Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars Senior Astrophysics Senior Astrophysics () Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars / 28

2 Outline 1 Stellar models 2 Convection 3 Massive stars 4 Evolution of a massive star 5 Mass loss Senior Astrophysics () Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars / 28

3 Mass ranges Last lecture we identified four regions of the HR diagram: red dwarfs: M<0.7M. Main sequence lifetime exceeds age of Universe low-mass: 0.7M <M<2M. End lives as WD and possibly PN intermediate-mass: 2M <M<8 10M. Similar to low-stars but at higher L; end as higher mass WD and PN massive: M>8 10M.Distinctlydifferent evolutionary paths; end as supernovae, leaving neutron stars or black holes Boundaries uncertain, mass ranges approximate. Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars Stellar models 3 / 28

4 Convection Before we talk about evolution, discuss convection Recall the equation of energy transport, dt dr = 3 4ac apple T 3 L 4 r 2 describing the temperature gradient when energy is carried by radiation. If luminosity L or opacity apple are large ) large (negative) value of dt/dr. Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars Convection 4 / 28

5 Convection For an ideal gas, the energy density (energy per unit volume) is given by nkt where n is the number density of particles. 3 2 Hot gas near the centre of the star has higher energy density than cooler gas above. If we could swap the gas over, we could transport energy outward. Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars Convection 5 / 28

6 Convective instability Imagine displacing a small mass element vertically upward by adistancedr Assume that no heat is exchanged with surrounding gas, i.e. process is adiabatic Element expands to stay in pressure balance with new environment New density will in general not equal ambient density at new location Initially After displacement Surroundings (r) (r + dr) Element (r) Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars Convection 6 / 28

7 Convective instability If > (r + dr) then the displaced element will be denser than the surroundings and will settle back down ) stable < (r + dr) then buoyancy will cause the element to rise even further ) convective instability Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars Convection 7 / 28

8 Convective instability Condition for stability can be shown to depend on the temperature gradient. The condition for stability is dt dt < dr dr star adiabatic If the temperature gradient in the star is steeper than the temperature gradient when an element is moved adiabatically, then this leads to the onset of convection. Large luminosities and/or large opacities lead to convection. Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars Convection 8 / 28

9 Convection Low mass stars: nearthesurfaceopacityislargeduetoatomic processes ) surface convection zones High mass stars: veryhighluminosities,l M 4,allgeneratedclose to core ) core convection Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars Convection 9 / 28

10 Website of the Week: SIMBAD Astronomical database for basic data, cross-identifications, bibliography and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. Lecture 7: Stellar evolution I: Low-mass stars Website of the Week 26 / 35

11 Evolution of a massive star Massive stars, with M>8 10M, have different evolutionary paths to low-mass stars. The main differences are L remains approximately constant in spite of internal changes, so the track in the HR diagram is almost horizontal. Massive stars can undergo the whole sequence of thermonuclear reactions, all the way up to Fe Mass-loss is important at all stages of the star s evolution Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars Massive stars 10 / 28

12 Paths in the HR diagram for stars of different mass. (From Iben 1967, Science 155, 785) Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars Evolution of a massive star 11 / 28

13 Constant luminosity Basic physics for how stars evolve is the same, but observational consequences are quite different Most notably, massive stars evolve at nearly constant luminosity. This is consequence of radiation pressure being important for massive stars (= photon gas); massive stars are already radiating at their maximum luminosity (Eddington luminosity will discuss later) After they leave the MS and begin burning H in shells, massive stars cannot increase their luminosity, but they can increase their radius and go to lower effective temperature ) massive stars never have a red giant phase, since that would require an increase in luminosity. Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars Evolution of a massive star 12 / 28

14 Internal structure Just as for low-mass stars, when the collapsing core reaches high enough temperature the triple- process can begin. Unlike the low-mass stars, however, helium burning begins when the core is non-degenerate (lower density). There is no helium flash; the onset of He burning is gradual. Again, the triple- process liberates less energy per unit mass than for H-burning, so the lifetime is correspondingly shorter ( 10% of the MS lifetime). Once the He core has been converted to 12 C and 16 O, He burning stops, the core recommences its collapse, and a He burning shell ignites outside the core. This time, the temperature rises high enough for C and O to burn to Mg and Si (see lecture 7). Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars Evolution of a massive star 13 / 28

