PERFORMANCE OF PRIVATE SECTOR MAIZE HYBRIDS UNDER DIFFERENT AGRO- CLIMATIC ZONES OF UTTAR PRADESH

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1 PERFORMANCE OF PRIVATE SECTOR MAIZE HYBRIDS UNDER DIFFERENT AGRO- CLIMATIC ZONES OF UTTAR PRADESH U.P. Council of Agricultural Research 8th Floor, Kisan Mandi Bhawan, Vibhuti Khand, Gomti Nagar, Lucknow March,

2 1. Introduction Maize is the most widely distributed crops of the world which is being grown in more than 150 countries. It is cultivated in the tropics, sub-tropics and temperate regions. The major producing countries are USA, China, Brazil, Mexico, France and India. It ranks first in world production (868 million tons from 168 million hectares) followed by wheat (691 million tons) and rice (461 million tons). This represents 38% of the total grain production as compared to 30 % for wheat and 20% for rice (http://agropedia.iitk.ac.in). Maize is utilized predominantly for poultry and cattle feed, food, manufacturing of starch and other industrial purposes. In the last few years, good quantity of maize is also being exported from India to different countries. It is understood that with the increasing demand for value added foods and industrial requirements, from a growing economy and population, maize will hold its share as an important cereal crop. Among the cereal crops in India rank third of maize production (22.5 million tones) from 8.67 million hectares area and contributes to 2.4% of world production with almost 5% share in world cultivated area in (http://agropedia.iitk.ac.in). In term of production, it is third most important cereal crop in India after rice and wheat. Area, Production and productivity of maize, during last ten years at national level are presented in table-1. Rising incomes in India and consequent growth in meat and poultry consumption have resulted in rapid increase in the demand for maize as animal feed. Out of total arrivals nearly 75 percent of the produce is bought by the poultry feed manufactures. It is evident from the data that the impacts of various efforts are not significant on productivity. Therefore, development and popularization of hybrids are easiest and quickest method to increase productivity. The recommended hybrids, in general, have given 60% to 80% or more grain yield than the local varieties with an average yield level of 6 tons or more per hectare. 2

3 Table 1 Change in maize area production and productivity last 10 years Year Area (000 ha) Production (000 tons) Productivity (kg/ha) Kharif Rabi Total Kharif Rabi Total Kharif Rabi Total Major emphasis on maize improvement was started from 2000 onwards i.e. development of single cross hybrids (SCHs). Since then more than 80 SCHs have been developed and released. These hybrids have been widely adopted by farmers resulting increment in maize productivity unprecedented rate. This made very remunerative crop and its cultivation extended even in nontraditional areas in Southern India. Cultivation in rabi season is increased up to 125% in cultivation area during (table 1). The overall area increase in maize is 33 % which resulted in more than 80 % increase in grain production since Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh together contribute 60 per cent of area and 70 per cent of maize production in India (Agrostate.com ). In Uttar Pradesh maize occupies 7.36 lakh hectare area with production of lakh tonnes and productivity of kg/ha (Dept of Ag. Govt. of UP 2013), which is below the national productivity of q/ha (Agricoop.com). In general varieties performance in the state are not giving yield as high as hybrids can give. Thus, there, is great need to replace maize verities with hybrids of different maturity groups. Hybrid maize cultivars have played a major role in enhancing the productivity and quality of maize plants used for feed, fiber and aesthetic value. In addition to the direct contribution, these accelerated the adoption of other components of production. Further, single cross hybrid cultivars have certain advantages with respect to grain yield potential, uniformity, early maturity, 3

4 resistance/tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress etc. These have helped in overcoming yield barriers. Since 2012, a total number of 275 hybrids have been released under public sector (DMR ). The spectacular growth in maize production may be attributed to the development of single cross hybrids, which cover about 20% of the total maize area( ). Data regarding area, production and productivity of maize in U.P. since last eight year is presented in table-2. Private sectors companies are marketing various F1 hybrids of maize without any testing procedure. Due to monopoly of private companies, farmers have to pay exceptionally high rates for hybrid seeds. Further, in number of cases due to supply of unsuitable and spurious seeds, farmers are being cheated some times. Keeping in view above facts, programme on evaluation of hybrid maize varieties suitable for different agro climatic conditions of Uttar Pradesh was initiated by the council with an objective "To identify suitable maize hybrids/ varieties for different agro-climatic conditions of U.P." Table: 2 Area, Production and Productivity of Maize in U.P. Year Area (Lakh ha) Production (Lakh m.t.) Productivity (q/ha) (est.)

