2 Word Morphology the study of the structure of words Lexicology the study of the stock of words (lexis, lexicon) in a given language. Word is of central importance to lexicology In morphology, the word is not sufficient in the analysis, because there are smaller units. What do we mean by the term word in lexicology? Not easy to define word. Why?
3 Word Speech is a continuous stream of sound without a clear division into units, but it can be analysed into meanngful elements which recur and combine according to rules. In writing, such an analysis is expressed through the division into words and sentences. The essence of grammatical units is that they are meaningful and combine with each other in systematic ways. We may distinguish a hierarchy of units: A sentence consists of clauses, a clause consists of one or more phrases, a phrase consists of one or more words, a word of one or more morphemes, a morpheme consists of one or more phonemes.
4 Definition of Word The term word is used to designate an intermediate structure smaller than a whole phrase and yet larger than a single sound segment. It can be defined depending on whether we focus on its representation, the thought which it expresses, or purely formal criteria. However, although it may be difficult to define word, even nonliterate speakers can divide the speech chain into words.
5 First definition This definition relies mainly on writing traditions that separate by spaces sequences of letters or characters. These separations do not always correspond to functional realities. In speech these pauses do not exist. Speech is a phonetic continuum and breaks are done only between some larger syntactic units, such as phrases or clauses. E.g. School, household, in, fall out, waste paper basket, forget-me-not, runner-up. Value of these spaces? Consequently, a definition based on writing traditions alone cannot be entirely satisfactory.
6 Second definition The second type of definition considers the indivisible unit of thought as the most essential criterion. The main problem faced by this view is the delimitation which offers us three possible alternatives: A) the word as represented in writing represents a thought unit or a psychological unit, e.g. table, house, courage, faith, intelligence, tall, short, sleep, eat B) The word forms one block but includes two units of thought: e.g. farmer, rethink, spoonful. C) The psychological unit exceeds the limit of the graphological unit and spreads over several words, which is then a more complex unit: e.g. all of a sudden, as usual, coconut.
7 Third definition By L. Bloomfield, who suggested a formal definition of word. He contrasted it with other significant units, the morpheme or minimal meaningful unit, and the syntagma or structure, consisting potentially of more than one word. For Bloomfield, a minimal form is morpheme. A form which may occur alone is free, and the one which cannot occur alone is bound: F book, man ; B -ing, -er. Word is a minimal free form, which can occur in isolation and have meaning but which cannot be analysed into elements which can all occur alone and also have meaning.
8 Working definition The word is an uninterruptible unit of structure consisting of one or more morphemes and which typically occurs in the structure of phrases. The morphemes are the ultimate grammatical constituents, the minimal meaningful units of language.
9 Word Another difficulty when treating words is the term word itself, which may be used in a number of different ways: 1. It may refer to the word form, the physical unit or concrete realisation, either the orthographical word (the written form) or the phonological word (the uttered or transcribed form). 2. It may refer to the lexeme, which is rather like a dictionary entry. A lexeme includes all inflected formes of a word. It is an abstraction and is indicated by small capitals: e.g. WALK walk, walks, walked, walking RUN run, runs, ran, running SING sing, sings, sang, sung, singing.
10 Lexeme Since the lexeme is abstract, it is conventional to choose one of the inflected forms to represent it, such as infinitive of the verb or the singular of the noun. The same word form may in fact represent different lexemes: a. A homonym is a single orthographic and phonological word standing for two lexemes, as bear is either the verb or the noun. b. A homograph is a single orthographic word (but separate phonological words) standing for two lexemes, as lead is either the noun /lεd/ or the verb /li:d/. c. A homophone is a single phonological word (but separate orthographical words) standing for two lexemes, as /mi:t/ is either the noun meat or the verb meet.