15 C and O burning C burning requires T K Several reactions are involved, e.g. 12 C + 4 He! 16 O + 12 C + 12 C! 20 Ne + 4 He +! 23 Na + 1 H +! 23 Mg + n + 16 O + 4 He! 20 Ne + 16 O + 16 O! 28 Si + 4 He + etc. 28 Si burning has hundreds of possible reactions, producing a host of nuclei. Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars Evolution of a massive star 14 / 28

16 C and O burning Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars Evolution of a massive star 15 / 28

17 Stars have layers This pattern of core ignition and shell ignition continues, until the star develops a layered structure. Heavier and heavier elements are built up, until the iron group elements of Ne, Fe and Co are formed. The core is surrounded by a series of shells at lower T and lower. Typical timescales (15M star) Phase (yrs) Hydrogen (MS) Helium Carbon 400 Oxygen 1 Silicon 10 2 Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars Evolution of a massive star 16 / 28

18 Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars Evolution of a massive star 17 / 28

19 Stars have layers This pattern of core ignition and shell ignition continues, until the star develops a layered structure. Heavier and heavier elements are built up, until the iron group elements of Ne, Fe and Co are formed. The core is surrounded by a series of shells at lower T and lower. Typical timescales (15M star) Phase (yrs) Hydrogen (MS) Helium Carbon 400 Oxygen 1 Silicon 10 2 Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars Evolution of a massive star 16 / 28

20 Mass loss Even on the main sequence, massive stars can lose significant amounts of mass. The winds are driven by radiation pressure: UVphotonsfroma hot, very luminous star are absorbed by the optically thick outer atmosphere layers. An extreme example of this is the massive star Car ( 100M ). Brightness has changed by nearly 10 mags over the last 200 yr; for a while it was one of the brightest stars in the sky. from Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars Mass loss 18 / 28

21 Carinae Hubble images show the star is surrounded by two enormous bubbles of gas 150 years ago the star erupted in a huge wind, during which it lost a solar mass of material Cooling cloud of gas now hides the star, dimming its light Car from the Hubble Space Telescope Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars Mass loss 19 / 28

22 Carinae X-ray images show a hot central source (star), a hot inner core about 3 light months in diameter, and an outer ring about two light years in diameter. Must be the remnant of another large explosion > 1000 yr ago Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars Mass loss 20 / 28

23 Carinae Car is an example of a luminous blue variable stars with M>85M which lose mass in a rapid and unstable manner. Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars Mass loss 21 / 28

24 Wolf-Rayet stars Less massive stars also lose large amounts of mass, though in a less violent manner. The Wolf-Rayet stars have atmospheres containing very little hydrogen: they are essentially the bare cores of massive stars. WR stars lose mass at rates 10 5 M /year, producing spectacular nebulae which can look like planetary nebulae. HST image of the Wolf-Rayet star WR124, showing the star surrounded by hot clumps of gas being ejected at high speed. Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars Mass loss 22 / 28

25 Thor s Helmet (NGC 2359), a bubble-like nebula blown from the hot Wolf-Rayet star in its centre. Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars Mass loss 23 / 28

26 Mass loss and the fate of stars The amount of mass lost can have a dramatic effect on the fate of the star. Our own Sun has a solar wind which reaches speeds of km s 1 with a mass loss rate of about M /yr. Overaten billion year lifespan, at this rate the Sun will lose about 0.01% of its mass to the solar wind. By contrast, the winds from hot stars can be a billion times stronger, losing up to 10 5 M /yr at speeds of up to 3000 km/s. This means that even during the much shorter lives of the stars (a few million years), they can lose on the order of half or more of their mass: a 100M star may have a mass of only 30M by the time it leaves the main sequence. Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars Mass loss 24 / 28

27 Mass loss and the fate of stars This has substantial implications for the evolution of the star. Reducing the mass of the star reduces the pressure and temperature in the interior, which can reduce the mass of the core. And it is the mass of the core when fusion stops which governs whether the star explodes as a supernova, and what kind of remnant it leaves behind. Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars Mass loss 25 / 28

28 Without mass loss Woosley, Heger and Weaver 2002, Rev Mod. Phys. 74, 1015; W Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars Mass loss 26 / 28

29 With mass loss Woosley, Heger and Weaver 2002, Rev Mod. Phys. 74, 1015; W Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars Mass loss 27 / 28

30 Next lecture Supernovae Core collapse Supernovae Type Ia supernovae SN 1987A Lecture 8: Stellar evolution II: Massive stars Mass loss 28 / 28

Ay 20 - Lecture 9 Post-Main Sequence Stellar Evolution. This file has many figures missing, in order to keep it a reasonable size.

