Chemical vs. Physical Changes: 1. How can we define a chemical change? Give example reaction equations.

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1 Name: Teacher: Date: Period: Directions: Try to answer EVERY question on here. Some questions have multiple parts. If you are confused or want to check your answers you should attend SGI with this sheet! Significant figures: 1. What is the rule for adding/subtracting significant figures? 2. What is the rule for multiplying/dividing significant figures? 3. What are the rules for determining significant figures with/without a decimal? Chemical vs. Physical Changes: 1. How can we define a chemical change? Give example reaction equations. 2. How can we define a physical change? Give example reaction equations. Eg: Which of the following is a chemical change? A. 5 grams of H 2 O 3 grams of H 2 O B. CO 2(s) + heat CO 2(g) C. CO + H 2 CH 3 OH D. NaCl Na + + Cl - E. None of these Mixtures: 1. What are two types of mixtures, and how are they different? Give two examples, and then for each example a different method of separating the mixture. 2. Which two classifications of matter are in the category of substances? Which one cannot be broken down by chemical means? Eg: Which of the following can be broken down by chemical means? A. Sulfur B. Sodium C. Phosphorus D. Methanol E. Helium Eg: Isopropanol and Water can be separated by distillation because of a difference in their A. Boiling points B. Electronegativity C. Density D. Reactivity

2 Density/Phases of Matter: 1. Write the formula for density. Rewrite it with mass as the isolated variable. Then with volume as the isolated variable. 2. What is the density of the following elements at STP? a. Nitrogen b. Bromine c. Mercury d. Iron 3. Using Table S, list all elements that you expect to be gases at STP based on their density. 4. Which phase of matter has molecules tightly packed with a definite volume and shape? Which phase of matter uniformly fills its container? Which phase of matter has a definite volume but indefinite shape? Which phases of matter or not easily compressed? 5. A water sample with a density of 0.99g/mL and a volume of 20mL has what mass? Review: How many significant figures would we use for this? Models of the atom: 1. What are the three subatomic particles? What are their respective charges and masses? 2. What were the two observations made in the gold foil experiment? Then for each observation, give the major conclusion drawn from it. Eg: What is the charge of nucleus of a fluoride ion? A. -1 B. 0 C. +9 D. +8 Eg: Which of these best describes the nucleus of an atom of Silicon? A. It contains a charge of +14 and is surrounded by 14 negatively charged electrons B. It contains a charge of -14 and is surrounded by 14 positive charged electrons C. It contains a charge of +14 and is surrounded by 14 negatively charged protons D. It contains a charge of -14 and is surrounded by 14 positively charged protons E. The nucleus of Silicon has a neutral charge More on atoms: 1. What is an isotope? Which subatomic particle(s) are the same in number for two isotopes of the same element? Which subatomic particle(s) are different in number for two isotopes of the same element? 2. What is the definition of the atomic mass of an element? How do we calculate it? Eg: Suppose potassium has two naturally occurring isotopes, potassium-39 with an abundance of 93%, and potassium-41 with an abundance of 7%. What is the atomic mass of potassium? Eg. Look up the atomic mass of lithium. If the only naturally occurring isotopes are Li-7 and Li-6, which isotope is present in higher abundance? Why?