11 Lexeme The same lexeme might also have quite distinct word forms, as in the case of the definite article the, represented by /ð / or /ð /, or the indefinite article a/an, represented by /e /, / /, / n/, or / n/. 3. Finally, word may also refer to a morphosyntactic word (or grammatical word). A morphosyntactic word consists of a lexeme and associated grammatical meaning. For example, in: I take the garbage out every week. (TAKE + present) I took the garbage out yesterday. (TAKE + past) I have taken the garbage out already. (TAKE + past participle)
12 Word-form the different morphosyntactic words are represented by different word forms (take, took, taken). But in I put the garbage out every week. (PUT + present) I put the garbage out yesterday. (PUT + past) I have put the garbage out already. (PUT + past participle) the different morphosyntactic words are represented by the same word form (put).
13 Lexical words We shall now come back to the distinction often made between lexical (content), function words and inserts. In most general terms, lexical words are nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. They have fairly independent meanings and may be meaningful even in isolation or in a series. They are the main carriers of meaning in a text. For example, bottle has an independent meaning; and so does the series boy, break, bottle, stone. They are the words that remain in the informationdense language of telegrams, lecture notes, headlines, etc.
14 Function words The English vocabulary has thousands of lexical words, and new items can always be added to the list. Function words bind the text together. They often have a wide range of meanings and serve two main roles: indicating relationships between lexical words or larger units, or indicating the way in which a lexical word or larger unit is to be interpreted. Function words are elements like prepositions, determiners,pronouns, numerals, auxiliaries, adverbial particles, coordinators, subordinators, wh-words, the negator not, existential there, the infinitive marker to... Such classes contain relatively few members and the addition of new members is rather rare. They constitute closed classes or closed sets.
15 However, although prepositions may be classed as grammatical/function words, they are not completely empty of semantic content. The sentence «The book is on the table» has quite a different meaning when on is replaced by under, near, off, etc. Similarly, the co-ordinators and, or, and but are not mutually interchangeable, because they are not synonymous.
16 Inserts Inserts are a relatively newly recognized category of word. They do not form an integral part of a syntactic structure, but are inserted rather freely in the text. They are often marked off by intonation, pauses, or by punctuation marks in writing. They characteristically carry emotional and interactional meanings and are especially frequent in spoken texts. E.g. Hm hm, very good. (CONV) Cheers man. (CONV) Yeah, I will. Bye. (CONV) Biber et al. (1999)
17 Multiple class membership Word classes have fuzzy borderlines: Homonymy a single form belongs to more than one word class. E.g. right can be a lexical word (noun, verb, adjective, or adverb), or a function word (preposition or subordinator). A number of forms can belong to more than one function word class, e.g. To (preposition and infinitive marker), for (preposition and subordinator), etc. Other examples: Before adverb, preposition, subordinator Round Noun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition Weekly noun, adjective, adverb Early adjective, adverb (Biber et al. 1999)
18 Characteristics of words First, the word is an uninterruptible unit. When elements are added to a word to modify its meaning, they are never included within that word. They respect the internal stability of the word and are added either at the beginning as prefixes of the word or at the end as suffixes. For example, the prefix un- and the suffix able may be added to the words aware and drink and give unaware and drinkable respectively.
19 Note, however, that an affix may also occur not at the beginning or at the end, but sumultaneously with the word; we then speak of a suprafix. Compare for example the words 'export (noun) and ex'port (verb); they differ only in the position of the primary stress represented by the symbol ('). The stress pattern may be referred to as a suprafix. The word to which affixes are added and which carries the basic meaning of the resulting complex word is known as 'the stem',which may consist of one or more morphemes. The label 'root' is used to refer to a stem consisting of a single morpheme.
20 Secondly, the word may consist of one or more morphemes. When it consists of one morpheme only, then it cannot be broken down into smaller meaningful units, e.g. dog, hand, man, out, work. These are called 'simple' words, which are typically 'minimum free forms', in the sense that they may stand by themselves and yet act as minimally complete utterances, e.g. in answer to a question.
21 When words consist of more than one morpheme, they may be either complex or compound. Complex words may be broken down into one free form and one or more bound forms: e.g. dog-s, happi-ly, quick-er, work-ing, whereas compound words consist of more than one free form: e.g. birth+day, black+bird, candle+stick, coat+hanger. We also need to mention cases which incorporate the characteristics of both complex and compound words: e.g. gentle-man-ly consists of the compound word gentle+man and the suffix -ly; wind+shield+wipe-er consists of the compound word wind+shield and the complex word wip-er.