Ay 20 - Lecture 9 Post-Main Sequence Stellar Evolution This file has many figures missing, in order to keep it a reasonable size. Main Sequence and the Range of Stellar Masses MS is defined as the locus

Stellar Evolution: a Journey through the H-R Diagram

Stellar Evolution: a Journey through the H-R Diagram Mike Montgomery 21 Apr, 2001 0-0 The Herztsprung-Russell Diagram (HRD) was independently invented by Herztsprung (1911) and Russell (1913) They plotted

Stellar Evolution. The Basic Scheme

Stellar Evolution The Basic Scheme Stars live for a very long time compared to human lifetimes. Even though stellar life-spans are enormous, we know how stars are born, live, and die. All stars follow

Chapter 15. The Chandrasekhar Limit, Iron-56 and Core Collapse Supernovae

Chapter 15. The Chandrasekhar Limit, Iron-56 and Core Collapse Supernovae 1. The Equation of State: Pressure of an Ideal Gas Before discussing results of stellar structure and stellar evolution models

WHERE DID ALL THE ELEMENTS COME FROM??

WHERE DID ALL THE ELEMENTS COME FROM?? In the very beginning, both space and time were created in the Big Bang. It happened 13.7 billion years ago. Afterwards, the universe was a very hot, expanding soup

Nuclear fusion in stars. Collapse of primordial density fluctuations into galaxies and stars, nucleosynthesis in stars

Nuclear fusion in stars Collapse of primordial density fluctuations into galaxies and stars, nucleosynthesis in stars The origin of structure in the Universe Until the time of formation of protogalaxies,

Astronomy 100 Exam 2

1 Prof. Mo Exam Version A Astronomy 100 Exam 2 INSTRUCTIONS: Write your name and ID number on BOTH this sheet and the computer grading form. Use a #2 Pencil on the computer grading form. Be careful to

Chapter 19 Star Formation

Chapter 19 Star Formation 19.1 Star-Forming Regions Units of Chapter 19 Competition in Star Formation 19.2 The Formation of Stars Like the Sun 19.3 Stars of Other Masses 19.4 Observations of Cloud Fragments

8. The evolution of stars a more detailed picture

8. The evolution of stars a more detailed picture 8.1Pre Main-Sequence Evolution Evolution onto the main sequence begins with a cloud of cold gas which contracts under self-gravity. Potential Energy is

Determining the Sizes & Distances of Stars Using the H-R Diagram

Determining the Sizes & Distances of Stars Using the H-R Diagram Activity UCIObs 11 College Level Source: Copyright (2009) by Tammy Smecker-Hane & Michael Hood. Contact tsmecker@uci.edu with questions.

The parts of a nuclear fission reactor

P2 6.1a Student practical sheet The parts of a nuclear fission reactor Making uranium-235 split and produce energy is actually remarkably easy. The trick is to make it do so in a controllable way. Aim

7. In which part of the electromagnetic spectrum are molecules most easily detected? A. visible light B. radio waves C. X rays D.

1. Most interstellar matter is too cold to be observed optically. Its radiation can be detected in which part of the electromagnetic spectrum? A. gamma ray B. ultraviolet C. infrared D. X ray 2. The space

UNIT V. Earth and Space. Earth and the Solar System

UNIT V Earth and Space Chapter 9 Earth and the Solar System EARTH AND OTHER PLANETS A solar system contains planets, moons, and other objects that orbit around a star or the star system. The solar system

MODULE P7: FURTHER PHYSICS OBSERVING THE UNIVERSE OVERVIEW

OVERVIEW More than ever before, Physics in the Twenty First Century has become an example of international cooperation, particularly in the areas of astronomy and cosmology. Astronomers work in a number

The Universe Inside of You: Where do the atoms in your body come from?

