Chapter One: What Is Psychology?

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1 Chapter One: What Is Psychology? Psychology as a Science Psychology is best defined as the (1) study of (2) and (3) processes. Like other sciences, psychology seeks to (4), (5), (6) and (7) behavior and mental processes. Psychologists use (8), to propose apparent relationships among events, to develop (9) and (10). If our (11) don t match with a theory, we should consider replacing that theory. What Psychologists Do Something for Everyone? Psychologists engage in (12), (13) and (14). Research that has no immediate application is said to be (15) research whereas (16) research seeks solutions to specific problems. Some psychologists do not engage in research, they (17) psychology by applying psychological knowledge to help people change their behaviors. (18) psychologists help people with psychological disorders adapt to the demands of life. These psychologists are the (19) subgroup of psychologists. (20) psychologists typically work with people who have (21) difficulties, but not serious psychological disorders. (22) psychologists are employed by school systems to identify and assist particular students who have learning difficulties. Those who research theoretical issues related to learning are called (23) psychologists. (24) psychologists research changes that happen over the life span. Psychologists who attempt to define human traits and determine influences on thoughts, feelings, and behavior are known as (25) psychologists. (26) psychologists are primarily concerned with the nature and causes of an individual s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in (27) settings. The study of the intersection of people and environment is conducted by (28) psychologists. (29) psychologists specialize in conducting research into basic processes such as sensation and perception, or learning and memory. (31) psychologists study the relationship

2 between people and work, while psychologists that focus on the behavior of people in organizations are known as (30) psychologists. Human (32) psychologists focus on user-friendly design of equipment. Department stores and supermarkets are more likely to hire a (33) psychologist to examine and predict the behaviors of shoppers. (34) psychologists are likely to spend much of their time studying the effects of stress on health problems like headaches and cancer, while a professional football team would be most interested in having a (35) psychologist on staff to help their athletes improve overall performance. Finally, (36) psychologists work in the intersection of psychology and the justice system. Where Psychology Comes From: A History Peri Psyches, a book on psychology, was written by (37). This book began with a history of psychological thought and historical views of the (38) and behavior. Aristotle argued that human behavior is subject to (39) and laws. Other Greek philosophers who contributed to psychology s early development included (40), who was the first to raise the question of whether there is free will or (41) and (42), who suggested a research method known as (43) in which a person conducts careful examination of one s own thoughts and emotions in order to achieve (44).. There is debate about when psychology as a laboratory science began. Some historians say it began in 1860 when (45) published a landmark textbook. However, most historians set the modern debut in the year 1879 when (46) established the first psychological laboratory in Leipzig, Germany. Wundt believed that the mind was a (47) event that could be studied (48). Wundt founded the school of psychology known as (49). He and his students attempted to break the conscious experience into (50) sensations and (51) feelings and they argued that the mind functioned by (52) those two elements of experience.

3 Toward the end of the 19 th century, William (53) founded the school of psychology known as (54). He and his followers wanted to examine how our (55) allows us to function more (56) in our environment. Whereas, (57) would ask, What pieces make up thinking and experience? the (58) would ask, How do behavior and mental processes help people adapt to life demands? James was influenced by (59) and his theory of (60) that says that the (61) of any species survive and reproduce. Functionalists took this a step further and said that (62) behaviors are repeated and become (63). John (64) believed that if psychology was to be a natural science, it must limit itself to the study of (65), (66) events. In other words, psychologists must only study (67), not mental processes. This approach to psychological inquiry became known as (68). Although (69) is considered the founder of behaviorism, B.F. (70) also contributed greatly to behaviorism. Skinner believed that organisms (71) to behave in certain ways because they have been (72), or encouraged by the positive outcomes of their behavior. Even (73) behaviors can be learned through (74). Another school of psychology that developed in Germany, (75) psychology, focused on how (76) influences (77) and (78) solving. These psychologists argued that perceptions are more than the (79) of their (80). Gestalt psychologists believed that learning, especially problem solving accomplished by (81), not mechanical repetition. (82) Wolfgang s research with chimpanzees demonstrated that even animals experience a flash of (83).