22 Finally, it is also an important characteristic of each word that it should belong to a specific word class or part of speech. Where the same form appears in more than one class, as frequently happens in English, we regard the various occurences as separate words (for example, smoke (verb) as distinct from smoke (noun)). It may even be suggested that a word is defined by two factors: its semantic 'nucleus' and the class to which it belongs.
Morphology Morphology is the study of word formation, of the structure of words. Some observations about words and their structure: 1. some words can be divided into parts which still have meaning 2. many
English Appendix 2: Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation The grammar of our first language is learnt naturally and implicitly through interactions with other speakers and from reading. Explicit knowledge
Pupil SPAG Card 1 1 I know about regular plural noun endings s or es and what they mean (for example, dog, dogs; wish, wishes) 2 I know the regular endings that can be added to verbs (e.g. helping, helped,
Overview of topics What is Syntax? Word Classes What to remember and understand: Ling 201 Syntax 1 Jirka Hana April 10, 2006 Syntax, difference between syntax and semantics, open/closed class words, all
Morphemes, roots and affixes 28 October 2011 Previously said We think of words as being the most basic, the most fundamental, units through which meaning is represented in language. Words are the smallest
LISTENING Standard : Students demonstrate competence in listening as a tool for learning and comprehension. Proficiency Level I: Students at this level are beginning to understand short utterances. They
Spoken language -structured descriptions, explanations and narratives for different purposes, including for expressing feelings ng, hypothesising, imagining and exploring ideas to comments the interest
Grade 4 Language Standards : Conventions of Standard English Essential Questions: 1. Why is it important to have command of Standard English conventions? 2. How do I determine the meaning of an unfamiliar
Using Language Stage Research** and CCEE ELA Language Domain, Standard, to Develop Conventions of Standard English Language Stage CCSS* Supporting Speaking and Writing for Students with Complex Communication
Parts of Speech Skills Team, University of Hull Language comes before grammar, which is only an attempt to describe a language. Knowing the grammar of a language does not mean you can speak or write it
VA English Standards of Learning Related to Spelling Kindergarten K.4 The student will identify, say, segment, and blend various units of speech sounds. a) Begin to discriminate between spoken sentences,
Writing Common Core KEY WORDS An educator's guide to words frequently used in the Common Core State Standards, organized by grade level in order to show the progression of writing Common Core vocabulary
1. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs serve grammatical functions, for this reason they are said to belong to the functional category of words. The main auxiliary verbs in English are DO, BE and HAVE. Others,
Cohesive devices Teacher resource: textual features Textual features relevant to the second objective of Dimension 2 are described below. These are features that teachers may like to draw on to further
Y1 Parts of Speech: Sentence Structure: Punctuation: I can write a simple with a subject and a verb I can use and to join two clauses I can use finger spaces to separate words I can use full stops to end
Index Index 343 Index A A, an (usage), 8, 123 A, an, the (articles), 8, 123 diagraming, 205 Abbreviations, correct use of, 18 19, 273 Abstract nouns, defined, 4, 63 Accept, except, 12, 227 Action verbs,
Well-Ordered Language Level 1 Song Lyrics Note: This document contains the lyrics for all of the songs in WOL1A and 1B. Eight Parts of Speech (1 1) The eight parts of speech are classes of words with the
, pp.290-295 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/astl.2015.111.55 Efficient Techniques for Improved Data Classification and POS Tagging by Monitoring Extraction, Pruning and Updating of Unknown Foreign Words Irfan
Glossary of key terms and guide to methods of language analysis AS and A-level English Language (7701 and 7702) Introduction This document offers guidance on content that students might typically explore
Section 9 Foreign Languages I. OVERALL OBJECTIVE To develop students basic communication abilities such as listening, speaking, reading and writing, deepening their understanding of language and culture
Advanced CB 21 A One level Assess descriptions and narrations of factual and technical materials. Discriminate for accurate information while taking notes of a complex discourse. Assess the essential message
Glossary of literacy terms These terms are used in literacy. You can use them as part of your preparation for the literacy professional skills test. You will not be assessed on definitions of terms during
TERMINOGRAPHY and LEXICOGRAPHY What is the difference? Summary Anja Drame TermNet Summary/ Conclusion Variety of language (GPL = general purpose SPL = special purpose) Lexicography GPL SPL (special-purpose
Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening June 1, 2009 FINAL Elementary Standards Grades 3-8 Pennsylvania Department of Education These standards are offered as a voluntary resource
Word-formation in English by Ingo Plag Universität Siegen in press Cambridge University Press Series Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics Draft version of September 27, 2002 i TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction...