The Universe Inside of You: Where do the atoms in your body come from? Matthew Mumpower University of Notre Dame Thursday June 27th 2013 Nucleosynthesis nu cle o syn the sis The formation of new atomic

165 points. Name Date Period. Column B a. Cepheid variables b. luminosity c. RR Lyrae variables d. Sagittarius e. variable stars

Name Date Period 30 GALAXIES AND THE UNIVERSE SECTION 30.1 The Milky Way Galaxy In your textbook, read about discovering the Milky Way. (20 points) For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching

Lecture 14. Introduction to the Sun

Lecture 14 Introduction to the Sun ALMA discovers planets forming in a protoplanetary disc. Open Q: what physics do we learn about the Sun? 1. Energy - nuclear energy - magnetic energy 2. Radiation - continuum

1) The final phase of a star s evolution is determined by the star s a. Age b. Gravitational pull c. Density d. Mass

Science Olympiad Astronomy Multiple Choice: Choose the best answer for each question. Each question is worth one point. In the event of a tie, there will be a tie-breaking word problem. 1) The final phase

Be Stars. By Carla Morton

Be Stars By Carla Morton Index 1. Stars 2. Spectral types 3. B Stars 4. Be stars 5. Bibliography How stars are formed Stars are composed of gas Hydrogen is the main component of stars. Stars are formed

Solar Energy Production

Solar Energy Production We re now ready to address the very important question: What makes the Sun shine? Why is this such an important topic in astronomy? As humans, we see in the visible part of the

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Our Solar System is a collection of gravitationally interacting bodies that include Earth and the Moon. Universal

Activity: Multiwavelength Bingo

ctivity: Multiwavelength background: lmost everything that we know about distant objects in the Universe comes from studying the light that is emitted or reflected by them. The entire range of energies

A i A i. µ(ion) = Z i X i

Lecture 2 Review: calculation of mean atomic weight of an ionized gas (µ) Given a mass fraction X i (or abundance) for an ionic (or atomic) species with atomic weight A i, we can can calculate µ by: For

Introduction and Origin of the Earth

Page 1 of 5 EENS 1110 Tulane University Physical Geology Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Introduction and Origin of the Earth This page last updated on 30-Jul-2015 Geology, What is it? Geology is the study of

Using Photometric Data to Derive an HR Diagram for a Star Cluster

Using Photometric Data to Derive an HR Diagram for a Star Cluster In In this Activity, we will investigate: 1. How to use photometric data for an open cluster to derive an H-R Diagram for the stars and

Chapter 15.3 Galaxy Evolution

Chapter 15.3 Galaxy Evolution Elliptical Galaxies Spiral Galaxies Irregular Galaxies Are there any connections between the three types of galaxies? How do galaxies form? How do galaxies evolve? P.S. You

Lesson Plan G2 The Stars

Lesson Plan G2 The Stars Introduction We see the stars as tiny points of light in the sky. They may all look the same but they are not. They range in size, color, temperature, power, and life spans. In

Main sequence stars. Haris Ðapo. Antalya Lecture 3. 1 Akdeniz University, Antalya

Main sequence stars Haris Ðapo 1 Akdeniz University, Antalya Antalya Lecture 3. Haris Ðapo (Akdeniz University) Main sequence stars Main sequence stars 1 / 22 Outline 1 Introduction 2 Hydrogen burning

Test 2 --- Natural Sciences 102, Professors Rieke --- VERSION B March 3, 2010

Enter your answers on the form provided. Be sure to write your name and student ID number on the first blank at the bottom of the form. Please mark the version (B) in the Key ID space at the top of the

L2: The building-up of the chemical elements

credit: NASA L2: The building-up of the chemical elements UCL Certificate of astronomy Dr. Ingo Waldmann What ordinary stuff is made of What ordinary stuff is made of Build up of metallicity 2 What are

1 Introduction. Name: 1.1 Spectral Classification of Stars. PHYS-1050 Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram Solutions Spring 2013

Name: 1 Introduction Read through this information before proceeding on with the lab. 1.1 Spectral Classification of Stars 1.1.1 Types of Spectra Astronomers are very interested in spectra graphs of intensity

Evolution of Close Binary Systems

Evolution of Close Binary Systems Before going on to the evolution of massive stars and supernovae II, we ll think about the evolution of close binary systems. There are many multiple star systems in the

The Main Point. Lecture #34: Solar System Origin II. Chemical Condensation ( Lewis ) Model. How did the solar system form? Reading: Chapter 8.