5 2. Methodology The testing programme were conducted through the research centers of state agriculture universities, RATDS (Regional Agriculture Testing and Demonstration Station) of Agriculture Department, U.P. and Institutes of Agricultural Science, BHU, Varanasi. In total 10 Maize hybrids of three companies have been tested. Trials were laid out on various centers located under different agro climatic zones as Presented in table. 3. The genotypes were tested under 05 agro climatic zones of Utter Pradesh as shown in Map-1. In most of cases seed sowing and other cultural operations were uniform at all centers. The basic aim of Programme i.e. "identification of suitable hybrid for different agro climatic zones" has been achieved as significant variation in yield and its contributing traits were recorded at different centers. Since, all genotypes were grown in similar conditions therefore; the variations observed among tested hybrids/varieties are because of their genetic potentiality. The coordination and monitoring of programme was very effectively done by U.P. Council of Agricultural Research (UPCAR), Lucknow. Field visits during crop period were made and necessary suggestions were given for making the evaluation programme for more meaningful Seed Companies Participated Three seed companies viz; AgroSciences India Pvt. Ltd., and forwarded their maize hybrids for performance evaluation under different agro climatic conditions of U.P. The detail of companies and their genotypes is given in table. 4. Packaging of hybrids ranged from 1 kg to 3kg. As far prices (MRP) is concerned, the company officials stated that the rates will be fixed latter on. Therefore, it is necessary to rationalize the prices of genotypes to popularize and enhance the coverage under hybrids in the state. 5

6 Map:1 Table-3 Evaluation centers for MaizeHybrids/Genotypes S. No. Agroclimatic Zones Research Stations Ratds 1. Western Plain Modipuram- Meerut Meerut 2. Mid Western Plain - Bareilly 3. South Western Kalai- Aligarh Mathura 4. Mid Plains Nawabganj- Kanpur AAI- Allahabad 5. Eastern Plain Zone Bahraich BHU- Varanasi Table.4 Detail of seed companies and their Maize genotypes Company Name Genotypes AgroSciences India Pvt. Ltd. D-4141 D-4244 D-4685 P 3007 P 3292 P 3377 P 3401 P

7 3. Performance of genotypes In total, 10 maize hybrids were evaluated under different agro-climatic conditions namely; Western Plain, Mid Western Plain, South Western Plain, Mid Plain and North Eastern region. Uniform cultivation practices were followed, hence, the variations recorded are due to the genetic/varietal variability. The relative yield performance and other attributing characters are presented in table-5. Hybrids on the basis of maturity period in increasing order have been presented in table Growth behavior in maize hybrids Germination The data regarding germination level was satisfactory in all hybrids, but it was below the germination percentage specified on their packing by different seed companies. The germination level ranged between 78.99% in 4558 of to 87.78% in P-3007 of. Data regarding germination of hybrids is presented in table-5 whereas; zone wise data is presented in Annexure I. In eastern plain zone all maize hybrids gave more than 90% germination while in western plain zone all hybrids showed poor performance regarding to germination Plant Height (cm.) Data on plant height of hybrids under study is presented in table-5, whereas AES zone wise observation are presented in Annexure II. Data reveals that the variability of plant height ranged from cm (P 3292 of ) to cm (45 of ). In general more than two meter height was observed in all hybrids except two hybrids namely 4558 of and D-4685 of AgroSciences India Pvt. Ltd Days to 50% tasseling, Silking and Anthesis interval. Data regarding days to 50% tasselling, silking and anthesis interval presented in table 5, but AES Zone wise observations are given in Annexure III. Minimum days to 7

