# Sampling and Reconstruction of Analog Signals

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1 Sampling and Reconstruction of Analog Signals Chapter Intended Learning Outcomes: (i) Ability to convert an analog signal to a discrete-time sequence via sampling (ii) Ability to construct an analog signal from a discrete-time sequence (iii) Understanding the conditions when a sampled signal can uniquely present its analog counterpart H. C. So Page 1 Semester B,

2 Sampling Process of converting a continuous-time signal discrete-time sequence into a is obtained by extracting every s where is known as the sampling period or interval sample at analog discrete-time signal signal Fig.4.1: Conversion of analog signal to discrete-time sequence Relationship between and is: (4.1) H. C. So Page 2 Semester B,

3 Conceptually, conversion of to is achieved by a continuous-time to discrete-time (CD) converter: CD converter impulse train to sequence conversion t n Fig.4.2: Block diagram of CD converter H. C. So Page 3 Semester B,

4 A fundamental question is whether can uniquely represent or if we can use to reconstruct t Fig.4.3: Different analog signals map to same sequence H. C. So Page 4 Semester B,

5 But, the answer is yes when: (1) is bandlimited such that its Fourier transform for where is called the bandwidth (2) Sampling period is sufficiently small Example 4.1 The continuous-time signal is used as the input for a CD converter with the sampling period s. Determine the resultant discrete-time signal. According to (4.1), is The frequency in is while that of is H. C. So Page 5 Semester B,

6 Frequency Domain Representation of Sampled Signal In the time domain, is obtained by multiplying by the impulse train : (4.2) with the use of the sifting property of (2.12) Let the sampling frequency in radian be in Hz). From Example 2.8: (or (4.3) H. C. So Page 6 Semester B,

7 Using multiplication property of Fourier transform: (4.4) where the convolution operation corresponds to continuoustime signals Using (4.2)-(4.4) and properties of, is: H. C. So Page 7 Semester B,

8 (4.5) which is the sum of infinite copies of scaled by H. C. So Page 8 Semester B,

9 When can get is chosen sufficiently large such that all copies of do not overlap, that is, or, we from Fig.4.4: for sufficiently large H. C. So Page 9 Semester B,

10 When is not chosen sufficiently large such that, copies of overlap, we cannot get from, which is referred to aliasing Fig.4.5: when is not large enough H. C. So Page 10 Semester B,

11 Nyquist Sampling Theorem (1928) Let be a bandlimited continuous-time signal with (4.6) Then is uniquely determined by its samples,, if (4.7) The bandwidth is also known as the Nyquist frequency while is called the Nyquist rate and must exceed it in order to avoid aliasing H. C. So Page 11 Semester B,

12 Application Biomedical Hz 1 khz Telephone speech khz 8 khz Music khz 44.1 khz Ultrasonic khz 250 khz Radar MHz 200 MHz Table 4.1: Typical bandwidths and sampling frequencies in signal processing applications Example 4.2 Determine the Nyquist frequency and Nyquist rate for the continuous-time signal which has the form of: The frequencies are 0, and. The Nyquist frequency is and the Nyquist rate is H. C. So Page 12 Semester B,

13 Fig.4.6: Multiplying and to recover In frequency domain, we multiply by with amplitude and bandwidth with, to obtain, and it corresponds to H. C. So Page 13 Semester B,

14 Reconstruction Process of transforming back to DC converter sequence to impulse train conversion Fig.4.7: Block diagram of DC converter From Fig.4.6, is (4.8) where H. C. So Page 14 Semester B,

15 For simplicity, we set as the average of and : (4.9) To get, we take inverse Fourier transform of and use Example 2.5: (4.10) where H. C. So Page 15 Semester B,

16 Using (2.23)-(2.24), (4.2) and (2.11)-(2.12), is: (4.11) which holds for all real values of H. C. So Page 16 Semester B,

17 The interpolation formula can be verified at : (4.12) It is easy to see that (4.13) For, we use s rule to obtain: (4.14) Substituting (4.13)-(4.14) into (4.12) yields: (4.15) which aligns with H. C. So Page 17 Semester B,

18 Example 4.3 Given a discrete-time sequence. Generate its time-delayed version which has the form of where and is a positive integer. Applying (4.11) with : By employing a change of variable of : Is it practical to get y[n]? H. C. So Page 18 Semester B,

19 Note that when, the time-shifted signal is simply obtained by shifting the sequence by samples: Sampling and Reconstruction in Digital Signal Processing CD converter digital signal processor DC converter Fig.4.8: Ideal digital processing of analog signal CD converter produces a sequence from is processed in discrete-time domain to give DC converter creates from according to (4.11): (4.16) H. C. So Page 19 Semester B,

20 anti-aliasing filter analog-to-digital converter digital signal processor digital-to-analog converter Fig.4.9: Practical digital processing of analog signal may not be precisely bandlimited a lowpass filter or anti-aliasing filter is needed to process Ideal CD converter is approximated by AD converter Not practical to generate AD converter introduces quantization error Ideal DC converter is approximated by DA converter because ideal reconstruction of (4.16) is impossible Not practical to perform infinite summation Not practical to have future data and are quantized signals H. C. So Page 20 Semester B,

21 Example 4.4 Suppose a continuous-time signal is sampled at a sampling frequency of 1000Hz to produce : Determine 2 possible positive values of, say, and. Discuss if or will be obtained when passing through the DC converter. According to (4.1) with s: is easily computed as: H. C. So Page 21 Semester B,

22 can be obtained by noting the periodicity of a sinusoid: As a result, we have: This is illustrated using the MATLAB code: O1=250*pi; %first frequency O2=2250*pi; %second frequency Ts=1/100000;%successive sample separation is 0.01T t=0:ts:0.02;%observation interval x1=cos(o1.*t); %tone from first frequency x2=cos(o2.*t); %tone from second frequency There are 2001 samples in 0.02s and interpolating the successive points based on plot yields good approximations H. C. So Page 22 Semester B,

23 x[n] n Fig.4.10: Discrete-time sinusoid H. C. So Page 23 Semester B,

24 t Fig.4.11: Continuous-time sinusoids H. C. So Page 24 Semester B,

25 Passing but not through the DC converter only produces The Nyquist frequency of is and hence the sampling frequency without aliasing is Given Hz or, does not correspond to We can recover because the Nyquist frequency and Nyquist rate for are and Based on (4.11), is: with s H. C. So Page 25 Semester B,

26 The MATLAB code for reconstructing n=-10:30; %add 20 past and future samples x=cos(pi.*n./4); T=1/1000; %sampling interval is 1/1000 for l=1:2000 %observed interval is [0,0.02] t=(l-1)*t/100;%successive sample separation is 0.01T h=sinc((t-n.*t)./t); xr(l)=x*h.'; %approximate interpolation of (4.11) end is: We compute 2000 samples of in s The value of each at time t is approximated as x*h.' where the sinc vector is updated for each computation The MATLAB program is provided as ex4_4.m H. C. So Page 26 Semester B,

27 x r (t) t Fig.4.12: Reconstructed continuous-time sinusoid H. C. So Page 27 Semester B,

28 Example 4.5 Play the sound for a discrete-time tone using MATLAB. The frequency of the corresponding analog signal is 440 Hz which corresponds to the A note in the American Standard pitch. The sampling frequency is 8000 Hz and the signal has a duration of 0.5 s. The MATLAB code is A=sin(2*pi*440*(0:1/8000:0.5));%discrete-time A sound(a,8000); %DA conversion and play Note that sampling frequency in Hz is assumed for sound H. C. So Page 28 Semester B,

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