4 Freud is the founder of the school of psychology known as (84). This approach differs from all of the other schools in that it places emphasis on the role of (85) ideas that originate in (86). How Today s Psychologists View Behavior and Mental Processes Today, psychology has many perspectives which include: evolutionary and biological, cognitive, humanistic-existential, psychodynamic, learning, and sociocultural perspectives. (87) psychologists are especially interested in the role of evolution in behavior and mental processes. They believe that the fittest, or most (88), organisms of each species will survive and pass on their (89). The tendencies we (90) are most important in determining our behavior. Psychologists with a (91) perspective believe that our thoughts and behavior are linked to the activity of the (92), the activity of (93) and (94). Psychologists with a (95) perspective investigate the ways in which we (96) and mentally (97) the world. These types of psychologists, in short, study those things we refer to as the (98). The humanistic-existential perspective is similar to the cognitive perspective but it stresses the role of (99) experience. (100) emphasizes human capacity for (101) and says that as humans, we (102) ourselves. (103) emphasizes (104) and our responsibility for choosing (105) conduct. Freud s (106) theory no longer dominates psychotherapy. Contemporary psychologists who follow theories derived from Freud are likely to call themselves (107) ; Karen Horney and Eric Erikson are two of these.

5 Many psychologists today study the effects of (108) on behavior. To them (109) is the essential factor in describing, predicting, explaining, and controlling behavior. John Watson, a (110), argued that people do things because of their learning histories, their situations, and the rewards, not because of (111) choice. Behaviorists emphasize environmental influences and the learning of habits through (112) and (113). Learning theorists that suggest that people can modify and create their environments are known as (114) (115) theorists. They note that people engage in learning by (116) others. The psychological perspective that focuses on the many ways in which people differ from one another by studying the influences of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status is known as the (117) perspective. Members of an (118) group share a cultural (119), race, (120) or history. Many African Americans have influenced psychology. For example, Kenneth and Mamie Phipps (121) conducted research on the effects of school (122), which was cited in the Supreme Court ruling overturning separate but equal schools. Currently, a number of ethnically diverse psychologists are conducting and publishing important research. Latino American Jorge Sanchez contributed to the field of psychology by demonstrating that intelligence tests are (123) biased, and Asian American Richard Suinn studies (124) health and (125) among Asians and Asian Americans. (126) refers to the culturally defined concepts of masculinity and (127). Today women receive the (128) of doctoral degrees in psychology. Mary Whiton (129) was not allowed to earn a Ph.D. from Harvard and turned down one offered by Radcliffe, yet went on to be the first female president of the American (130) Association. Mary Salter (131) formulated a theory of (132) between parents and

6 children; Elizabeth Loftus revolutionized our understanding of (133) ; and Susan Nolen-Hoeksema increased our understanding of how (134) ruminating impairs (135) and increases (136). How Psychologists Study Behavior and Mental Processes One hallmark of science is (137) thinking, which means taking nothing for (138). It also refers to a process of thoughtfully (139) and probing the statements, questions, and arguments of others. Critical thinkers are (140), they insist on examining (141), they examine the (142) of terms, they examine the (143) or (144) of arguments, and they are (145) in drawing conclusions. In addition, critical thinkers consider (146) interpretations of research evidence and are careful not to (147) or (148). Critical thinking can be applied to (149) areas of life. The (150) method is an organized way of using (151) and (152) ideas in order to expand and refine knowledge. Psychologists begin by formulating a research (153). These can come from anywhere: daily experiences, folklore, common knowledge, or psychological (154). A research question is often reworded as a (155), a statement about behavior and mental processes that is (156) through research. After formulating the hypothesis, the researcher would then test the hypothesis through (157) methods. Once the research tests are concluded, the psychologist will draw a (158). When observations do not match hypotheses, (159) may be modified. Psychologists try not to confuse (160), or associations, between findings with cause and effect since a (161) factor might be at work. When conducting research, psychologists must choose a (162), or a segment of the targeted group that (163) the general population so that we can (164) our findings to the population at large. We must consider the

