1 Ionic Compounds & Metals! Ion Formation!
2 Valence Electrons & Chemical Bonds! Main Idea: are formed when atoms gain or lose electrons to achieve a electron configuration.! Atoms gain or lose electrons to form!
3 Valence Electrons & Chemical Bonds! How do so many compounds form from relatively few elements known to exist?! Due to the electron of atoms and the nature of between atoms.! Review: Similar of elements within a on the Periodic Table depends on the of valence electrons.! Valence electrons also involved in the formation of between atoms.!
4 Valence Electrons & Chemical Bonds! Chemical bond is the that holds atoms together.! Formed by the between the positive of one atom and the negative of another atom.! Formed by the attraction between and ions.! Ionization energy refers to how an atom an electron!
5 Valence Electrons! structures keep of valence electrons.! Consists of element s.! Each refers to a.! N = column 5 =!
6 Electron Arrangement: Electron Dot Structures! Li (column ):! B (column ):! O (column ):! Cl (column ):! Mg (column ):!!
7 Valence Electrons! Differences in between elements is related to the electrons.! Involves.! arrangement of valence electrons in the energy level.! Noble gases = outer shell.! Elements to acquire the electron of a noble gas & become.!
8 Positive Ion Formation! ions form when an atom valence electrons to achieve a noble gas configuration.! ie~ Positive ion =! atoms are reactive b/c they lose valence electrons & form.!
9 Positive Ion Formation! Formation of Cations Example: Sodium! Atom Ion Electron configuration Orbital diagram Electron Dot diagram
10 Positive Ion Formation! Formation of Cations Example: Magnesium! Atom Ion Electron configuration Orbital diagram Electron Dot diagram
11 Transition Metal Ions! Can form ions.! Rule of thumb: Form ions with a or charge.! Can lose two or three valence electrons depending on the number of.! Difficult to predict.!
12 Positive Ion Formation! Transition Metal Cations- Example: Iron!! Atom Ion Electron configuration Orbital diagram Electron Dot diagram
13 Negative Ion Formation! electrons to attain a outer electron configuration (octet).! ie~.! Referred to as ion! Negatively charged ions are.! form anions! The ending is added to the name of an element to show that it is an anion.! What is the name of a nitrogen anion?!
14 Positive Ion Formation! Transition Metal Anions- Example: Chlorine!! Atom Ion Electron configuration Orbital diagram Electron Dot diagram
15 Ions: Elements that Lose or Gain Electrons!
16 Ionic Compounds & Metals! Ionic Bonds & Ionic Compounds!
17 Formation of an Ionic Bond! Main Idea: charged ions each other, forming ionic compounds.! The that holds oppositely charged particles together in an ionic compound =.!
18 Formation of an Ionic Bond! Compounds containing = compounds.! Ionic bonds between and are named.! All other ionic bonds commonly referred to as.! ionic compounds contain only elements.! cation & anion! ie~
19 Compound Formation & Charge! What role does ionic charge play in forming ionic compounds?! Number of electrons and must be.! Overall must equal.! ie~!
20 Compound Formation & Charge! Number of electrons gained and lost must be equal.! sodium & chlorine:! sodium & oxygen:! magnesium & chlorine:! magnesium & nitrogen:! calcium & oxygen:!
21 Compound Formation & Charge! Table 7.4 shows several ways the formation of an ionic compound can be represented.!
22 Properties of Ionic Compounds! Chemical in compounds determines many of its.! Ionic produce unique structures for ionic.! Physical structures also contribute to physical of ionic compounds.!
23 Properties of Ionic Compounds! Physical Structure Ions arranged into pattern.! ie~ ( geometric arrangement).! Balances forces of and between.!
24 Properties of Ionic Compounds! properties depend on how strong the are between.! attractions occur between ions & ions with charge.!
25 Physical Properties! Ions locked into positions by strong attractive forces are.! Common physical properties include:!!!! Ability to! Ionic compounds that are in and can conduct electricity are called,!
26 Physical Properties! Melting & boiling involves electrostatic and ionic bonds.!
27 Physical Properties! In order to conduct electricity, a substance needs to have particles to move.! In a state, compounds have charged particles to move.! in place! In form (or in water), are free to move.!
28 Physical Properties!
29 Physical Properties! Ionic compounds are & b/c ions are in a.! Due to strong forces that hold ions in place.! External strong enough to overcome the attractive forces between ions cause the crystal to or apart.!
30 Energy & the Ionic Bond! Formation of ionic compounds from ions is an reaction.! Releases! Resulting compound is more & in energy than the individual.!
