Research Strategies: How Psychologists Ask

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1 PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition, in Modules) David Myers PowerPoint Slides Aneeq Ahmad Henderson State University Worth Publishers, Research Strategies: How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions Module 3 2 Research Strategies: How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions Description The Case Study The Survey Naturalistic Observation Correlation Correlation and Causation Illusory Correlation Perceiving Order in Random Events 3 Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 3 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 1

2 Research Strategies: How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions Experimentation Exploring Cause and Effect Evaluating Therapies Independent and Dependent Variables Statistical Reasoning Describing Data Making Inferences 4 Description Case Study A technique in which one person is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles. OBJECTIVE 3 1 Identify the advantages and disadvantages of case studies in studying behavior and mental processes. Is language uniquely human? Susan Kuklin/ Photo Researchers 5 Case Study Clinical Study A clinical study is a form of case study where the therapist investigates the problems associated with a client. 6 Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 3 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 2

3 Survey A technique for ascertaining the self reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people usually by questioning a representative, random sample of people. 7 OBJECTIVE 3 2 Identify the advantages and disadvantages of surveys in studying behavior and mental processes, and explain the importance of wording effects and random sampling. Survey Wording Effect Wording can change the results of a survey. Q: Should cigarette ads and pornography be allowed on television? (not allowed vs. forbid) 8 Survey False Consensus Effect A tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors. 9 Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 3 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 3

4 From a population, if each member has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample, we call that a random sample (unbiased). If the survey sample is biased, its results are spurious. Survey Random Sampling The fastest way to know about the marble color ratio is to blindly transfer a few into a smaller jar and count them. 10 Naturalistic Observation Observing and recording behavior of animals in the wild, to recording self seating patterns in lunch rooms in a multiracial school constitute naturalistic observation. OBJECTIVE 3 3 Identify the advantages and disadvantages of naturalistic observation in studying behavior and mental processes. Courtesy of Gilda Morelli 11 Descriptive Methods Summary Case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation all describe behaviors. 12 Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 3 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 4

5 Correlation When one trait or behavior accompanies another, we say the two correlate. OBJECTIVE 3 4 Describe positive and negative correlations and explain how correlational measures can aid the process of prediction. Correlation coefficient Indicates strength of relationship (0.00 to 1.00) r = Correlation Coefficient is a statistical measure of relationship between two variables. Indicates direction of relationship (positive or negative) 13 Scatterplots Perfect positive correlation (+1.00) Scatterplot is a graph comprised of points generated by values of two variables. The slope of points depicts the direction, and the amount of scatter the strength of relationship. 14 Scatterplots Perfect negative correlation ( 1.00) No relationship (0.00) Scatterplot on the left shows a negative correlation, and the one on the right shows no relationship between the two variables. 15 Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 3 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 5

6 Data Data showing height and temperament in people. 16 Scatterplot Scatterplot showing relationship between height and temperament in people with a moderate positive correlation of Correlation and Causation OBJECTIVE 3 5 Explain why correlational research fails to provide evidence of causeeffect relationships. or 18 Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 3 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 6

7 Illusory Correlation The perception of a relationship where none exists. Parents conceive children after adoption. Adopt Do not adopt Conceive Confirming evidence Disconfirming evidence Do not conceive Disconfirming evidence Confirming evidence Michael Newman Jr./ Photo Edit OBJECTIVE 3 6 Describe how people form illusory correlations. 19 Order in Random Events Given random data we look for order, for meaningful patterns. Your chances of being dealt either of these hands is precisely the same: 1 in 2,598, Order in Random Events Given large number of random outcomes, a few are likely to express order. Angelo and Maria Gallina won two California lottery games on the same day. Jerry Telfer/ San Francisco Chronicle 21 OBJECTIVE 3 7 Explain the human tendency to perceive order in random events. Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 3 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 7

8 Experimentation Exploring Cause and Effect Like other sciences, experimentation forms the backbone of research in psychology. Experiments isolate causes and their effects. OBJECTIVE 3 8 Explain how experiments help researchers isolate cause and effect. 22 Exploring Cause & Effect Many factors influence our behavior. Experiments (1) manipulate factors that interest us while keeping other factors under (2) control. Effects generated by manipulated factors isolate cause and effect relationships. 23 Independent Variable Independent Variable is a factor, manipulated by the experimenter, and whose effect is being studied. For example, to study the effect of breast feeding on intelligence. Breast feeding is the independent variable. OBJECTIVE 3 9 Explain the difference between an independent variable and a dependent variable. 24 Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 3 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 8

9 Dependent Variable Dependent Variable is a factor that may change in response to independent variable. In psychology it is usually a behavior or a mental process. For example, in our study on the effect of breast feeding on intelligence. Intelligence is the dependent variable. 25 Evaluating Therapies Double blind Procedure In evaluating drug therapies it is important to keep the patients and experimenter s assistants blind to which patients got real treatment and which placebo. OBJECTIVE 3 10 Explain why random assignment and double blind procedure build confidence in research findings. 26 Evaluating Therapies Random Assignment Assigning participants to experimental (Breastfed) and control (formula fed) conditions by random assignment minimizes pre existing differences between the two groups. Sometime research participants out of enthusiasm or personal beliefs can affect the out come of an experiment. To control for such affects, a double blind procedure is used, in which the participants and the experimenter s assistants are not aware of which participants got real treatment and who got placebo. 27 Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 3 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 9

10 Experimentation A summary of steps during experimentation. 28 Comparison Below is a comparison of different research methods. 29 Statistical Reasoning Statistical procedures analyze and interpret data and let us see what the unaided eye misses. White 63% OBJECTIVE 3 11 Explain the importance of statistical principles, and give an example of their use in daily life. Others 4% Asian 7% Hispanic 10% Composition of ethnicity in urban locales Black 16% 30 Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 3 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 10

11 Describing Data Meaningful description of data is important in research. Misrepresentation can lead to incorrect conclusions. OBJECTIVE 3 12 Explain how graphs can misrepresent data. 31 Measures of Central Tendency Mode: The most frequently occurring score in a distribution. Mean: The arithmetic average of scores in a distribution obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by their number. Median: The middle score in a rank ordered distribution. 32 OBJECTIVE 3 13 Describe three measures of central tendency and tell which is most affected by extreme scores. Measures of Central Tendency A Skewed Distribution 33 Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 3 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 11

12 Measures of Variation Range: The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution. Standard Deviation: A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean. OBJECTIVE 3 14 Explain two measures of variation. 34 Standard Deviation 35 Making Inferences A statistical statement of how likely an obtained result occurred by experimental manipulation or by chance. OBJECTIVE 3 15 Identify three principles for making generalizations from samples. 36 Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 3 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 12

13 Making Inferences When is an Observed Difference Reliable? 1. Representative samples are better than biased samples. 2. Less variable observations are more reliable than more variable ones. 3. More cases are better than fewer cases. 37 Making Inferences When is a Difference Significant? When sample averages are reliable and the difference between them is relatively large, we say the difference has statistical significance. For psychologists this difference is measured through alpha level set at 5 percent. OBJECTIVE 3 16 Explain how psychologists decide whether differences are meaningful. 38 Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 3 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 13

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