3 Nuclear Chemistry: 1. What are 4 different types of decay. Use your reference tables to give an example of an alpha emitter, a beta emitter, and a positron emitter. 2. Which form of radiation has the highest penetrating power? Which has the greatest mass? Which has a negative charge? 3. *****Which decay mode results from too much mass in the atom? Which results from too many protons? Which results from too many neutrons? 4. *****What is electron capture? What is different about electron capture from other modes of decay? 5. What distinguishes nuclear reactions from chemical reactions? 6. Define fission, fusion, and transmutation. 7. Which table on the chemistry reference tables gives isotopic notation for certain nuclear reaction particles? Which gives the half-lives and decay modes of select radioisotopes? Which gives the equation used in half-life problems? Where can we go to find the atomic number of an element? If we have the symbol and don t know the name, where can we find that? 8. Define half-life. ***Write the equation used. What is fraction remaining? Eg: If a radioactive sample has gone through 4 half-lives, what fraction of the original sample remains? If 20 grams remain, how much was initially present? If the time elapsed is 160 years, how long is one half life? Eg: If 100 grams of a radioactive sample were initially present and 25 grams remain today, how many halflives has this sample undergone? If each half-life is 25 days, how many days have passed? Eg: A radioactive sample with a mass of 10 grams had a mass of 40 grams 12 years ago. What is the half-life of this isotope? Electrons: 1. What did the Bohr model propose and how was this an improvement on the Rutherford model? How was the location of electrons described? What model was used to replace the Bohr model, and how was the location of electrons described in this model? 2. What happens when electrons gain energy? What state is this? How might this happen? What happens when electrons lose energy? What is the normal configuration of an atom called?

4 3. Give the Bohr notation (electron configuration) of the elements N, Na, Ne, and K. 4. Cations result from a (circle one) gain/loss of electrons? What charge do they have? 5. Anions result from a (circle one) gain/loss of electrons? What charge do they have? 6. How many electrons in the following atoms/ions? a. N 3- b. Mg 2+ c. Fe 3+ d. Ne e. H + f. Li + 7. How can we recognize an excited state molecule? Hint: How many electrons are allowed in the first energy level? How many in the second? 8. How are bright-line spectra formed? Periodic Table: 1. Define effective nuclear charge. How does it change across a period and down a group? 2. How does atomic radius vary across a period? down a group? 3. How does electronegativity vary across a period? down a group? 4. How does ionization energy vary across a period? down a group? 5. How does metallic character vary across a period? down a group? 6. How does the ionic radius of C 2+, C +, C -, C 2- compare to C? Put them in order of decreasing radius. 7. Why is a chloride ion larger than a chlorine atom? 8. Looking at metals, which tend to be most reactive? Why? (Think about what makes something a good metal, how/why can it most easily lost electrons) 9. Looking at nonmetals, which tend to be the most reactive? Descibe this in terms of ionization energy and electronegativity, as well as how nonmetals react. 10. How can we determine the nuclear charge of an atom? Compute it for sulfur.

5 11. What are the three categories of elements? What are the characteristics of each? 12. List all the metalloids. Ionic Bonding Between what two categories of elements do we expect to have ionic bonding? How would you describe, in terms of electrons, ionic bonding between two elements? Define a cation and an anion. Give three examples of each. For the following elements, first identify the type of ion (charge and number) you expect each to form, and then predict the compound you expect to be formed through their reaction by presenting the formula of the compound. 1. Magnesium and Oxygen 2. Aluminum and Chlorine 3. Magnesium and Nitrogen 4. Sodium and Fluorine 5. Calcium and Chlorine Draw the lewis dot structure representing the compound Li 2 S. Draw the lewis dot structure of the compound LiF. Describe why ionic compounds are brittle. Metallic Bonding Between what types of elements will you expect to see metallic bonding? Describe what an alloy is. Why is an alloy considered a mixture?

6 How would you describe metallic bonding in terms of electrons? Draw the model demonstrating metallic bonding in copper. What is the name of this model? Covalent Bonding Between what types of elements will you expect to see covalent bonding? How would you describe covalent bonding in terms of electrons? How many electrons are present in a single covalent bond? How many electrons are present in a double covalent bond? How many electrons are present in a triple covalent bond? List the diatomic elements. Draw the Lewis-dot structure of O 2. Draw the Lewis-dot structure of N 2. Describe the energy transfer that takes place when a bond is broken. Describe the energy transfer that takes place when a bond is formed. Draw the Lewis-dot structure of CH 3 Cl. What is the molecular geometry of H 2 O? H 2 S? CH 4? Define what a polar bond is.

