CHAPTER I THE STAFF. 1.1 The most commonly used CLEFS are the treble and bass clefs.

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1 CHAPTER I THE STAFF 1.1 The most commonly used CLEFS are the treble and bass clefs. The C clef is also used frequently. The centre of this clef shows the position of middle C. When the centre of the C clef points to the center line of the staff, the clef is called the alto clef When the centre of the C clef points to the fourth line of the staff, the clef is called the tenor clef. Here are the note names for the alto clef. Here are the note names for the tenor clef 1

2 Here is the relative position of the four clefs 2

3 CHAPTER II TIME VALUES 2.1 A DOT placed after a note or rest, increases its value by half of its initial length. 2.2 A DOUBLE DOT placed after a note or rest, increases the value of a note by half the length of the first dot. 3

4 CHAPTER III SCALES 3.1 Here is the PLACEMENT OF SHARPS for the alto and tenor clefs. Here is the PLACEMENT OF FLATS for the alto and tenor clefs. NOTE: Key signature placement remains the same for all clefs with the exception of the placement of sharps in the tenor clef. 3.2 The CHROMATIC SCALE consists of all twelve semitones starting on any given note and ending an octave higher. C C# Db D D# Eb E F F# Gb G G# Ab A A# B Bb C 1 There are two kinds of chromatic scales: melodic and harmonic 4

5 3.3 HOW TO WRITE A MELODIC CHROMATIC SCALE STEP 1 - Read the instructions carefully. Write a D melodic chromatic scale in the treble clef. STEP 2 - Place the correct clef at the beginning of the staff. STEP 3 - Write the notes of the ascending scale using sharps. STEP 4 - Place a bar line at the top of the scale in order to cancel any accidentals used previously STEP 5 - Write the notes of the descending scale using flats. 5

6 VARIATION #1 - Here s how to write a melodic chromatic scale when the tonic is a flattened note. STEP 1 - Read the instructions carefully. Write a Db melodic chromatic scale in the treble clef. STEP 2 - Place the correct clef at the beginning of the staff. STEP 3 - Write the notes of the ascending scale making sure that no note is used more than twice. Use sharps as soon as they become available. When you arrive at the top tonic, do not change it enharmonically. STEP 4 - Place a bar line at the top of the scale in order to cancel any accidentals used previously STEP 5 - Write the notes of the descending scale using flats. 6

7 VARIATION #2 - Here s how to write a melodic chromatic scale when the tonic is a sharpened note. STEP 1 - Read the instructions carefully. Write a D# melodic chromatic scale in the treble clef. STEP 2 - Place the correct clef at the beginning of the staff. STEP 3 - Write the notes of the ascending scale using sharps. STEP 4 - Place a bar line at the top of the scale in order to cancel any accidentals used previously STEP 5 - Write the notes of the descending scale making sure that no note is used more than twice. Use flats as soon as they become available. When you arrive at the bottom tonic, do not change it enharmonically. 7

8 3.4 HOW TO WRITE A HARMONIC CHROMATIC SCALE STEP 1 - Read the instructions carefully. Write a Db harmonic chromatic scale in the bass clef. STEP 2 - Place the correct clef at the beginning of the staff. STEP 3 - Write the notes of the ascending scale using two notes for every degree except the tonic and the dominant. These must be unique and be a perfect fifth apart. STEP 4 - Fill in with the appropriate accidentals which will make all the notes a semitone apart. 8

9 STEP 5 - Place a bar line at the top of the scale in order to cancel any accidentals used previously STEP 6 - The notes of the descending scale are the same as those in the ascending scale in reverse. 3.5 THE PENTATONIC SCALE is most often found in music of the Orient. It consists of five notes and is simply the major scale with the fourth and seventh degrees omitted. 3.6 THE WHOLE TONE SCALE consists of the six tones between a note and its octave. 9

10 3.7 MODES come from the Greeks who built scales on tetrachords. These scales were later used by the Roman Catholic church and the mode names got confused. The note which a mode begins is called the final. The religious names are the ones most commonly used. RELIGIOUS NAMES Dorian Phrygian Lydian Mixolydian Aolian Hypophrygian Ionian 10