Lengua Inglesa II 2009-2010 Topic 3: Grammatical Units Subtopic 1: Units and Boundaries Subtopic 2: The Noun Phrase Mick O Donnell VI-bis 302 firstname.lastname@example.org 1. Units and rank scale Unit: any stretch
COURSE SYLLABUS ESU 561 ASPECTS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE Fall 2014 EDU 561 (85515) Instructor: Bart Weyand Classroom: Online TEL: (207) 985-7140 E-Mail: email@example.com COURSE DESCRIPTION: This is a practical
SYNTAX Syntax the study of the system of rules and categories that underlies sentence formation. 1) Syntactic categories lexical: - words that have meaning (semantic content) - words that can be inflected
NAP Narrative Assessment Protocol Laura M Justice Khara Pence Ryan Bowles Carolyn Gosse C Gosse NAP Elicitation Directions 1. Introduce the task: Show the cover of the book to the child. Say: We are going
Checklist for Recognizing Complete Verbs Use the following six guidelines to help you determine if a word or group of words is a verb. 1. A complete verb tells time by changing form. This is the number
ONLINE ENGLISH LANGUAGE RESOURCES Developed and updated by C. Samuel for students taking courses at the English and French Language Centre, Faculty of Arts (Links live as at November 2, 2009) Dictionaries
Interpreting areading Scaled Scores for Instruction Individual scaled scores do not have natural meaning associated to them. The descriptions below provide information for how each scaled score range should
Glossary of terms: Term Definition Example active voice An active verb has its usual pattern of subject and object (in contrast to the passive voice). Active The school arranged a visit. Passive: adverbs
Diagramming Review WJHS 8 th Grade English 29 April 2013 Sentence Basics The subject of the sentence is the person or thing is performing the action of the sentence or is being described by the sentence.
2 THE PARTS OF SPEECH Grammarians regularly classify each word in a language according to the way in which it is commonly used. For example, a word which is commonly used to name something is classified
BURSTED WOOD PRIMARY SCHOOL Year 6 English Medium Term Plans Reading Word Objectives apply their growing knowledge of root words prefixes and suffixes (morphology and etymology), as listed under the spelling
Adjectives Adjectives are describing words - they tell you more about nouns. Nouns are naming words - they are used to name a person, place or thing. Adjectives tell you more about the noun. Using adjectives
Ohio Early Learning and Development Standards Domain: Language and Literacy Development Strand: Listening and Speaking Topic: Receptive Language and Comprehension Infants Young Toddlers (Birth - 8 months)
Categories Categories According to the Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges, in the Celestial Emporium of Benevolent Knowledge, animals are divided into 1 2 Categories those that belong to the Emperor embalmed
Nouns Section 1.4 Possessive Nouns Nouns may show possession or ownership. Use an apostrophe with a noun to show something belongs to someone or to something. Jane s dress is red. The table s legs were
Welcome to the TEACH Trust Grammar and Punctuation Workshop ~ Key Stage 2 Whilst you are waiting, please have a little go at the warm up quiz on your tables..!! 1. What is grammar and punctuation? 2. What
Kindergarten Common Core State Standards: English Language Arts Reading: Foundational Print Concepts RF.K.1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. o Follow words from
Common Core State Standards (CCSS) College and Career Readiness (CCR) English Language Arts Grade Specific Standards for GRADE ONE CCSS Anchor Standards for ELA - Reading Standards for Literature Key Ideas
MARCHWOOD JUNIOR SCHOOL Year 3 Grammar Guide For Children and Parents A guide to the key grammar skills and understanding that your child will be learning this year with examples and practice questions
Language Meaning and Use Raymond Hickey, English Linguistics Website: www.uni-due.de/ele Types of meaning There are four recognisable types of meaning: lexical meaning, grammatical meaning, sentence meaning
Little Gaddesden School Grammar, spelling and punctuation workshop Grammar, spelling and punctuation (SPAG) are key areas in the teaching of English. We aim to improve writing through improving sentence
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt StoryTown Grade 1 correlated to the Common Core State Standards Initiative English Language Arts (2010) Grade 1 Reading: Literature Key Ideas and details RL.1.1 Ask and answer
LESSON THIRTEEN STRUCTURAL AMBIGUITY Structural ambiguity is also referred to as syntactic ambiguity or grammatical ambiguity. Structural or syntactic ambiguity, occurs when a phrase, clause or sentence
active and passive Many verbs can be active or passive. For example, bite: The dog bit Ben. (active) Ben was bitten by the dog. (passive) In the active sentence, the subject (the dog) performs the action.
Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Language Arts Curriculum and Assessment Alignment Form Rewards Intermediate Grades 4-6 4 I. READING AND LITERATURE A. Word Recognition, Analysis, and Fluency The student
IGCSE English Language Technical Skills: Grammar Copyright 2012 Eddis Tutorial Services, LLC Grammar is boring! I don t know why I have to learn grammar, it s so boring and I already know how to write.
What the National Curriculum requires in reading at Y1 Word reading apply phonic knowledge and skills as the route to decode words respond speedily with the correct sound to graphemes (letters or groups
Language and Literacy In the sections below is a summary of the alignment of the preschool learning foundations with (a) the infant/toddler learning and development foundations, (b) the common core state
3 rd Grade Reading and Writing TEKS 3 rd Nine Weeks Focus: Reading Unit of Study: Research & Media Literary; Informational Text; Biographies and Autobiographies Figure 19: Reading/Comprehension Skills.
H National Quali cations EXEMPLAR PAPER ONLY EP42/H/02 Mark Spanish Directed Writing FOR OFFICIAL USE Date Not applicable Duration 1 hour and 40 minutes *EP42H02* Fill in these boxes and read what is printed
Reading IV Reading IV introduces students to a variety of topics to enrich their reading experience including: a review of consonant and vowel sounds using phonetic clues and diacritical marks to identify
SYNTAX: THE ANALYSIS OF SENTENCE STRUCTURE OBJECTIVES the game is to say something new with old words RALPH WALDO EMERSON, Journals (1849) In this chapter, you will learn: how we categorize words how words
Course Credit In-service points St. Petersburg College RED 4335/Reading in the Content Area Florida Reading Endorsement Competencies 1 & 2 Reading Alignment Matrix Text Rule 6A 4.0292 Specialization Requirements
Page 1 of 57 Grade 3 Reading Literary Text Principles of Reading (P) Standard 1: Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. Standard 2: Demonstrate understanding of spoken
The significance of the lexicon Lexical knowledge Lexical skills 2 The significance of the lexicon Lexical knowledge The Significance of the Lexicon Lexical errors lead to misunderstanding. There s that
page(s) Contents v-viii Figures & tables ix Sources cited x-xxvi Abbreviations & Introduction 1 The Egyptian language 33-36 2 The writing System: its principles 36-40 3 One-consonant signs as phonograms,
The Book of Grammar Lesson Six Mr. McBride AP Language and Composition Table of Contents Lesson One: Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases Lesson Two: The Function of Nouns in a Sentence Lesson Three:
GRAMMAR AND MECHANICS Understanding Relative Clauses A relative (or adjective) clause modifies a noun or pronoun and is introduced by a relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, which, or that) or occasionally
Strand: Reading Literature Key Ideas and Craft and Structure Integration of Knowledge and Ideas RL.K.1. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text RL.K.2. With prompting
Year 1 reading expectations Year 1 writing expectations Responds speedily with the correct sound to graphemes (letters or groups of letters) for all 40+ phonemes, including, where applicable, alternative
GRADE 1 READING Guiding Principle: Students read a wide range of fiction, nonfiction, classic, and contemporary works, to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United
New Syllabus A syllabus, sample questions & answers The Test for English Language Teachers (TELT) is a national, publicly-offered examination which can be sat for in part fulfilment of the qualifications
Teaching Vocabulary to Young Learners (Linse, 2005, pp. 120-134) Very young children learn vocabulary items related to the different concepts they are learning. When children learn numbers or colors in