7 (165) of the research sample when we interpret the (166) of the results of scientific research. In addition, we must consider whether the sample can be (167) beyond the ethnic group or gender on which the research was conducted. One way to get a representative sample is to conduct a (168) sample, or one in which each member of a (169) has an (170) chance of participating. (171) samples are selected to make sure the (172) of the population are represented proportionately in the sample. In studies that ask anyone in the general population to take part, a (173) bias probably exists since people who offer to participate typically (174) from those who do not offer to participate. (175) studies, or information we collect about individuals and small groups, are sometimes used to investigate rare occurrences. Although they can provide compelling portraits of individuals, case studies often have many sources of (176). For example, people s (177) may be inaccurate, people may (178) or misrepresent their pasts, interviewers may have (179) and encourage subjects to fill in gaps with information that is consistent with those beliefs. When behavior and mental processes cannot be studied experimentally or observed in a natural setting, psychologists use (180). This method of observing subjects has the advantage of allowing psychologists to study (181) of people at one time. The best-known surveys of all time were conducted by (182) and investigated (183) behavior. Survey research also has its problems. People may recall their behavior inaccurately or purposely (184) themselves. Some people try to ingratiate themselves to their interviewer by answering in what they perceive to be a more (185) desirable response; others may (186) their attitudes and exaggerate problems to draw attention to themselves or intentionally foul up the results. When psychologists observe subjects in their natural environment they are said to have used (187) (188). This approach has the advantage of allowing psychologists to

8 (189) behavior where it happens. Researchers conducting naturalistic observation use methods that try to avoid interfering with the behaviors they are observing; they try to be (190). Questions that address whether observed behaviors or traits are (191) to each other use the (192) method. A number called the correlation (193) is calculated and indicates the direction and size of the correlation between the variables. The numerical value of the correlation may vary between (194) and (195). When variables are (196) correlated, one variable increases as the other variable increases; when variables are (197) correlated, as one variable increases the other variable decreases. The most significant limitation of correlational research is that it suggests but does not prove cause and (198). The best research method for answering cause and effect questions is an (199). In this method, a group of subjects receives a (200) and are then carefully (201) to determine whether the treatment makes a difference in their (202). Experiments are used because they allow psychologists to (203) the experiences of subjects and allow the experimenter to draw conclusions about (204) and effect. In an experiment, the researcher manipulates the (205) variable so that its effect may be determined. The measured results, or outcomes in the experiment, are called (206) variables. In most experimental studies there are at least two groups of subjects. Subjects in the (207) group receive the treatment whereas subjects in the (208) group do not. Every effort is made to ensure that all other (209) are held (210) for subjects in both groups. Sometimes in experiments it is unclear whether the results of the study are due to the subjects (211) about the effects of the independent variable. Therefore, it is sometimes important for the subjects to be (212) to the treatment they

9 have received. This can be accomplished through the use of a (213), or a sugar pill. Studies in which both subjects and experimenters are unaware of who has obtained the treatment are called (214) studies. In one classic double-blind study, subjects (215) about whether they drank alcohol or tonic water affected their (216) behavior more than what they actually drank. Psychologists adhere to a number of (217) standards that are intended to promote individual (218), human (219), and scientific (220). These standards are also intended to ensure that psychologists do not undertake research methods or treatments that are (221). In almost all institutional settings, (222) review committees help researchers consider the potential harm of their methods and review proposed studies according to (223) guidelines. When psychologists conduct research with human subjects, the subjects must give (224) consent before they participate in research. Additionally, psychologists treat the records of research subjects and clients as (225). Some studies cannot be conducted if subjects knew what the researcher were trying to learn; in these cases (226) is used and the subjects must be (227), this means that the methods and purposes of the research is explained after the study. Psychologists and other scientists frequently turn to (228) to conduct research that cannot be carried out on humans. Although the studies are carried out with animals, psychologists still face the (229) dilemma of subjecting the animals to harm. As with people, psychologists follow the principle that animals should be subjected to (230) only when there is no alternative and they believe that the benefits of the research will justify the harm.

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