11 CHAPTER IV INTERVALS 4.1 To write the ENHARMONIC EQUIVALENCE of an interval, you must change the letter name of the upper note without changing its pitch. The first interval below is a minor sixth. Changing the interval enharmonically turns it into an augmented fifth. Although the intervals are enharmonically different, they both sound the same. 4.2 A COMPOUND INTERVAL consists of two notes which are more than an octave apart. 4.3 HOW TO IDENTIFY A COMPOUND INTERVAL 11

12 STEP 1 - Convert the interval to its simple form by rewriting the top note an octave lower or the bottom note an octave higher whichever is more convenient. STEP 2 - Identify the simple interval. o 3 rd STEP 3 - Keep the quality of the interval and add 7 to the size = 10 STEP 4 - Identify the compound interval. o 10 th 4.4 HOW TO INVERT A COMPOUND INTERVAL STEP 1 - Convert the interval to its simple form by rewriting the top note an octave lower or the bottom note an octave higher whichever is more convenient. 12

13 STEP 2 - Identify both the simple and compound intervals = 11 o 4 th o 11 th STEP 3 - Invert the simple interval and identify it. The size of the inversion plus the size of the compound interval will always add up to = 16 x 5 th o 11 th 4.5 INTERVALS AND KEYS Sometimes it is necessary to identify all the keys in which an interval can be found. There are two methods you can use to figure this out. METHOD 1 (I call it the hit and miss method) Example #1 - Find the keys where the following interval can be found. Step 1 - Identify the major keys where both notes of the interval would exist. Since there is one sharp in the interval, it is logical to eliminate all major keys with flats. It is also logical to state that the two notes can only exist in major keys up to and including 4 sharps. MAJOR KEYS: G maj. D maj. A maj. E maj. 13

14 B maj. and subsequent keys do not work because in those keys the A is sharp and in our interval, the A is natural. Step 2 - Identify the minor keys where both notes of the interval would exist. Begin with the relative minors of the major keys found in step 1. G major s relative is E minor (F# and D# raised seventh). Both notes of our interval exist within that key. D major s relative is B minor (F#, C# and A# raised seventh). This key must be discarded since A natural is not present. A major s relative is F# minor (F#, C#, G# and E# raised seventh). Both notes of our interval work in this key. E major s relative is C#minor (F#, C#, G# and D x raised seventh). Both notes of our interval work in this key. Step 3 - Assume that the bottom note of the interval is the raised seventh. If A is the raised seventh, the key is Bb minor (Bb, Eb, A natural raised seventh, Db and Gb). This key must be discarded since F# is not present. Step 4 - Assume that the top note of the interval is the raised seventh. If F# is the raised seventh, the key is G minor (Bb, Eb and F# raised seventh). Both notes of our interval work in this key. MINOR KEYS: E min. F# min. C#min. Gmin. Summary Major keys: Minor keys: G maj. D maj. A maj. E maj. E min. F# min. C# min. G min. 14

15 METHOD 2 (The scientific method) Step 1 - Identify the interval. The interval is a minor sixth. Step 2 - Find the major keys where the interval can be found. Build the interval of a sixth above every degree of any major scale (C major is the easiest choice). Identify the quality of each sixth I II III IV V VI VII List the degrees where minor sixths occur: III, VI and VII Now place the bottom note of original interval on the degrees where the minor sixths were found and locate the key by working your way to the tonic. When Eb is III, Cb is I. Our interval can be found in Cb major When Eb is VI, Gb is I Our interval can therefore be found in Gb major 15

16 When Eb is VII, Fb is I. Fb major is not used in music and therefore does not apply. Step 3 - Find the minor keys where the interval can be found. Build the interval of a sixth above every degree of any minor scale (A minor is the easiest choice). Identify the quality of each sixth I II III IV V VI VII List the degrees where minor sixths occur: I, V and VII Now place the bottom note of original interval on the degrees where the minor sixths were found and locate the key by working your way to the tonic. When Eb is I, the tonic is Eb. Our interval can be found in Eb minor. When Eb is V, Ab is I Our interval can therefore be found in Ab minor. 16

17 When Eb is VII, Fb is I. Fb minor is not used in music and therefore does not apply. Conclusion - Our minor sixth can be found in Cb maj., Gb maj., Eb min. and Ab min. When identifying intervals and keys follow these basic rules... When an interval contains a double flat it does not exist in any keys Only natural and sharpened notes in any interval can be a raised seventh 17