7 Explain, in terms of electronegativity, why a P-Cl bond in PCl 5 is more polar than a P-S bond in P 2 S 5. Explain, in terms of charge distribution, why a molecule is polar. Explain how a molecule can contain polar bonds but be classified as nonpolar. Define hydrogen bonding. How would you describe when a molecule is capable of hydrogen bonding? Give three examples of molecules where hydrogen bonding is present. Define dipole-dipole interactions. How would you describe when a molecule is capable of having dipoledipole interactions. Give three examples of molecules where dipole-dipole interactions are present? Define dispersion forces. How would you describe why certain molecules are only capable of dispersion forces. Give three examples of molecules that are only capable of dispersion forces. Which of the following molecules is nonpolar but contains polar bonds? Br 2, CO, CH 3 Cl, CCl 4 Draw the lewis-dot structures of all compounds and draw the ***dipole arrows if applicable. Describe what a network solid is.

8 Properties associated with different types of bonding [Fill in the following table] Type of Bonding Hardness [High/Low] Melting Point [High or Low] Conductivity as solid Conductivity as liquid Conductivity as aqueous Metallic Ionic Covalent Network ***Describe a sigma bond, and contrast this with a pi bond. Draw a molecule containing both. ****Explain how the number of lone pairs and the number of sigma bonds helps us determine the hybridization, and the 5 different hybridization schemes we encountered. ****Explain how hybridization allows us to determine the molecular geometry with respect to a central atom. How does the name of the shape change when the central atom has lone pairs? Naming. How do we name binary ionic compounds? Does the cation get altered? The anion? Do we use prefixes? What must we include if the cation is a polyvalent metal? How can we find if we have a polyvalent metal in our reference tables? When a polyatomic ion is involved, what kind of bonding can we expect? How does the name of a polyatomic ion change (if at all) when we name the compound? When must you use parentheses for polyatomic ions in formulas? If I have (NH 4 ) 2 O, How many nitrogen atoms? How many hydrogen? Describe the steps to determining the charge of a metal in an ionic compound. Find the charge of the metal in the following compounds [Pb(NO 3 ) 4, Fe 2 O 3, Mn 2 O 7, Mn 3 N 2, Cu 2 SO 4 ]. Then, name all of these compounds.

9 How do we name binary covalent compounds? How can we recognize a covalent compound? When does the first atom not take a prefix? List the first 7 prefixes. Name the following [CO, N 2 O 4, NO 2, SiH 4, H 2 O, SF 6, CO 2 ] Moles. What is a mole? If I have a mole of molecules, how many molecules do I have? If I have one molecule of NH 3, how many hydrogen atoms do I have? If I have a mole of NH 3, how many moles of hydrogen atoms do I have? How can we convert between moles of a molecule and grams? Grams to moles? How can we convert between moles of a molecule and particles? Particles to moles? How can we convert between grams and particles? What do we have to do first? How can we determine the formula mass of a compound? The molar mass? What is a formula unit? How can we determine the percent composition of an element in a compound? Find the percent composition of each element in the following [Na 2 S, HCN, Mg(NO 3 ) 2, NH 4 NO 3, potassium sulfate, chromium (VI) chloride, rubidium iodide] How would you describe a hydrated compound? How can we find the percent mass of water in a hydrate? What is an empirical formula? List the steps for converting from a percent composition to an empirical formula.

10 How can we determine molecular formula given an empirical formula and a molar mass? What is true about the percent composition of each element in molecules with the same empirical formula? How can we find the actual mass of an element if we have the percent composition? Assuming we have 10gram samples of all of the following, first find the percent composition and then how many grams of each atom are present in the 10gram sample [NaCl, PCl 5, K 3 PO 4, CaS, CH 4, AlN] Chemical Reactions How can we describe what must be conserved in all chemical reactions? In the reaction O 2 (g) + H 2 (g) --> H 2 O(l), identify the reactants, the products, and the phases of all the substances. If this reaction had a catalyst, where would you put it in the equation? Define the following reaction types: Synthesis, Decomposition, Single Replacement, Double Replacement, and Combustion. ****How can we determine if an ionic compound will be aqueous or solid in solution? Where on your reference tables would you look? How can we determine if a single replacement reaction will take place? Where on your reference tables would you look? Why is hydrogen gas listed with the metals?

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