Lecture #34: Solar System Origin II How did the solar system form? Chemical Condensation ("Lewis") Model. Formation of the Terrestrial Planets. Formation of the Giant Planets. Planetary Evolution. Reading:

Class 2 Solar System Characteristics Formation Exosolar Planets

Class 1 Introduction, Background History of Modern Astronomy The Night Sky, Eclipses and the Seasons Kepler's Laws Newtonian Gravity General Relativity Matter and Light Telescopes Class 2 Solar System

Answers for the Student Worksheet for the Hubble Space Telescope Scavenger Hunt

Instructions: Answers are typed in blue. Answers for the Student Worksheet for the Hubble Space Telescope Scavenger Hunt Crab Nebula What is embedded in the center of the nebula? Neutron star Who first

California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping

California Standards Grades 912 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping Earth Sciences Earth s Place in the Universe 1. Astronomy and planetary exploration reveal the solar system s structure,

The Origin of the Solar System and Other Planetary Systems

The Origin of the Solar System and Other Planetary Systems Modeling Planet Formation Boundary Conditions Nebular Hypothesis Fixing Problems Role of Catastrophes Planets of Other Stars Modeling Planet Formation

1 A Solar System Is Born

CHAPTER 3 1 A Solar System Is Born SECTION Formation of the Solar System BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a nebula? How did our solar system

Nuclear fission and fusion

Nuclear fission and fusion P2 62 minutes 62 marks Page of 23 Q. Nuclear power stations use the energy released from nuclear fuels to generate electricity. (a) Which substance do the majority of nuclear

Astro 130, Fall 2011, Homework, Chapter 17, Due Sep 29, 2011 Name: Date:

Astro 130, Fall 2011, Homework, Chapter 17, Due Sep 29, 2011 Name: Date: 1. If stellar parallax can be measured to a precision of about 0.01 arcsec using telescopes on Earth to observe stars, to what distance

THE HR DIAGRAM THE MOST FAMOUS DIAGRAM in ASTRONOMY Mike Luciuk

THE HR DIAGRAM THE MOST FAMOUS DIAGRAM in ASTRONOMY Mike Luciuk 1.INTRODUCTION Late in the nineteenth century, astronomers had tools that revealed a great deal about stars. By that time, advances in telescope

Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Test 2 f14 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Carbon cycles through the Earth system. During photosynthesis, carbon is a. released from wood

STUDY GUIDE: Earth Sun Moon

The Universe is thought to consist of trillions of galaxies. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, has billions of stars. One of those stars is our Sun. Our solar system consists of the Sun at the center, and all

Study Guide: Solar System

Study Guide: Solar System 1. How many planets are there in the solar system? 2. What is the correct order of all the planets in the solar system? 3. Where can a comet be located in the solar system? 4.

The Sun and Solar Energy

I The Sun and Solar Energy One of the most important forces behind global change on Earth is over 90 million miles distant from the planet. The Sun is the ultimate, original source of the energy that drives

Astro 102 Test 5 Review Spring 2016. See Old Test 4 #16-23, Test 5 #1-3, Old Final #1-14

Astro 102 Test 5 Review Spring 2016 See Old Test 4 #16-23, Test 5 #1-3, Old Final #1-14 Sec 14.5 Expanding Universe Know: Doppler shift, redshift, Hubble s Law, cosmic distance ladder, standard candles,

Stellar Astrophysics: Stellar Evolution 1. Stellar Evolution

Stellar Astrophysics: Stellar Evolution 1 Stellar Evolution Update date: October 29, 2014 With the understanding of the basic physical processes in stars, we now proceed to study their evolution. In particular,

Monday 24 June 2013 Morning

THIS IS A NEW SPECIFICATION H Monday 24 June 2013 Morning GCSE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY SCIENCE PHYSICS A A183/02 Module P7 (Higher Tier) * A 1 3 7 3 1 0 6 1 3 * Candidates answer on the Question Paper. A

