# 11/15/2016. Electromagnetic (EM) waves are waves caused by oscillations occurring simultaneously in electric and magnetic fields

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1 Electromagnetic (EM) waves are waves caused by oscillations occurring simultaneously in electric and magnetic fields A 2D transverse wave The EM and Visible Spectra They DO NOT require any medium in order to propagate As energy increases, frequency increases This is DIFFERENT than mechanical waves in which increases energy increases amplitude Gamma Rays High energy radiation that comes from nuclear decay process Uses: cancer treatment, sterilization X-Rays Penetrates soft tissue Uses: medical imaging, airport security, telescopes Ultraviolet Causes damage to skin tissue Uses: sun tans, preventing currency forgery, sterilization Visible Light Frequencies than stimulate the retina of the human eye: 400 nm (violet) 700 nm (red) Uses: seeing, lasers, CD and DVD players, printers Infrared Radiation associated with heat Uses: remote controls, heal injuries, thermal imaging Microwaves Uses: cooking, cell phones, radar, speed cameras Radio Waves Uses: various forms of communication 1

2 Light travels in straight lines in a uniform medium or a vacuum Our eyes will ALWAYS assume light has traveled in a straight line to reach our eyes All EM waves travel at the same speed c = 3.00 x 10 8 m/s Galileo hypothesized that light has a finite speed Ole Roemer quantifies speed of light in 1676 using the orbital period of Io (Jupiter's moon) Light demonstrates the wave properties we ve been talking about in the unit. Light waves are reflected In regular (specular) reflection, incident light rays are parallel to each other and reflect parallel to each other Remember the law of reflection! Angle of incidence = angle of reflection Diffuse reflection occurs when light is scattered when it reflects off a surface At a microscopic level, most surfaces are very rough 2

3 Light also bends when it enters a new medium For example, light travels faster in air than in water, so this pencil looks broken Also what causes mirages The girl sees the boy s foot closer to the surface than it actually is. Air (20 C) If No! the He boy is looks looking down straight at his down feet, will and they not at seem an angle. closer to There him is than no refraction they really for are? him. At a boundary between two media, the ratio of the sines of the angles made by a wave with respect to the normal line will be a constant. sin θ 1 sin θ 2 = constant The constant is the refractive index (n) or index of refraction, a property of the medium itself. It is the ration of the speed of light in a vacuum (c) and the speed of light in the medium. It has no units, they cancel out! For example, n water = 1.3, so light moves 76.9% as fast in water as it does in a vacuum like space. n = c v 3

4 Snell s Law: Using these two ideas, we get the law of refraction, also known as Snell s Law: n 1 sin θ 1 = n 2 sin θ 2 n 1 is the index of refraction of the incident medium, n 2 is the index of refraction of the refractive medium, 1 is the angle of incidence 2 is the angle of refraction The critical angle is the angle of incidence in the more optically dense medium at which the angle of refraction in the less optically dense medium is exactly 90. Total internal reflection occurs when light falls on a surface of a less optically dense medium at an angle of incidence equal to or greater than the critical angle of the substance. There is no refracted ray; occurs at critical angle. Only occurs when a light ray passes from a more optically dense substance into a less optically dense substance. The principle behind fiber optics and binoculars 4

5 Light can also be diffracted, meaning it bends around edges and barriers: You can polarize light by making it vibrate in only one plane, not 2 like it usually does Used in sunglasses This cuts down the intensity of light 2 polarizing materials places at 90 angles will block out all light Light and Color MORE ON THE VISIBLE SPECTRUM The Visible Spectrum Spectrum is the term Sir Isaac Newton assigned to the pattern produced when sunlight went through a prism. Newton was very fascinated with light. In fact he created an entire field dedicated to its study: optics White light is composed of all the colors of the spectrum ROYGBIV Longest wavelength: red (700 nm) Shortest wavelength: violet (400 nm) 5

6 Continuous Visible Spectrum The visible spectrum is a continuous spectrum, meaning that it is a smooth distribution of wavelength with no gaps: Light Passing Through a Prism We can prove that white light is composed of all the colors of light by passing it through a prism When light passes into the glass prism, it is refracted. The refractive index (n) of many materials, like glass, depends on wavelength. This phenomena is known as dispersion and it causes the different colors of light to refract at different angles; thus creating the visible spectrum! Dispersion of Light Through a Prism Doppler Effect for Light The Doppler effect also comes into play with light! Instead of a change in pitch as with sound, we see a change in color (wavelength) for light. If an object moves towards us, the wavelength is shorter, thus more blue. We call this blue shift If an object moves away from us, the wavelength is longer, thus more red. We call this red shift Astronomers used this idea to determine the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate 6

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