Lesson Overview of Lesson Plan Numbers 1&2 Introduction to Cambridge KET Handing Over of GMAT.cz KET General Preparation Package Introduce Methodology for Vocabulary Log Introduce Methodology for Grammar
English Parts of speech Parts of Speech There are eight parts of speech. Here are some of their highlights. Nouns Pronouns Adjectives Articles Verbs Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Click on any of the
Answers for the Grammar, Punctuation and Spelling - Level 6 PRACTICE TEST (SET 2) are given below. Where an alternative answer is possible it is flagged in the answer sheet. Suggested revision hints for
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.1.1 Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.1.1.A Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., first word, capitalization,
In the Logic tudy Guide, we ended with a logical tree diagram for WANT (BILL, LEAVE (MARY)), in both unlabelled: tudy Guide WANT BILL and labelled versions: P LEAVE MARY WANT BILL P LEAVE MARY We remarked
READING LITERARY (RL) Key Ideas and Details ELAGSEKRL1: With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. ELAGSEKRL2: With prompting and support, retell familiar stories,
TERMS Parts of Speech Noun: a word that names a person, place, thing, quality, or idea (examples: Maggie, Alabama, clarinet, satisfaction, socialism). Pronoun: a word used in place of a noun (examples:
Florida Reading Endorsement Alignment Matrix Competency 1 The * designates which of the reading endorsement competencies are specific to the competencies for English to Speakers of Languages (ESOL). The
CELTA Certificate in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages Syllabus and Assessment Guidelines Fourth Edition CELTA (Certificate in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) is regulated
Final Exam Grammar Review Nouns 1. Definition of a noun: person, place, thing, or idea 2. Give four examples of nouns: 1. teacher 2. lesson 3. classroom 4. hope 3. Definition of compound noun: two nouns
Macmillan Practice Online is the easy way to get all the benefits of online learning and with over 100 courses to choose from, covering all competence levels and ranging from business English to exam practice
Benchmarking Aspects of Literacy and Numeracy K-2 Early Action for Success Benchmarks Identifying progress in literacy and numeracy All aspects of the literacy and numeracy continuums are helpful in determining
TESTING DI LINGUA INGLESE: PROGRAMMA DI TUTTI I LIVELLI - a.a. 2010/2011 Collaboratori e Esperti Linguistici di Lingua Inglese: Dott.ssa Fatima Bassi e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Dott.ssa Liliana
Syntax: Phrases Sentences can be divided into phrases. A phrase is a group of words forming a unit and united around a head, the most important part of the phrase. The head can be a noun NP, a verb VP,
Trinity Certificate in TESOL Trinity TESOL Study Resource no 7: Teaching Grammar in Context When we teach grammar, we not only help our learners to express themselves, but we also fulfil their expectations
Grade 3 Reading and Literature Objectives STATE GOAL 1: Reading with understanding and fluency. 1A. Apply word analysis and vocabulary skills to comprehend selections. 1.A.2a Read and comprehend unfamiliar
Grade and Unit Timeframe Grammar Mechanics K Unit 1 6 weeks Oral grammar naming words K Unit 2 6 weeks Oral grammar Capitalization of a Name action words K Unit 3 6 weeks Oral grammar sentences Sentence
Module 4 Simple, compound and complex sentences Aim This module highlights the difference between compound and complex sentences. It also shows a variety of ways in which complex sentences can be constructed.
This image cannot currently be displayed. Course Catalog Language Arts 400 2016 Glynlyon, Inc. Table of Contents COURSE OVERVIEW... 1 UNIT 1: READING AND WRITING... 3 UNIT 2: READING FOR MEANING... 3 UNIT