Homework #3 Solutions

Chap. 7, #40 Homework #3 Solutions ASTR100: Introduction to Astronomy Fall 2009: Dr. Stacy McGaugh Which of the following is a strong greenhouse gas? A) Nitrogen. B) Water Vapor. C) Oxygen) The correct

Lecture 28 High Temperature Geochemistry Formation of chemical elements

Lecture 28 High Temperature Geochemistry Formation of chemical elements Reading this week: White Ch 8.1 8.4.1(dig. 313-326) and Ch 10.1 to 10.5.3 (dig. 421-464) Today 1. Stellar processes 2. nucleosynthesis

Astronomy - Life Cycle of Stars Project

Astronomy - Life Cycle of Stars Project Each student will be assigned a star. All information about that star must be researched. The goal is to produce a single PowerPoint slide/mini poster that describes

13 Space Photos To Remind You The Universe Is Incredible

13 Space Photos To Remind You The Universe Is Incredible NASA / Via photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov New ultraviolet images from NASA s Galaxy Evolution Explorer shows a speeding star that is leaving an enormous

Lecture 19 Big Bang Cosmology

The Nature of the Physical World Lecture 19 Big Bang Cosmology Arán García-Bellido 1 News Exam 2: you can do better! Presentations April 14: Great Physicist life, Controlled fusion April 19: Nuclear power,

The Birth, Life, and Death of Stars

The Birth, Life, and Death of Stars The Osher Lifelong Learning Institute Florida State University Jorge Piekarewicz Department of Physics jpiekarewicz@fsu.edu Schedule: September 29 November 3 Time: 11:30am

The Sun: Our nearest star

The Sun: Our nearest star Property Surface T Central T Luminosity Mass Lifetime (ms) Value 5500K 15x10 6 K 2 x 10 33 ergs 4 x 10 33 grams 10 billion years Solar Structure Build a model and find the central

Top 10 Discoveries by ESO Telescopes

Top 10 Discoveries by ESO Telescopes European Southern Observatory reaching new heights in astronomy Exploring the Universe from the Atacama Desert, in Chile since 1964 ESO is the most productive astronomical

Miras, Mass-Loss, and the Ultimate Fate of the Earth L. A. Willson & G. H. Bowen, Iowa State University. Fire and Ice:

Miras, Mass-Loss, and the Ultimate Fate of the Earth L. A. Willson & G. H. Bowen, Iowa State University Fire and Ice: Some say the world will end in fire, Some say in ice. From what I've tasted of desire

Earth Sciences -- Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12. California State Science Content Standards. Mobile Climate Science Labs

Earth Sciences -- Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12 California State Science Content Standards Covered in: Hands-on science labs, demonstrations, & activities. Investigation and Experimentation. Lesson Plans. Presented

WELCOME to Aurorae In the Solar System. J.E. Klemaszewski

WELCOME to Aurorae In the Solar System Aurorae in the Solar System Sponsoring Projects Galileo Europa Mission Jupiter System Data Analysis Program ACRIMSAT Supporting Projects Ulysses Project Outer Planets

ENERGY TRANSPORT WITHIN A STAR

M. Pettini: Structure and Evolution of Stars Lecture 8 ENERGY TRANSPORT WITHIN A STAR 8.1 Introduction Up to now, we have considered how energy is generated within the interior of stars by the processes

Faber-Jackson relation: Fundamental Plane: Faber-Jackson Relation

Faber-Jackson relation: Faber-Jackson Relation In 1976, Faber & Jackson found that: Roughly, L! " 4 More luminous galaxies have deeper potentials Can show that this follows from the Virial Theorem Why

Pre-lab The Origin of the Elements

name Pre-lab The Origin of the Elements Introduction Have you ever wondered where all the matter around us comes from? It must have been created somewhere in this universe. In this exercise you will learn

Introduction to the Solar System

Introduction to the Solar System Lesson Objectives Describe some early ideas about our solar system. Name the planets, and describe their motion around the Sun. Explain how the solar system formed. Introduction

Origins of the Cosmos Summer 2016. Pre-course assessment

Origins of the Cosmos Summer 2016 Pre-course assessment In order to grant two graduate credits for the workshop, we do require you to spend some hours before arriving at Penn State. We encourage all of