18 CHAPTER V TRIADS & CHORDS 5.1 BUILDING A TRIADS AND DEGREES CHART Sometimes it is necessary to identify all the keys in which a triad can be found. To do this, one must first create a chart of triads and degrees. Build a triad on every degree of any major scale (C major is the easiest choice) and identify each one. Note that the major triads occur on I, IV and V, minor triads occur on II, III and VI, and there is one diminished triad on VII. This pattern never changes no matter which major scale is used. Build a triad on every degree of any minor scale (C minor is a good choice) and identify each one. 18

19 Note that the major triads occur on V and VI, minor triads occur on I, and IV. The diminished triads occur on II and VII and there is one augmented triad on III. This pattern never changes no matter which minor scale is used. D min. B min 5.2 Here is the triads and degrees chart summed up. MAJOR SCALES MINOR SCALES Major triads I IV V V VI Minor triads II III VI I IV Diminished triads VII II VII Augmented triads III 19

20 5.3 TRIADS AND KEYS Sometimes it is necessary to identify all the keys in which a triad can be found. Example #1 - Find the keys where the following triad can be found. Step 1 - Identify the triad. The triad is diminished. Step 2 - Find the degrees where diminished triads occur in major keys. Using the chart 5.2, diminished triads only occur on the seventh degree of major keys. Substitute the root of the given triad as the seventh degree, and locate the tonic. If G is the seventh degree, the tonic is Ab major. Note that the Ab major scale contains the three notes of our triad. This confirms that the answer is correct. Step 3 - Find the degrees where diminished triads occur in minor keys. Using the chart 5.2, diminished triads only occur on II and VII of minor keys. Substitute the root of the given triad as the second degree, and locate the tonic. 20

21 If G is the second degree, the tonic is F minor. Substitute the root of the given triad as the seventh degree, and locate the tonic. If G is the seventh degree, the tonic is Ab minor. Note that the F minor and the Ab minor scales contain the three notes of our triad. This confirms that the answer is correct. Conclusion - The triad... can be found in Ab maj., F min. and Ab min. Example #2 - Find the keys where the following triad can be found. Step 1 - Identify the triad. The triad is augmented. Step 2 - Find the degrees where augmented triads occur in major keys. Augmented triads do not occur in major keys. Step 3 - Find the degrees where augmented triads occur in minor keys. Augmented triads occur only on III of minor keys. 21

22 Substitute the root of the given triad as the third degree, and locate the tonic. If Ab is the third degree, the tonic is F minor. Conclusion - The triad... can only be found in the key of F minor. 5.4 THE DOMINANT SEVENTH CHORD. 5.5 Here is the triad or chord on the dominant of C major. Here is the DOMINANT SEVENTH chord of C major. 22

23 5.6 DOMINANT SEVENTH INVERSIONS Here is the dominant seventh of D major in ROOT POSITION. The arab numeral 7 is used to show the root position of a dominant seventh chord. It represents the interval of a seventh between the bottom note and the top note of the chord. Here is the dominant seventh of D major in FIRST INVERSION. The arab numerals 6 and 5 are used to show the first inversion of a dominant seventh chord. They represent the intervals of a sixth and a fifth between the bottom note and the two top notes of the chord. Here is the dominant seventh of D major in SECOND INVERSION. The arab numerals 4 and 3 are used to show the second inversion of a dominant seventh chord. They represent the intervals of a fourth and a third between the bottom note and the next two notes of the chord. 23

24 Here is the dominant seventh of D major in THIRD INVERSION. The arab numerals 4 and 2 are used to show the first inversion of a dominant seventh chord. They represent the intervals of a fourth and a second between the bottom note and the two top notes of the chord. RECAP: All dominant seventh chords have three inversions. Here are the three inversions of the dominant seventh chord of Ab major. 5.7 IDENTIFYING DOMINANT SEVENTHS Example - Identify the following dominant seventh chord Step 1 - Identify the inversion. List the intervals that make up the chord - ie.: 2, 4 and 6. This chord is in third inversion. 24