8 50% tasseling and silking were recorded in P-3292 of (52.21 days and days, respectively) while maximum tesseling and silking days were observed in D-4141(54.14 days) and in D-4685(56.28 days) of AgroSciences India Pvt. Ltd.. The best yielder i.e. P-3401of tasseled 50% in days with days for 50% silking. At state level, about 5 days variability was observed regarding this trait among the hybrids. The latest maturing variety i.e. D-4141 tasseled 50% in days, whereas, the earliest maturing hybrid i.e. P-3377 took days which reveals that this trait was directly correlated with days to maturity. At state level anthesis to silking interval varied from 3.11 days to 4.06 days Days to maturity Agro-climatic zone wise data of maturity period is given in Annexure IV, whereas, its value are arranged in increasing order in table-6. The value of days to maturity among the hybrids varied from days (P-3377 of ) to days in D-4141 of AgroSciences India Pvt. Ltd.. Generally all hybrids matured in below 3 months. In general, not much variation in maturity period was observed among the hybrids under test. 3.2 Yield parameters in maize hybrids No. of s per plant Data regarding this trait is presented in table 5, whereas; agro-climatic zones wise data is given in Annexure V. It is evident from the data that on an average 1 or 2 cobs were produced on each plant. At state level the variability for number of cobs per plant varied from 1 cob in D-4141 of AgroSciences India Pvt. Ltd. to 1.48 cobs per plant in P-3292 of. The state level highest yielder i.e. P-3401 produced on an average 1.24 cobs per plant length and girth Agro-climatic zone wise and average data of cob length and cob girth is presented in Annexure VI and table 5, respectively. The cob length varied from cm (D-4141 of AgroSciences India Pvt. Ltd.) to (P-3540 of ), 8

9 while cob girth varied from (D-4244 of AgroSciences India Pvt. Ltd.) to (45 of ). It is evident from the data that a direct correlation existed between cob length and yield; hence, it could be used as selection criteria for higher yielding hybrids rows per cob The data regarding this trait is presented in table 5. rows per cob varied from in 45 of to in P-3401 of. The highest yielder P-3401 of produced maximum grain rows/cob. So that it is evident from the data that strongly positive correlation was prevailing between grain rows/cob and yield; hence, it could be used as selection criteria for higher yielding hybrids Test weight Among hybrids under test, 100 seed weight varied from g in 4620 to 25.75g in 4558 of. Data regarding this trait is presented in table-5 and Annexure VII. It is evident from the data that moderately positive correlation was prevailing between test weight and yield; hence, it could be used as selection criteria for higher yielding hybrids Yield Performance The prime objective of any trails/testing program is to access yield potentiality of genotype under test. Agro climatic zone wise data in decreasing order is presented in Annexure VIII, whereas, data on yield in decreasing order with other traits is presented in table-6, which revealed that the yield among the hybrids varied from q/ha in D-4244 of AgroSciences India Pvt. Ltd. to q/ha in P-3401 of. The top three hybrids identified as superior on the basis of yield are P-3401 (48.53 q/ha), P-3377(43.23) of and 4620(42.55 q/ha) of. The four varieties namely D-4141(41.59), P-3292 (41.44), P-3007 (41.33) and D-4685 (41.12) show non-significant variation in yield at state level ranked on fourth. Relatively best 9

10 performance was achieved by hybrid P-3401 of across the agro-climatic zones, which achieved first rank in all AES Zone and state level as a whole except western plain region. 3.3 Quality parameter in maize hybrids colour The data regarding grain colour is presented in table 5. All genotypes under test produced yellow colour except D-4141 of AgroSciences India Pvt. Ltd. (Amber ), P-3292 (Amber yellow), P-3401 (Semi )of 45 (Semi yellow) of type The observation of grain type is presented in table 5, whereas; it varied from small to bold. The highest yielder P-3401 of produced semi bold type grains 10