Giant Molecular Clouds

Giant Molecular Clouds http://www.astro.ncu.edu.tw/irlab/projects/project.htm Galactic Open Clusters Galactic Structure GMCs The Solar System and its Place in the Galaxy In Encyclopedia of the Solar System

thermal history of the universe and big bang nucleosynthesis

thermal history of the universe and big bang nucleosynthesis Kosmologie für Nichtphysiker Markus Pössel (vertreten durch Björn Malte Schäfer) Fakultät für Physik und Astronomie, Universität Heidelberg

Martin Schwarzschild & The Structure and Evolution of Stars. The Great Andromeda Galaxy 18 June 2012 Princeton University

Martin Schwarzschild & The Structure and Evolution of Stars The Great Andromeda Galaxy 18 June 2012 Princeton University Mt. Wilson 1910 From left: Mr. McBrids, F.P. Brackett, J.C. Kapteyn, E.B. Frost,

This paper is also taken for the relevant Examination for the Associateship. For Second Year Physics Students Wednesday, 4th June 2008: 14:00 to 16:00

Imperial College London BSc/MSci EXAMINATION June 2008 This paper is also taken for the relevant Examination for the Associateship SUN, STARS, PLANETS For Second Year Physics Students Wednesday, 4th June

A) B) C) D) Which particle is represented by the letter X?

1. Which nuclear emission has the greatest mass and the least penetrating power? an alpha particle a beta particle a neutron a positron 2. Which equation represents alpha decay? 3. An unstable nucleus

astronomy 2008 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times.

1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times. 5. If the distance between the Earth and the Sun were increased,

The Birth of the Universe Newcomer Academy High School Visualization One

The Birth of the Universe Newcomer Academy High School Visualization One Chapter Topic Key Points of Discussion Notes & Vocabulary 1 Birth of The Big Bang Theory Activity 4A the How and when did the universe

Full window version (looks a little nicer). Click <Back> button to get back to small framed version with content indexes.

Production of Light Full window version (looks a little nicer). Click button to get back to small framed version with content indexes. This material (and images) is copyrighted!. See my copyright

The Messier Objects As A Tool in Teaching Astronomy

The Messier Objects As A Tool in Teaching Astronomy Dr. Jesus Rodrigo F. Torres President, Rizal Technological University Individual Member, International Astronomical Union Chairman, Department of Astronomy,

DISTRIBUTION OF ELEMENTS IN EARTH S CRUST

OVERVIEW DISTRIBUTION OF ELEMENTS IN EARTH S CRUST This lesson serves as an extension to the Howard Hughes Medical Institute short film The Day the Mesozoic Died. It provides an opportunity for students

4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 750L

4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 750L HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED A CLOSE LOOK AT THE PLANETS ORBITING OUR SUN By Cynthia Stokes Brown, adapted by Newsela Planets come from the clouds of gas and dust that

Stellar & Supernovae Nucleosynthesis And Cosmic Chemical Evolution. Jim Truran

Stellar & Supernovae Nucleosynthesis And Cosmic Chemical Evolution Jim Truran Astronomy and Astrophysics Enrico Fermi Institute University of Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory The First Stars and

The spectacular eruption of a volcano, the magnificent scenery of a

Section 1.1 1.1 What Is Earth Science 1 FOCUS Section Objectives 1.1 Define Earth science. 1.2 Describe the formation of Earth and the solar system. Build Vocabulary Word Parts Ask students to use a dictionary

Practice Test. 4) The planet Earth loses heat mainly by A) conduction. B) convection. C) radiation. D) all of these Answer: C

Practice Test 1) Increase the pressure in a container of oxygen gas while keeping the temperature constant and you increase the A) molecular speed. B) molecular kinetic energy. C) Choice A and choice B

Figure 2.1: Warm air rising from SAPREF stacks, October 2002 Source: GroundWork

13 CHAPTER TWO SOME CONCEPTS IN CLIMATOLOGY 2.1 The Adiabatic Process An important principle to remember is that, in the troposphere, the first layer of the atmosphere, temperature decreases with altitude.

