MUSIC THEORY GRADES THE EWING PUBLIC SCHOOLS 2099 Pennington Road Ewing, NJ 08618

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1 MUSIC THEORY GRADES THE EWING PUBLIC SCHOOLS 2099 Pennington Road Ewing, NJ Board Approval Date: August 29, 2016 Michael Nitti Written by: D. Blair Olson Superintendent In accordance with The Ewing Public Schools Policy 2230, Course Guides, this curriculum has been reviewed and found to be in compliance with all policies and all affirmative action criteria.

2 Table of Contents Page Course Description and Rationale 1 Unit 1: Music Theory Skills 2 Unit 2: Ear Training/Aural Skills 5 Unit 3: Elementary Acoustics 7

3 1 Course Description and Rationale Music Theory is a course designed for the musician who understands the basics of reading music (at least one clef and the basic rhythmic notation structure) and has had formal instruction on at least one instrument. The course is extremely useful to students who are considering further music training at the university level. Students enrolling in Music Theory will study the use and structure of harmony in music. The units of study will include the basic parts of music: clefs, notation, key signatures, minor/major scales, triads, figured bass, chord progressions, melody, harmony and intervals (both visual and aural). Other activities involve listening and analyzing different styles of music, form, sight singing, solfege, four part writing and the acoustics of music.

4 2 Unit 1: Music Theory Skills Why Is This Unit Important? This unit will be used as the foundation of the course. The terms and skills that are learned/developed will be used as building blocks throughout the duration of the course. It should be noted that all elements of this unit incorporate important concepts in notation, intervals, scales and harmony that can be used in conjunction with other music classes such as band, orchestra and choir. Enduring Understandings: The students will Comprehend and identify notes placed on a music staff in treble, alto, tenor and bass clef Understand and apply the use and function of a sharp and flat when attached to a note Be able to place the sharps and flats in their correct order on the music staff in any clef Comprehend the use and function of key signatures in major and minor keys Understand how to find the major or minor key of a piece of music by applying the rules for key signature identification Understand how to create major, minor and chromatic scales Understand, construct and apply all diatonic intervals: m2, m2, m3, m3, p4, tritone, p5, m6, m6, m7, m7, p8, m9, m9, m10, m10 Understand how to create major, minor, augmented and diminished triads Understand and apply the use and construction of imperfect/perfect plagal and authentic cadences Understand and apply the basic rules for four-part harmony writing Understand the names and usage of figured bass symbols Understand how to use and create secondary dominant chords for use in modulation Understand how to use and create secondary leading tone chords Students must be able to create and identify chords in root, first, second and third (seventh chords) positions Students must be able to create a 7 th chord Essential Questions Where are the pitches located on the staff using different clefs? How is a major scale created? How are the diatonic intervals constructed? How are intervals used in creating major, minor, augmented and diminished triads? What is a plagal cadence and how is it constructed?

5 3 What is an authentic cadence and how is it constructed? What needs to be avoided when four part writing? What are the names of the figured bass symbols? How is a secondary dominant used in modulation? What is the quality of a secondary leading tone chord? What is the structure of chords in the different inversions? Acquired Knowledge/Skills A treble clef shows where the note g is on the staff. An alto clef shows where the note c is on the staff. A bass clef shows where the note f is on the staff. A tenor clef shows where the note c is on the staff. A whole step is equal to two half steps. A major scale is created with the following whole step/half step order: wwhwwwh [w= whole step and h= half step]. Flats and sharps are placed on the staff in a specific order when placed in a key signature. Diatonic intervals are based on certain combinations of half and whole steps dictated by the distance of the interval (m2-m10) Define and illustrate how to create major, minor, diminished and augmented triads. Create major, minor, augmented and diminished chords in root, first, second and third position (7 th chords). Authentic cadence V I Plagal cadence IV I Open chord = distance between tenor and soprano voice is more than one octave. Closed chord = distance between tenor and soprano voice is less than one octave. A perfect cadence has the root note in the soprano of the final tonic chord. An imperfect cadence has the 3 rd or 5 th in the soprano of the final tonic chord. Proper four part writing of a chord includes 2 roots, one third and one fifth. The distances between the tenor and alto and the alto and the soprano must be an octave or less. The distance between the bass and tenor can be any interval. When moving chord to chord, move by step or jump no greater than a third. Check for illegal use of parallel 5ths and octaves between all voices. First inversion (I6) chords double the soprano note and the third is in the bass. Second inversion, (I6/4) the fifth is in the bass and the bass note is doubled. Figured bass symbols and names Instrument families and knowledge of how sound is produced on each instrument. Transposition for instruments in C, Eflat, F, and Bflat.