25 Step 2 - Identify the root of the chord Write the chord in root position Identify the root The root is F. Recap: Identify the following dominant seventh chord Position: third inversion Root: F 25

26 CHAPTER VI BASIC RULES OF VOICING 6.1 In vocal harmony, the voices are divided into four parts: Soprano, Alto, Tenor and Bass (SATB). The Soprano and Alto voices are written in treble clef while the Tenor and Bass voices are in bass. 6.2 These are the approximate RANGES of the four voices. 6.3 DIRECTION OF STEMS The Soprano stems point UP. The Alto stems point DOWN. The Tenor stems point UP. The Bass stems point DOWN 26

27 6.4 DISTANCES BETWEEN VOICES Basic chord 2. The notes should not be too far apart. Do NOT write more than one 8ve between the Alto and Soprano. 3. Do NOT write more than one 8ve between the Tenor and Alto. 4. The distance between the Bass and Tenor generally does NOT exceed the interval of a 12th. 6.5 CLOSE POSITION occurs when the distance between the Soprano and Tenor is less than one 8ve. 6.6 OPEN POSITION occurs when the distance between the Soprano and Tenor is more than one 8ve. 27

28 6.7 IDENTIFYING CHORDS IN OPEN POSITION Example - Identify the following chord Step 1 - Rearrange the notes of the chord within one octave on one staff, keeping the bass note at the bottom of the cluster. In this instance, the chord has four notes which more than likely indicates it s a dominant seventh. Step 2 - Identify the inversion. List the intervals that make up the chord - ie.: 3, 5 and 6. This chord is in first inversion. Step 3 - Identify the root of the chord Write the chord in root position 28

29 Identify the root The root is D. If D is the dominant, the possible keys for this dominant seventh chord are G maj. and/or G min. Recap: Identify the following dominant seventh chord G maj. & G min. 29

30 CHAPTER VII CADENCES 7.1 A CADENCE si a series of chords occuring at the end of a piece or section of music. Cadences convey the impression of musical punctuation. 7.2 The three most common cadences used are... i) The PERFECT cadence ii) The PLAGAL cadence iii) The IMPERFECT cadence 7.3 The PERFECT CADENCE consists of the dominant chord following by the tonic chord. It is often called final cadence or authentic cadence and gives the impression of a musical period [.] 30

31 7.4 WRITING PERFECT CADENCES NOTE: Make sure to use the BASIC VOCAL HARMONY RULES OF WRITING from chapter six when writing cadences. Example - Write a perfect cadence in C major Step 1 - Write the dominant note followed by the tonic in the bass. The second last triad is usually shorter than the final one so if the time signature is 4/4, use a half note followed by a whole note. Step 2 - Choose either the root, the third or the fifth of the dominant triad to be the melody note. Write this note in the soprano voice directly above the bass. Step 3 - Write the remaining two notes of the dominant chord in the alto and tenor voices following the rules of stem directions. 31

32 Step 4 - Write the notes of the tonic chord. Keep the common note in the same voice. The common note is the dominant - sol goes to sol. In this case the common note is in the alto voice. Move the other two notes up a second - ti goes to do (tenor), ré goes to mi (soprano). NOTE: Do not forget to raise the third of the dominant triad when writing perfect cadences in minor keys. 7.4 WRITING PERFECT CADENCES WITH IMPOSED MELODY Example - Write a perfect cadence below the following melody notes. Step 1 - Write the dominant note followed by the tonic note in the bass. 32

33 Step 2 - Write the remaining two notes of the dominant chord in the alto and tenor voices following the rules of stem directions. STEP 3 - Write the two notes of the tonic chord between the bass and soprano notes. If possible use the same rules from Step 4 above. The example above (where the soprano line has ré going to do ) is the only case where the rules from Step 4 cannot be used. Instead lower the other two notes a third - ti goes to sol (alto), sol goes to mi (tenor). 7.5 The PLAGAL CADENCE consists of the subdominant chord following by the tonic chord. It is also called final cadence and gives the impression of a musical exclamation mark [!] 33

34 7.6 WRITING PLAGAL CADENCES Example - Write a plagal cadence in C major Step 1 - Write the subdominant note followed by the tonic in the bass. Step 2 - Choose either the root, the third or the fifth of the subdominant triad to be the melody note. Write this note in the soprano voice directly above the bass. Step 3 - Write the remaining two notes of the subdominant chord in the alto and tenor voices following the rules of stem directions. 34

