. Clay. d.humus. 6. is an important plant nutrient in cation form. a. Potassium. b. Sodium. c. Nitrate. d. Phosphate. 7. CEC, an abbreviation for Cation Exchange Capacity, is an important measure of the amount of cations a soil can hold in an exchangeable form. a. True. b. False. 88. oils with a relatively high cation exchange capacity of 15 to 40 meq/100 g can generally be expected to have 89.

54 9. and are considered immobile nutrients in most soils while and are mobile nutrients, easily transported by soil water. a. Na + b. H 2 PO 4 - c. K + d. NO 3 - e. SO Soil sampling of the surface 6-7 soil layer only is recommended for nutrients while deeper sampling is recommended for nutrients. a. Mobile. b. All. c. Immobile. d. Organic he judicious use of fertilizer generally increases plant root growth and the ability of roots to forage for water and nutrients. a. True. b. False. 12. Immobile nutrients are taken up by plant roots primarily through: a. Diffusion of nutrient ions to the root b. Mass flow of water to the root

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