6 4 Major Assessments: The students will be assessed by tests, quizzes, board work, homework and class participation/discussion Please see attached sample test/quizzes List of Applicable NJCCCS and Strands/CPIs Covered in This Unit C B(2) A(2) C.1,2 Suggested Learning Experiences and Instructional Activities Explore online music theory help and learning: Musictheory.net, Emusictheory.com Listen for parallels to your own listening library Instructional Strategies: Technical writing: Notation exercises Compare/Contrast: Live and recorded examples Instructional Activities Apply music theory concepts to ensemble music. Participate in class drills and activities.

7 5 Unit 2: Ear Training/Aural Skills Why Is This Unit Important? This unit will focus on development of listening, interval and chordal quality recognition skills. In addition to the knowledge that is needed to understand the creation of music, the development of a musician s ear is an integral part of the general musicianship skills needed to create a solid musician. Enduring Understandings Students will apply solfege syllables to each scale degree in a major scale while applying the correct hand signal for each syllable. Students will identify all musical intervals: m2-m10 Students will recognize and identify the triad qualities of Major, minor, augmented and diminished. Students will recognize and identify the quality of a scale played on a piano - major and minor (natural, harmonic and melodic). Students will sight sing a given melody using correct pitch, solfege syllables and hand signals. Essential Questions What are the solfege syllables and what do they represent? Identify intervals and triads with correct quality. Identify scale qualities. Sight sings melodies with solfege. Acquired Knowledge/Skills Sing an ascending and descending major scale using the correct solfege hand signal and syllables. Sing an ascending and descending sequential (in thirds) using correct solfege hand signals and syllables. Identify all intervals by name upon hearing them- m2-m10. Identify the triads as major, minor, augmented or diminished. Sight sing simple melodies with hand signs and solfege syllables. Major Assessments Listening tests and quizzes for: intervals, triad quality (major, minor, augmented and diminished), major scales, minor scales (natural, harmonic and melodic) Singing evaluations for acceptable intonation

8 6 List of Applicable NJCCCS and Strands/CPIs Covered in This Unit B(2) A(2) C.1, C.2 Instructional Strategies Compare/contrast: recorded excerpts; conducting patterns; movement exercises Instructional Activities Apply music theory concepts to ensemble music. Participate in class drills and activities. Suggested Learning Experiences and Instructional Activities Explore online aural drills help and learning: Musictheory.net, Teoria.com

9 7 Unit 3: Elementary Acoustics Why Is This Unit Important? This unit will cover the basics of sound production, reflection, adsorption and reception. In the age of easily-transported music (ipod) and the increase in human hearing damage as a result, the human auditory system and how damage is created will be discussed. This will raise student awareness of the risks of hearing damage and how to prevent it from occurring. Enduring Understandings: The students will Understand and apply the basic terminology of acoustical properties Understand the structure of the harmonic series and how it relates to the tone quality of a musical instrument Use good hearing protection options to make better informed choices towards personal health Understand OSHA regulations regarding sound level vs. time Essential Questions Who is Heinrich Hertz? How are Hertz/cycles per second (CPS) related to pitch? What is the range of human hearing? What is the harmonic series? How does amplitude affect human health? Acquired Knowledge Human hearing range is 20 Hz 20,000 Hz in a person with no hearing damage. Sound is produced by a vibration passing through a medium to a receiver. Hz is the measurement of frequency - the higher the frequency, the higher the pitch. A 440 Hz is used to tune instruments all over the world. The harmonic series contains the fundamental tone and numerous overtones that create an instrument s timbre or tone quality. Acquired Skills Create a harmonic series when given a fundamental tone. What to do to protect against hearing damage.

10 8 Major Assessments Tests Quizzes Class participation Instructional Strategies Discuss with students: sound waves, tone, wavelengths, pitch List of Applicable NJCCCS and Strands/CPIs Covered in This Unit C C.2 Instructional Activities Acoustical assessment of different locations within EHS Cross-curricular discussions: physics, health, etc. Suggested Learning Experiences Health and wellness discussions Internet research

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