31 Energy & the Ionic Bond! Ionic compounds are and arranged in a.! Takes to separate the ( ).! required to ionic compounds apart is known as the energy.! The the attraction between ions, the the lattice energy.!
32 Energy & the Ionic Lattice energy is directly related to the of the ions.! Bond! ions have lattice energies.! ie~ LiF vs KF! Ions with charges have lattice energies.! ie~ SrCl2 vs AgCl!
33 Ionic Compounds & Metals! Names & Formulas For Ionic Compounds!
34 Names & Formulas! For Ionic Compounds! Main Idea: In written and for ionic compounds, the appears, followed by the.! ie~ First and last names!
35 Formulas For Ionic Compounds! Ionic compounds are made up up ions arranged a pattern.! formula for an ionic compound is called a.! Represents simplest of.! ie~ MgCl2! Ions exist in a ratio! Formula unit contains Mg 2+ ion & Cl - ions! Overall charge is b/c compound is electrical.!
36 Formulas For Ionic Compounds! Monatomic Ions ion (Mg 2+ or Br - )! Charge of Group 2 ions? Group 15 ions?! of monatomic ion known as (or state).! Equals the number transferred from the to form the.! Oxidation numbers for NaCl?! Most metals have than oxidation number.!
37 Formulas For Ionic Compounds! Binary Ionic Compounds ( elements)! Chemical formula written with symbol of first, followed by symbol of.! represent the number of each present in the compound.! No subscript = ion!
38 Formulas For Ionic Compounds! Chemical formula written with symbol of cation first, followed by symbol of anion.! Write the formulas and names for the compound formed from these pair of ions! Ba 2+, S2-! Li +, O 2-! Ca 2+, N 3-! Cu 2+, I -!
39 Formulas For Ionic Compounds! Chemical formula written with symbol of cation first, followed by symbol of anion.! Write the formula for the following ionic compounds! sodium iodide! Tin (II) chloride! potassium sulfide! calcium iodide!
40 Formulas For Ionic Compounds! Polyatomic Ionic Compounds Ions made up of than one.! Group of atoms that are bonded and have a.! Act as an atom! applies to group.! of polyatomic ions change.! Ammonium NH4 +! Acetate CH3COO -! Hydroxide OH -! Nitrate NO 3-! Nitrite NO 2-! Sulfate SO4 2-! Sulfite SO3 2-! Carbonate CO3 2-! Phosphate PO4 3-!
41 Formulas For Ionic Compounds! Polyatomic Ionic Compounds Use to show polyatomic ions.! Ammonium sulfate Calcium phosphate
42 Formulas For Ionic Compounds! Practice Writing Polyatomic Ionic Compounds Sodium nitrate! Sodium carbonate! Magnesium nitrate! Calcium hydroxide! Copper (II) acetate! Cobalt (III) sulfate!
43 Formulas For Ionic Compounds! Practice Writing Polyatomic Ionic Compounds Ammonium phosphate! Ammonium sulfide! Na 2 SO 4! MgCO 3! Fe(NO 3 ) 2! CrPO 4! Ca(OH) 2!
44 Rules For Naming Ionic Compounds! Name the followed by the.! For monatomic ions, use the name.! For monatomic ions, use the of the element name plus the suffix.! ie~ When a compound contains a polyatomic ion, name the followed by the ion.! ie~
45 Ionic Compounds & Metals! Metallic Bonds & Properties of Metals!
46 Names & Formulas! For Ionic Compounds! Main Idea: form and can be modeled as surrounded by freely valence.!
47 Metallic Bonds! share several properties with bonds.! in both is based on between particles of charges.! Pattern causes to form in the state.!
48 Metallic Bonds! energy levels of metal.! Described by the model! metal atoms contribute their to form a of electrons.! Valence electrons are to and do not stick around particular atom.! Move easily from one atom to the next.! Referred to as.!
49 Metallic Bonds! Metallic form when the atom s electrons move freely throughout the.! Metallic is the of a metallic for.!
50 Properties of Metals! properties explained by.! Melting & Boiling Points Metals have moderately melting and boiling points.!!
51 Properties of Metals! Metals are! Can be hammered into.! Metals are! Can be drawn into.!
52 Properties of Metals! Metals are conductors of and.! Due to of electrons around metallic.! Also creates property of in metals.!
53 Properties of Metals! Hardness and Strength as the number of delocalized electrons.! metals have metallic bonds! metals are considered due to only delocalized electron.!
54 Properties of Metals! Metals don t actually form.! Form instead.! of elements that has properties.! Unique of properties allows alloys to have a range of applications.!