11 Table 5 Character wise performance of all hybrids Company Name of Germin ation in % Days to Maturity Days to 50% Tesseling Days to 50 % Silking Anthesis Silking Interval Plant Height Initiating Height Number of Per Plant Length Grith rows per 100 Weight Yield Colour Type Sci. D Sci. D Sci. D P P P P P Amber yellow Amber yellow Semmi Semmi Bold Semi Bold small small Medium Small Semi Bold Bold Bold Medium 11

12 Company Germi nation in % Days to 50% Tesseling Table 6 Arrangement of days to maturity in increasing order Days to 50 % Silking Anthesis Silking Interval Plant Height Initiati ng Height Number of Per Plant Length Girth rows per 100 Weight P Sci. D P Yield Colour Amber Type Days to Maturi ty Small Semi Bold yellow Medium Medium P P Sci. D P Sci. D Semmi Semmi small Bold small Semi Bold Bold Amber yellow Bold

13 Company Name of Germi nation in % Days to Maturit y Table 7 Performance of all hybrids grain yield (q/ha) in dicreasing order Days to 50% Tessel ing Days to 50 % Silking Anthesis Silking Interval Plant Height Initiati ng Height Number of Per Plant Length Grith rows per 100 Weight P P Colour Semmi Type Yield q/ha Semi Bold Small Mediu m Sci. D Amber yellow Bold P P Sci. D P Sci. D Amber yellow Semmi Mediu m small small Bold Bold Semi Bold

14 Annexure I AES Zone wise Summary of germination Company Western Mid Western South Western Mid Plains Eastern Plain Zone State Avg. Plain Plain Sci. D Sci. D Sci. D P P P P P Company Annexure II AES Zone wise summary of plant height and cob initiating height Plant Height Western Mid Western South Mid Eastern State South Plain Plain Western Plains Plain Zone Avg. Western Initiating Height Mid Plains Sci. D Sci. D Sci. D P P P P P Eastern Plain Zone State Avg. 14

15 Name of Mid Weste rn Plain Annexure III AES Zone wise summary of tesseling silking and anthesis silking interval Tesseling Silking Anthesis and Silking Interval South Mid State Mid State South Mid Western Plains Avg. Plains Avg. Western Plains Eastern Plain Zone Mid Western Plain South Weste rn Mid Western Plain Company Sci. D Sci. D Sci. D P P P P P State Avg. 15

16 Annexure IV AES Zone wise summary of days to maturity Company Western Plain Mid Western Plain South Western Mid Plains Eastern Plain Zone State Avg. Sci. D Sci. D Sci. D P P P P P Company Annexure V AES Zone wise summary of number of cobs per plant Western Plain Mid Western Plain South Western Mid Plains Eastern Plain Zone State Avg. Sci. D Sci. D Sci. D P P P P P

17 Compan y Name of Annexure VI AES Zone wise summary of cob lenth and cob girth Length Grith Rows per cob Mid South Mid State Mid South Mid State Mid South Mid Wester Wester Plains Avg. Wester Wester Plains Avg. Wester Wester Plains n Plain n n Plain n n Plain n Sci. D Sci. D Sci. D P P P P P State Avg. 17

18 Annexure VI I AES Zone wise Summary of test weight (100 seed) Western Plain Mid Western South Western Mid Plains Eastern Plain Zone State Avg. Company Plain Sci. D Sci. D Sci. D P P P P P

19 Company Western Plain P Sci. D P P P P Sci. D Sci. D Company Annexure VIII AES Zone wise arrangement of grain yield in decreasing order Mid Western Plain P P P P Sci. D Sci. D P Sci. D Company South Western P P Sci. D P Sci. D P Sci. D P Company Mid Plains P P P Sci. D P Sci. D Sci. D P Company P-3401 P-3007 Sci. D Sci. D-4685 P-3292 P-3377 P-3540 Sci. D-4244 Eastern Plain Zone Name of Compa ny State Avg P P Sci. D P P Sci. D P Sci. D

20 FIELD TRIALS AT A GLANCE 20

21 21

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