35 Step 4 - Write the notes of the tonic chord. Keep the common note in the same voice. The common note is the tonic - do goes to do. In this case the common note is in the alto voice. Move the other two notes down a second - la goes to sol (tenor), fa goes to mi (soprano). 7.7 There are several IMPERFECT CADENCES. The two most commonly used consist of the subdominant or tonic chord followed by the dominant chord. The imperfect cadence is also called half cadence and gives the impression of a musical question mark [?] 35

36 7.8 WRITING IMPERFECT CADENCES Example #1 - Write an imperfect I-V cadence in F major Use the same process as with writing perfect cadences, the only difference being the order of the two chords. Example #2 - Write an imperfect IV-V cadence in Eb major Step 1 - Write the subdominant note followed by the dominant note in the bass. Step 2 - Choose either the root, the third or the fifth of the subdominant triad to be the melody note. Write this note in the soprano voice directly above the bass. 36

37 Step 3 - Write the remaining two notes of the subdominant chord in the alto and tenor voices following the rules of stem directions. Step 4 - Write the notes of the tonic chord. The three upper voices must move in contrary motion to the bass. In the example given here, fa goes to ré (tenor), do goes to ti (alto), and la goes to sol (soprano). 37

38 CHAPTER VIII TRANSPOSITION & SCORES 8.1 KEY CHANGES Transposing music is common practice when writing musical scores. Example - Transpose the following melody in Db major. Use the tenor clef. Step 1 - Transpose the original melody in the new key. Step 2 - Using middle C as a reference point, rewrite the transposed melody in the new clef. 8.2 TRANSPOSING FROM MAJOR TO MINOR Transposing from major to minor (and vice versa) is in reality a change in the mood or color of a melody. Example - Transpose the following melody in E minor. 38

39 Step 1 - Find the interval between the original tonic and the transposed tonic. The transposed tonic is a third lower Step 2 - Write the melody a third lower. Ignore all accidentals. Step 3 - Add the key signature and the raised seventh of the new key. Step 4 - Add any accidentals making sure that the effect they have in the original version is reproduced in the transposed version. 8.3 A SCORE shows all the musical parts of an instrumental or vocal piece. The parts are vertically aligned and are rearranged by families of instruments. 39

40 The piano score Piano scores have two staves. Usually the treble clef staff is played with the right hand and the bass clef staff is played with the left hand. MENUET from Suite Bergamasque CLAUDE DEBUSSY The organ score Organ scores have three staves. The bottom staff is for the pedal notes played with the feet. The other staves are similar to those used for the piano score. 40

41 The orchestral score Orchestral scores have many staves. These are organized according to instrument or family of instruments. DANCE PARISIENNE (can can) Conductor s score J. Offenbach 41

42 The string quartet score String quartet scores have four staves. Each represents one instrument: first violin, second violin, alto or viola and cello. The vocal score Vocal scores consist of four melody lines, one for each voice part. Vocal scores come in two formats: the condensed or short score, and the open score. The condensed score has two staves. The soprano and alto parts are in treble clef while the tenor and bass parts are in the bass clef. The direction of note stems is indicative of a specific voice part. When a note has both up and down stems, two voices are in unison. 42

43 The open score has four staves, one for each voice part. There are two ways to write vocal parts in open score form. The old open score form has the alto voice in alto clef and the tenor voice in tenor clef. The modern open score form has the soprano and alto voices in treble clef. A transposing treble clef is used for the tenor and the part is written an octave higher than it sounds. 43

44 CHAPTER IX TERMS played an octave higher. when placed above the staff, indicates that notes are to be to be played played an octave lower. when placed below the staff, indicates that notes are to be to be played 44

45 when placed above the staff, indicates that the written notes and those an octave higher are to be played simultaneously. is to be played when placed below the staff, indicates that the written notes and those an octave higher are to be played simultaneously. is to be played indicates that the notes are to be played in an arpeggio style, one note rapidly following the other, startin with the bottom note. 45

46 indicates that the performer is to play all the notes between both written notes in rapid succession. This is knows as a glissando. indicates 6 bars of rest. 46

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