Formation of the Solar System

Formation of the Solar System Any theory of formation of the Solar System must explain all of the basic facts that we have learned so far. 1 The Solar System The Sun contains 99.9% of the mass. The Solar

Post Main Sequence Evolution Continued

Post Main Sequence Evolution Continued 1. Helium Fusion This fusion phase is a much shorter phase compared to hydrogen fusion stage on the Main Sequence. Why? First of all, the energy output from helium

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY

Atmosphere SECTION 11.1 Atmospheric Basics In your textbook, read about the composition of the atmosphere. Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement. 1. Most of Earth s atmosphere

Chapter 6 Formation of Planetary Systems Our Solar System and Beyond

Chapter 6 Formation of Planetary Systems Our Solar System and Beyond The solar system exhibits clear patterns of composition and motion. Sun Over 99.9% of solar system s mass Made mostly of H/He gas (plasma)

Stability and Cloud Development. Stability in the atmosphere AT350. Why did this cloud form, whereas the sky was clear 4 hours ago?

Stability and Cloud Development AT350 Why did this cloud form, whereas the sky was clear 4 hours ago? Stability in the atmosphere An Initial Perturbation Stable Unstable Neutral If an air parcel is displaced

Observing the Universe

Observing the Universe Stars & Galaxies Telescopes Any questions for next Monday? Light Doppler effect Doppler shift Doppler shift Spectra Doppler effect Spectra Stars Star and planet formation Sun Low-mass

The Earth, Sun, and Moon

reflect The Sun and Moon are Earth s constant companions. We bask in the Sun s heat and light. It provides Earth s energy, and life could not exist without it. We rely on the Moon to light dark nights.

SKINAKAS OBSERVATORY. Astronomy Projects for University Students PROJECT THE HERTZSPRUNG RUSSELL DIAGRAM

PROJECT 4 THE HERTZSPRUNG RUSSELL DIGRM Objective: The aim is to measure accurately the B and V magnitudes of several stars in the cluster, and plot them on a Colour Magnitude Diagram. The students will

If we look into space and see stars that show a blue shift, what does this tell us about the stars motion?

Name: Quiz name: Review f or Test ate: 1. If we look into space and see stars that show a blue shift, what does this tell us about the stars motion? T hey are moving away from the Earth T hey are moving

Modeling Galaxy Formation

Galaxy Evolution is the study of how galaxies form and how they change over time. As was the case with we can not observe an individual galaxy evolve but we can observe different galaxies at various stages

NOTES: GEORGIA HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TEST THE SOLAR SYSTEM

NOTES: GEORGIA HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TEST THE SOLAR SYSTEM 1.What is a Solar system? A solar system consists of: * one central star, the Sun and * nine planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn,

Beginning of the Universe Classwork 6 th Grade PSI Science

Beginning of the Universe Classwork Name: 6 th Grade PSI Science 1 4 2 5 6 3 7 Down: 1. Edwin discovered that galaxies are spreading apart. 2. This theory explains how the Universe was flattened. 3. All

FXA 2008. UNIT G485 Module 5 5.5.1 Structure of the Universe. Δλ = v λ c CONTENTS OF THE UNIVERSE. Candidates should be able to :

1 Candidates should be able to : CONTENTS OF THE UNIVERSE Describe the principal contents of the universe, including stars, galaxies and radiation. Describe the solar system in terms of the Sun, planets,

Which of these atoms are isotopes of the same element? (2) The process by which nuclei join to form a larger nucleus is called

Q. (a) The diagrams represent three atoms, X, Y and Z. Which of these atoms are isotopes of the same element? Give a reason for your answer. In a star, nuclei of atom X join to form nuclei of atom Y. Complete

Big bang, red shift and doppler effect

Big bang, red shift and doppler effect 73 minutes 73 marks Page of 26 Q. (a) Scientists have observed that the wavelengths of the light from galaxies moving away from the Earth are longer than expected.

HR Diagram Student Guide

Name: HR Diagram Student Guide Background Information Work through the background sections on Spectral Classification, Luminosity, and the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram. Then complete the following questions

Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014

1 Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014 2 Orbits of the Planets 3 Clues for the Formation of the SS All planets orbit in roughly the same plane about the Sun. All planets orbit in the

Structure and Properties of Atoms

PS-2.1 Compare the subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, electrons) of an atom with regard to mass, location, and charge, and explain how these particles affect the properties of an atom (including identity,